Nutrition, Hydration, and Muscle Cramping


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  • We lose fluids in the body through sweating, breathing, spitting and urine production. Sweat production is the main way athletes lose fluids during exercise. It doesn’t take much to impair performance so learn how to calculate your sweat rate. Dehydration is preventable if you watch out for warning signs and replace fluids lost through sweat.
  • Now that you understand just how much you should be drinking when active, let’s take a closer look at what you should be consuming before, during and after activity As I mentioned before, it’s important to drink to match what you lose in sweat. However, as you can see, when we sweat, we lose more than just plain water. While there are over a dozen minerals and electrolytes lost in sweat, the largest concentration of minerals lost include sodium, chloride and potassium.
  • However, we know from research that elite and endurance athletes often have greater sweat and electrolyte losses due to prolonged and intense workouts Given this data, the Gatorade Sports Science Institute has conducted extensive research and studies on endurance athletes’ unique hydration needs and has taken all these factors into consideration to create a new, specialized sports drink to help better replace what this group loses in sweat over a 2, 3 or 4 hour workout.
  • Nutrition, Hydration, and Muscle Cramping

    1. 1. Nutrition, Hydration, and Muscle Cramping The NY Knicks The Julliard School School of American Ballet Fordham University Athletics Women’s Sports Medicine Center, Hospital for Special Surgery Advisor: Men’s Health Magazine Coauthor: Nutrient Timing for Peak Performance
    2. 2. HSS educational activities are carried out in a manner that serves the educational component of our Mission. As faculty we are committed to providing transparency in any/all external relationships prior to giving an academic presentation. Heidi Skolnik Nutrition Conditioning, Inc Disclosure: I do have a financial relationship with commercial interest. Types of financial relationships and the companies with whom I have relationships are as follows: 100% Florida OJ: Spokesperson Au Bon Pain: Former Advisory Board KIND Nut Bars: Spokesperson Sabra Hummus: Spokesperson Gatorade: Former Speaker’s Bureau Member Refuel With Chocolate Milk: Spokesperson
    3. 3. What is Dehydration? <ul><li>Dehydration is a process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is when the body fluid (sweat) loss exceeds replacement and leads to a deficit in body fluids </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Blood volume shrinks </li></ul><ul><li>Increased heart rate with same workload </li></ul><ul><li>Skin blood flow less </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle blood flow less </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature rises </li></ul><ul><li>Greater perceived exertion </li></ul><ul><li>Increased risk of heat illness </li></ul>What happens when we dehydrate?
    5. 5. SIGNS of Dehydration <ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty concentrating </li></ul><ul><li>Irritability </li></ul><ul><li>Thirst </li></ul><ul><li>Light headed </li></ul><ul><li>Headache </li></ul><ul><li>Impatience </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of appetite </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased alertness </li></ul><ul><li>Impaired motor skills </li></ul><ul><li>Cramping </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness </li></ul><ul><li>Chills </li></ul>For every pound you lose during practice, replace with 3 cups of fluid
    6. 6. Sweat Loss = Dehydration = Fatigue Quarts/hour 3 High Hourly sweat loss in athletes: 1 to 2 quarts/hour! Daily sweat loss in athletes: 1 to 12 quarts/day! 2 Average 0 1 Low Increased risk Dehydration Physical Fatigue Mental Fatigue Cramps Cardiovascular Strain Heat intolerance Slow recovery
    7. 7. Sweat is more than just water. ammonia calcium chloride copper creatinine iodine iron lactic acid magnesium manganese phosphorus potassium sodium urea uric acid 0 25 50 (mEq/L) sodium chloride potassium calcium magnesium all else
    8. 8. What are electrolytes? <ul><li>a substance that conducts an electric current when dissolved in liquid. </li></ul><ul><li>In the body, sodium, chloride, and potassium are the major electrolytes found in blood and the fluids of body tissues. (Calcium and magnesium are also electrolytes but have a lesser role in managing fluid balance) </li></ul><ul><li>Electrolytes are important for fluid balance, conduction of nerve impulses, muscle contraction, and more. </li></ul><ul><li>With regard to hydration, the differences in electrical charges allow for fluids to move inside, outside, and around cells. </li></ul>
    9. 9. of each electrolyte allows for fluids to be balanced throughout body tissues and blood . Having enough
    10. 10. What causes cramping? <ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Other unknown reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Dehydration and INADEQAUTE SODIUM!!! </li></ul>
    11. 11. Fluid & Electrolyte Needs Athletes vs. Endurance Athletes Average Endurance Athlete Athlete Workout, h 1 3 Sweat loss, l 1 4 Calories burned 600 1,800 Sodium loss, mg 1,150 3,220 Potassium loss 390 940 Magnesium loss 48 97 Calcium loss 120 240 Elite and endurance athletes often have greater sweat and electrolyte losses due to prolonged and intense workouts
