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Essay : Not Writing An Essay

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An essay replacement describing the failure of asking and design entrepreneur to write an academic essay.
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Essay : Not Writing An Essay

  1. 1. ! ! ! ! ! ! ! The Essay Replacement ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! — — — — MA CCE ・DESIGN PATHWAY 09 September, 2014 ! !
  2. 2. ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Content ! INTRODUCTION…………………………………….………………………. 1 ! ME …………………………………………………….………………………. 1 ! TUTOR………………………………………………………………………… 4 ! SCHOOL………………………………………………………………………. 6 ! EDUCATION…………………………………………………….……………. 7 ! ESSAY…………………………………….…………………………………… 8 ! SUMMARY…………………………………….………………………………. 9 ! WORK CONCLUSION……………………….……………………………… 10 ! MORE INFORMATIONS……………………….……………………………. 11 ! BIBLIOGRAPHY……………………….…………………………………….. 12 ! APPENDIX………………………………………….………………………… 13 !
  3. 3. This writing is accompanied with a graphic work. The letter and the number in the brackets indicate the location of the graphic. ! In order to accomplish my postgraduate studies, I was asked to write an essay. However, after two months of experimenting, I talked to various people, trying to find a reason or at least an excuse, to convince me to write an essay but failed. Eventually I found I cannot, shall not and do not want to write an essay. Hence for me, the purpose is clear — to accomplish postgraduate study without writing an essay (K6). According to Michael Franzese (2009), the strategy to reach a purpose is to make an offer that is not refuseable. Moreover according to Stuart Diamond (2010), to make a successful negotiation, I need to understand the issue and the relevant factors completely. Therefore the aspects I need to explore include: myself, tutors (or educator), and the school (education institute), understanding what the relation between them, how they will be influenced, what risks in terms of costs may happen to them. In the following parts all these issues will be discussed and a solution will be proposed. In other words, I need to know who I am selling to, how many bargaining chips I have, how much I can lose and what is the bottom line, so the best offer can be made. ! ! ! ME I am going to start from the “me” part (G6). The most efficient way to reduce the obstacle that is essay towards my master degree is to prove that I have dyslexia. This is also what a lot of people told me to do during the two months of experimenting (Relevant conversations at Appendix A and Appendix F). Dyslexia is inherent. As a non-native English speaker, growing up in different language system (English is phonogram; Chinese, my mother tongue, is logogram (C6)), I have not needed not to make any effort to be diagnosed with dyslexia. Once it is proved, I will be able to have access to extra resources to help me with essay-writing or gain some confidence. With the extra help, the essay quality will be less influenced by inadequate writing skills or language problems. Tutors will be less tortured in the grading work and the school can decrease the risk of having an inadequate essay to humiliate its reputation. However, dyslexia is not an ideal solution (J8) from either short-term aspects or longer-term aspects. ! From short-term aspects (J7) the problem between me and the essay, which will be discussed in the later part, still exist. I do not eliminate the pain from the process of writing an essay. Meanwhile with the same tuition fee, I seem to take some advantages with extra resources to help me, but actually the extra resources decrease the challenge of the essay. This challenge is part of the postgraduate education training, even though I am going to prove this training does not really work later. If the challenge is decreased, the training I shall get from the postgraduate education is also decreased. In other words, it benefit no-one and I have the right to ask for extra help but it is actually my loss with the decreased benefits from this part of training. ! 1
  4. 4. From long-term aspects (J7), if I employ “dyslexia” to relieve my pain from writing the essay, I may find myself hit by unpredictable risks. Firstly, I may be doubted with language or communication problems since it is not easy to ask people to understand what dyslexia exactly is and what its effects are. It is a medical term in English which sounds like illiteracy in Chinese. It is not about what the fact is, but more about the impressions (or misunderstandings) the public have around dyslexia and the English tests. In a conversation with a friend, I myself laughed out loud when she said she is dyslexic because I thought she was joking, as while she is perfectly literate and dyslexia sounded like an intelligence problem for me at that time (Appendix A). Secondly, I may be labeled as someone who finds excuses to escape from a challenge, which almost every international postgraduate student can accomplish by themselves in the UK, especially since I have gone through the IELTS (The International English Language Testing System). The IELTS proves if a person is an eligible English user. If a person is dyslexic, this person has language problems. If a person with language problems can go through the IELTS, either the IELTS or the dyslexia test has some problems. In other words, it will imply that I might go through unreliable tests or I played a trick. (If we have a further discussion on this part, there are some controversies, but here we focus on the points from a general view which will not take a further concern on the difference between IELTS and dyslexia.) (A relevant conversation can be referred to in Appendix H) The concerns above may be taken as exceptional cases but these kind of potential risks actually exist and I need to give them no opportunity to take place. Since the existing solution — dyslexia — does not work well and does not really help me with easy writing towards the master degree, I need to resort to a better solution which will (L7): 1. Replace and equal the benefits I shall get from essay working. 2. Convince the relevant authorities — tutor and school — without hurting their rights and advantages 3. Benefit my future career as a design entrepreneur — the ultimate goal for this course. ! According to the previous conditions, I will continuously focus on the “ME” part (G5), because I was asked to write an essay due to people’s beliefs — it is good for me — including tutors, the education system, and some seniors who tried to advise me for a “better life”. (Please refer to Appendix C for more details about how people tried to convinced me.) Is it really good for me? When I started to reflect on myself, the relationship between me and the essay and what I shall get from this postgraduate course, I found the essay is not good for me. I needed to write an essay because it was on my way towards getting a master degree (G4). I need to get a masters degree because it proves that I am eligible in creative and cultural entrepreneurship field as a masters degree means that a person is able to “master” their field (H6). However, the essay is not functional in this loop of endorsing an entrepreneurship master. ! In order to understand what kind of skills an entrepreneur shall be equipped with to master in their field, the life circle of business (G8) will be expanded to see what he/she will encounter during the process when starting out. There may be some fluctuations during the process of starting business (G8: Green line) according to different contexts, but a business will approximately progress through 2
  5. 5. starting point, growing and maintaining. At a certain point, the environment changes or some factors are no longer the same as the initial conditions, the business will need adapt (I8: after the grey dotted line). It can be expanding for example, opening branches. If the business growth is expected to continue, the entrepreneur will need to alter the business type, have some internal changes or sale the company. Otherwise the entrepreneur can end the business closing the company too. These parts (I8) will not take place immediately. Entrepreneurs may have to concern about it, but I am going to focus more on the first three stages: start, grow and maintain (G8). At first the intelligence or creativity, which is different from person to person - case to case, shall be eliminated from this discussion. As from the Creative and cultural entrepreneurship courses, we learned that intelligence and creativity are not for executing the business. At the starting point an entrepreneur needs to know where to get resources to start the business, such as funding and networking. To progress the business (G8: Grow) the understanding of the markets, minds of strategies and concerns on finance are required. When the business becomes stable, the management turns to be an issue. Meanwhile communication, negotiation, legislation etc. are relevant issues or skills an entrepreneur may have to confront. There may be some paper work the entrepreneurs have to conduct like a business plan, but none of this will require the ability of essay writing. ! In addition the pathway I took is design, so besides the entrepreneur, I also need to prove that I am an adequate designer. To understand what makes an adequate designer, the designers’ position shall be explored first. The design we know today started from Bauhaus (C8) (If we separated the ideas of “design" and “craft”). After World War One, Bauhaus was established to educate people to be able to practice in the after war recovery work. Therefore it integrated craft masters and form masters, creating an education system with equal emphasis on form and function. Form and function continue their importance in today’s design education, but the designer’s position has been changing along the way. Some assume designers shall have the social responsibility. Some think designers play the role between market and production, so should be able to understand both and generate ideas fitting to demands on both sides. Some declare designers are more like “practical artists” bringing aesthetics to a product. No matter what a designer shall be, different kinds of designers will encounter different cases and come up different solutions through different processes. It all depends on how a designer has allocated himself/herself. Despite of those conditions deferring from case to case, the design process can be approximately analysed in four steps(F8): case in, understand, solve problem, and design release. In “case in”, the designer needs to be able to approach the design cases they want. Some get cases by establishing their reputation by entering competitions, getting awards, or involving themselves in prominent institutes such as school or agency. Some put themselves into in-house design department or studio, so they get cases either from the company or from their supervisor (senior designer or design director). For “case in”, a designer need not only being able to identify himself/herself, but also have networking or socialising abilities. After getting the case, the designer has to understand what is the task by researching or experience (F8: Understand). “Solving problems” demand the some design know-hows like: design method, human factors, materials, manufacturing process etc in 3