    12. 12. CRAMP Prone Athletes <ul><li>May need MORE fluid than you realize </li></ul><ul><li>Salt!!! Drink tomato juice, V-8, eat salted pretzels, pickles, salted nuts, soy sauce, pizza, tomato sauce, salty soup </li></ul><ul><li>Talk to training staff about adding appropriate amounts of salt to a sports drink (.5 tsp of salt dissolved in 16-20 oz.) or drinking a sports drink with a higher sodium content (like Gatorade Endurance) </li></ul><ul><li>Nap/rest in between training sessions </li></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>Salt: 1/4 teaspoon (or 1.5 grams) has 590 mg of sodium. </li></ul><ul><li>Salted pretzels (483 mg sodium/stick) </li></ul><ul><li>Tomato juice (882 mg sodium/cup) </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium-containing sport drinks (e.g. Gatorade contains 110 mg sodium/8 oz) </li></ul><ul><li>Chicken noodle soup (1107 mg sodium/cup - 8 oz) </li></ul><ul><li>Tomato sauce (1481 mg sodium/cup) </li></ul><ul><li>Cheddar cheese/shredded (701 mg sodium/cup) </li></ul><ul><li>Pizza </li></ul><ul><li>Other: pickles, salted nuts, tobasco sauce </li></ul>SODIUM SOURCES
    14. 14. Potassium <ul><li>Spinach </li></ul><ul><li>Cantaloupe </li></ul><ul><li>Raisins </li></ul><ul><li>Honeydew </li></ul><ul><li>Sweet potatoes </li></ul><ul><li>White potatoes </li></ul><ul><li>Milk </li></ul><ul><li>Yogurt </li></ul><ul><li>Artichokes </li></ul><ul><li>Orange juice </li></ul><ul><li>Bananas </li></ul><ul><li>Apricots </li></ul>
    15. 15. Magnesium <ul><li>Green leafy (spinach, collards) </li></ul><ul><li>Almonds </li></ul><ul><li>Cashews </li></ul><ul><li>Brown rice </li></ul><ul><li>Kidney and pinto beans </li></ul><ul><li>Avocados </li></ul><ul><li>Halibut </li></ul><ul><li>Raisins </li></ul><ul><li>Whole wheat cereal </li></ul><ul><li>Whole grain breads </li></ul>
    16. 16. STRATEGY:
    17. 17. Fluid Guidelines Adapted from ACSM <ul><li>Before Exercise (2 hours prior): Consume 16 oz. of fluid </li></ul><ul><li>During Exercise: 5-10 oz. every 15-20 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>After Exercise: Drink 24 oz. per pound of lost weight </li></ul><ul><li>Before Next Practice: Replace at least 80% of weight lost, </li></ul>Med Sci Sports Exerc. 28(1): I-vii, 1996.
    18. 18. DO NOT SKIP MEALS Food Provides 1/3 of DAILY fluid needs. Glycogen depletion increases risk of injury
    19. 19. Sweat Rate Equation <ul><li>During a 1 hour workout: </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-Weight: 120 lbs </li></ul><ul><li>Post Weight: 119.5 lbs </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid Intake: 24 oz. of fluid </li></ul><ul><li>( 120 – 119.5 lbs ) ≈ 8 ounces of fluid lost </li></ul><ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>24 ounces of fluid consumed </li></ul><ul><li>= </li></ul><ul><li>32 ounces of sweat loss per hour </li></ul><ul><li>In this example, drink 8 ounces of fluid every 15 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Your goal is to finish your workout weighing within 2% of what you did when you started and to replace all of your fluid losses before your next workout . </li></ul>
    20. 20. MATCH Fluid Intake with Loss You will absorb more fluid by consuming small amounts more frequently rather than waiting to drink a lot at once *a huge challenge to drink so much in a hour therefore you MUST strategize fluid intake before, during, and after to ensure proper hydration 10 16* 6 10 12* 5 10 10 4 10 8 3 15 8 2 15 4 1 FREQUENCY (mins) FLUID INTAKE (oz) WEIGHT LOSS (lbs./hr.)
    21. 21. <ul><li>Well-hydrated = Looks like lemonade (light in color) </li></ul><ul><li>Dehydrated = Produces less urine than normal and it’s darker, like apple juice </li></ul>
    22. 22. FLUID SCHEDULE for the day; <ul><li>WAKE-UP: Upon waking; drink 8- 16 oz. of fluid (juice, milk, water, smoothies, sports drink all count). </li></ul><ul><li>MEALS: At each meal drink at least 8- 16-24 oz. (2- 3 cups) . Do not skip meals; food contributes 30% of your fluid needs daily. </li></ul><ul><li>PRE-training: Drink 8-16-24 oz. with your pre-training meal (4 hours out). </li></ul><ul><li>10-20 minutes before taking the court, field, track, pool….drink 6-12 oz. of a sports drink . If you would prefer water, then add 25 grams of carbohydrate from food (1/4 salted bagel or soft pretzel, a gu or gel) </li></ul>
    23. 23. FLUID SCHEDULE for the day; <ul><li>DURING GAME/Practice: Consume 4-8 oz. of water/sports drink every 15 minutes as possible. Use time during substitutions, time outs and half-time. Since you want to replace used glycogen (muscle fuel) a sports drink is best –or if you choose water then you MUST consume at least 25 grams of carb during the half. </li></ul><ul><li>POST-GAME/recovery: Drink 24 oz. of fluid for each pound lost during practice or a game over the next few hours. </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep and begin again. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Factoring In Fluids <ul><li>HYDRATION IS 24/7 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drink with each meal --recognize that food contributes 20-30% of your fluid intake for the day: another reason not to skip meals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schedule fluid breaks into practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rehydration is part of a smart recovery plan </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. THANK YOU!