  6. 6. terms of “form and function”. Lastly, at “Design Release”, the designer may need some presentation skills to demonstrate the design well. After we scanned through the entire design process and consider various conditions, essay writing is still not a skill a designer will ever need in his/her career. ! The masters degree of creative and cultural entrepreneurship design pathway is supposed to endorse me as an eligible design entrepreneur. However, according to the review above, no matter as a designer or as an entrepreneur, essay writing is what will never be needed. If the essay does not play any critical role in a person’s career as a design entrepreneur, how can it be a standard to evaluate if a person is a qualified design entrepreneur or not? Therefore, the essay shall be replaced with some other work. ! ! ! TUTOR Since the essay does not benefit me as a creative and cultural entrepreneurship design pathway student, we are moving on to “Tutor” — an element that directly relates to the essay (F5). Tutors educate students and students submit work to prove their learning outcome (C4). To educate students tutors give lectures, lead seminars, and host conferences (D5). These methods for tutors are more like sharing their experience. From the education point of view, these works are passing knowledge to the next generation. Though some preparation work will need to be done, this work for an educator is more under control than assigning works to students. When a tutor assigns work to students, students learn something or get something from the process of working out the assignment. However, the tutors get almost nothing during this process, but pay lot of extra effort to give tutorials and grade the work. Why do they have to make an assignment to give themselves a hard time? From the submitted works, the students prove what they have learned from the tutors, so the works can be recognised as the feedback of the tutors’ teaching. Tutors grade the work to let students know how well they perform in the subjects. The work plays the role of communication between tutors and students, but does the work need to be the essay? Why is it the essay? If we compare essays to other formats of work like projects, reflection, or a design, essays are generally a more efficient way to grade. There is specific format for the essay including: words, structure, and reference systems. The grader can quickly check some points according to the typical format. As mentioned earlier, the tutors need to make extra efforts to help students with the work. An essay is less ambiguous and take less effort for grading work, so the graders can efficiently mark them. To sum up, the essay’s functions for the tutors are supposed to be: 1. Checking the learning outcome of the students 2. An efficient grading media. ! Based on the above two ideas, the essay method will malfunction in my case. Comparing to visualising information like this graphic work, my writing skills are not the best way to demonstrate what I have learned from the creative and cultural entrepreneurship courses. In an essay, the issue 4
  7. 7. should be defined clearly with precise focus. During the entire creative and cultural entrepreneurship training, I was trained with various subjects. Merely in the first module — Theory of Cultural Industry, assorted issues were introduced including creative city, happiness or work, advantage of creative industry etc. In the main courses networking, investment, intellectual property, business plan, cooperation and so on were all introduced. All these issues were introduced to me because they are supposed to be the elements an entrepreneur shall be able to conduct. If only one is picked as the topic of the essay, how can the essay be able to reflect how well I have comprehended this course? On the other hand, if there is one essay able to include all the subject around creative and cultural entrepreneurship, the essay may turn out to be cliché. Therefore the essay can not be employed as a sound media to prove my learning outcome. ! In addition, since English is not my first language, my writing in terms of the essay is not an ideal and efficient way to grade me (C4). The tutors may need some extra effort to understand what I try to explain and suffer from the uncomfortableness of the way a non-native speaker using English. It seems that I will make more effort to improve my English. Then we are back to the language issue (J8) and move forward to the issue Patricia Ryan raised in a talk in 2010. According to her words: “although English is a global language which shall support to transmit knowledges, it has become the barrier in front of all subjects.” To reflect on her idea in terms of the creative and cultural entrepreneurship courses and me, should the work I submit prove my abilities as an entrepreneur, or a work demonstrating how excellent my English is? Shall I be graded with the understanding and know-how of an entrepreneur or how good my English writing is? If I am given a fail in the essay, what have I actually failed? Is it English academic writing or the creative and cultural entrepreneurship? As Samuel Johnson said, “Language is the dress of thought.” Languages play the role of communication and are the tool for people to approach further knowledge (A6). However the language used in an essay plays a critical roll in grading when assessing the thoughts of the writer. ! Therefore, even though an essay written in English is supposed to be the most efficient way for tutors to “communicate” with students in terms of learning outcomes, grading, and feedback, it fails when the student is not an English native speaker. The essay is not a handy tool or medium for international students to best demonstrate their understanding of the learning outcomes and the way tutors’ grade work is negatively influenced by this. Essays inhibit the quality of communication between tutors and students and the benefit it brings to the tutors in terms of grade as well as the student not performing well in English academic writing. A better solution like this graphic work or other media should be resorted to in order to decrease the influence from the irrelevant elements like language or the fixed format of essay writing. ! To replace the essay with another form of assessment, the first issue the tutors may encounter is the fairness (C4). If there is a case, where a student can replace an essay with other work without a passive condition (e.g. dyslexia), does that mean any student can replace the essay with other work they are better at? (Besides, this question itself has some problems, because all the 5
  8. 8. individuals are unique and the controversy of the real fairness, but this is a deferent issue.) How can a fair enough standard or rule for the diverse format of submission if a essay is replaced brings up some difficulties. In addition, another risk for the tutors who agree to replace essays will be the challenge of their own position. Before a tutor became a qualified tutor, he or she has usually written a lot of essays because essays are frequently used to evaluate the understanding of the learning outcomes in academic field. If the purpose on essay becomes irrelevant, it seems to imply that the processes and the evaluation systems a tutor has been through is no longer relevant either. According to the above, the essay should be replaced, but the fairness and the tutors’ positions are under risk, reducing the willingness for the tutors, who are in charge of making decisions, to support this case. Therefore the “boiling frog” method shall be employed. The replacement can not be too radical, and the core value of the essay shall be kept and respected. In other words, the replacement shall leave some ambiguity, when fairness is doubted, the “right” of the replacement has reduced inference in regard to the capacity of a student. The ambiguity leaves the tolerance of the tutors to assume the value of the replacement is equal to the essay. The replacement aim to demonstrate the students achievement in creative and cultural entrepreneurship and the ability to consider an issue comprehensively, decreasing the controversy to the purpose of an essay. ! ! ! SCHOOL Another key element relating to purpose of an the essay is school. School started with core values (I6); the founder of the school had the intention to educate people. Schools provide resources for students (like me) to learn better, including tutors, facilities, resources etc (I5), so students can benefit. Distinctive achievements from students endorse the quality of education in the school, giving it good reputations. With a positive reputation, the school can attract better people to generate better outcome creating a positive loop (I5). However, due to the weakness in academic writing skills, the essay from me is not an ideal outcome, considering this loop. If we take this issue as a business, a good business need to be able to bring in the next business like the loop (I5). Even though the school can get the tuition fee from me no matter what I generate, this “business” seeds the potential risk. If I am not a good business for the school which means the school invests the education resources on me but my outcome is not good enough to bring positive reputation to the school, the positive loop is broken. Maybe failing me may simply get rid of me from the school’s record and the reputation of the school is less damaged, the education resources which have been invested on me turn to the waste. ! When it comes to a business, a solution can be found. This condition can be referred to the practice that has been done in creative and cultural entrepreneurship courses — the Tyneside Cinema at New Castle. This cinema with limited resources was encountering the potential risk of becoming obsolete. The practice was to employ the existing resources and values and figure out a solution to help the cinema adapt to the future. The school has the resources including qualified 6
  9. 9. students and staff. Even though I may be insufficient in English academic writing, I was selected from many applicants by this school so there is something I can do. It is just that the essay can not elicit the best positive outcome from me to the school. In order to make the biggest profit from the school’s education resources, a better option for the school is to allow me to use an alternative form of assessment which can better demonstrate what I can achievement from this school instead of fixing the essay as the only form of assessing as learning. (Besides the essay, there are projects and reflections to be submitted at the same time, but the essay is mandatory, so it is assumed to be the “only” form of assessment here.) ! ! ! EDUCATION If we put tutors, school and me (the student) together, it is an issue about education (A8). Since I am an Asian studying in Europe, both western and eastern education history will be examined to understand what is the meaning behind education. Western education started from classical antiquity with the idea of liberal arts (A7). A free man should know about trivium (grammar, logic, and rhetoric) and quadrivium (music, arithmetic, astronomy, and geometry). The free man learned trivium as tools to learn quadrivium. Eastern education can be resorted to “Rites of Zhou” in Zhou dynasty (1122–256 BC). It included six arts: rites, music, archery, charioteering, calligraphy ,and mathematics (B7). In modern history, when a group of intellectuals led by Liang Qichao introduced “Democracy & Science” to eastern society (B5), the concept of science based on Rene Descartes’s “Discourse on The Method” started to influence eastern education (A5). Historically, both western and eastern education aimed to educate people to be functional in society. Nowadays, when Ken Robinson started to introduce the idea of creative education via books and lectures, the concept of education has been altered. The point of his idea can be understood but when he started to deliver an education concept focusing on the variety of individuals’ intellects, it revealed the fact that nowadays, the idea of education is gradually altering from collectivism to individualism (A4). Throughout his book “Out of The Mind (2001)” and his talk “How schools kill creativity (2006)”, he continuously motioned the difference of every individual, the various abilities of a person, and how to develop individuals’ unique abilities using education, instead of the kind of people society needs and starting an education institute to “produce” these kind of people. The difference here is: the first idea focuses on what can be developed from the individual and to make him/her useful to society; the second idea which was executed in the past focuses on how to train people to be functional to the society, despising the inherent talents and filtering out those who can not be functional in the expected pattern. Consequently, the essay reflects the obsolete part of the education — exclusive standard. The essay was supposed to demonstrate a student’s learning achievements, but when it is a fixed option which can not be altered with other presenting media, the essay also filters out people who are insufficient in language, writing or academic thinking pattern, even though these people can perform well in the subjects. The right of the essay in the education system becomes doubtful and unreliable. ! 7
  10. 10. ! ! ESSAY We have discussed about the relevant elements around an essay above. What about the essay itself? Is an essay itself a sound way to demonstrate an idea, to train the thinking pattern or to generate an innovative point of view? Before we start to judge the right of the essay, the structure of the essay will be examined (H3). An essay is basically constructed with introduction, body/ content, and conclusion. In the introduction, it usually starts with some background introduction — some broad and rough ideas. Then it will gradually narrow down and the theme / main idea will be discussed (H3). The rest is how the idea will be demonstrated in the essay and a summary of the supporting points. After the introduction paragraph, the body of the essay follows and the debate on the set issue commences. Basically, each paragraph delivers a supporting idea towards the main idea (I2). These paragraphs usually start with the supporting idea at the first sentence, followed by several sentences of explanations, research or points of view from other academics to reinforce the supporting idea. Finally, in the conclusion (H1), the supporting points will be repeated again reminding readers what they have read previously. Therefore the idea the writer discussed is proved to be true / false. When we review the structure of the essay, the only thing from the writer are the main ideas and the supporting points the writer chose to stand for his/her debate (J3). The other parts of the essay follow on from the main idea. The difference from student to student will only be the writing skill and how good the supporting materials are. It is a work which can almost be conducted by programming (K3). The writer only need to input some key elements like the main idea and supporting points. The rest of the work is almost the same. In fact, in 2005, scientists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology created the SCIgen to generate papers. Though the qualities or the values are questionable and it was the paper not the essay, the fact revealed that these kinds of academic writing with specific format can be produced from a computer. Therefore why should a postgraduate student make effort when this work can be done by a computer? What is the value of writing this material? If a student make effort on writing, searching materials, and making the materials support the debate, instead of focusing on thinking and practicing in profession, is an essay still a valuable work to do? Furthermore, what is the value of a postgraduate student? ! In addition, the piece of necessity of abundant references in an essay is questionable. During the two month research, I read some distinguished essays reserved in school library. Most of them have a lot of references. There can be four or five quotes in a seven to eight sentences paragraph. If everything shall be based on something from some greats, I wonder if the references are supporting materials or the blocks for the thinking. The point I am trying to make here is not to object the right of the reference, but having too many references. In thousands of years in human history, we can always find some words to support our point of view (D1-I2), but what are we actually referring to? When we refer to someone’s words, have we included this person’s condition? The theory might work in this person’s era, culture, or field, but can it apply to the current condition? If the reference is conditional, can it be reliable? If the reference has been 8
  11. 11. proved through time and space, it is a truth or a fact. If it is a fact, will it need not to be referred in a bibliography? Is it the truth or the person we are basing our debate on (K2)? We are told that, at the moment, we are not credible so we need to base our debates on the academics. (There is a relevant conversation in Appendix F) However, if something is a fact, does it matter who said it? Are we learning is to admire the greats or to seek the truth? What are we educated to do, seek the truth, defend ourselves or to pass the knowledge (K5)? Is the knowledge we are polishing going to be a weapon or a tool? The process of an essay may train our mind to think critically and have the ability to make our ideas robust, but can it train us to achieve something or practice these ideas in real life? (A relevant conversation is in Appendix G) ! If we put the education and the essay reference issues together, the abundant references which make an essay look more professional seem to be ironic in education. We learn, we study and we understand. When we understand a thing, we integrate the new knowledge into what we have known before and practice the integrated knowledge in the real world either in life, business, relationship etc. Therefore we are able to figure out our own motive or theory which a useful essay or any piece of writing should do (G3-GI). If we are still able to tell which part of our ideas are form is from which person, which book, and which theory, have we integrated the knowledge to become part of us and be able to practice it intelligently? ! To sum up, the essay is not only inadequate to play its role well between the tutors, the school and me but also questionable itself. It cannot endorse me as an adequate creative and cultural entrepreneur designer (G6); it cannot demonstrate the learning outcome of me fairly enough to the tutors and loses the efficiency of grading work (C4); it cannot turn the education resources into a good outcome from the school in my case and also loses the right in education by caring less about the variety of talents (I6). Hence, a alternative solution in my case is needed, like this work — the graphic and the explanation above. ! This work is better than an essay because the issue is complex and refers to various issues. The essay has a specific order to describe an issue. When the issue need to be very focused, the writer has to get rid of some information which may disturb the flow of reading. As my writing above, more than once, besides appendixes, I need to bracket off relevant information sources and some relevant information on the graphic which cannot be included in the writing. In addition, the reader’s knowledge background is not predictable. On the graphic, readers can make decision themselves, and on which issues to follow further or which part to read first according to their own thinking patterns. In a writing, the readers have no choice but follow the writers’ thinking pattern. If the writer and the reader’s thinking pattern are too different, the writing become too difficult to read. Though there can be some subtitles to indicate what a paragraph is about, in a sentence these are too many words written, obscuring the key words. However, the essay or the writing is not totally invaluable. For example, the way my mind work switches when I worked on different parts of this work (the graphic part and writing part). At the graphic part of work, I was able to quickly jump around different issues and accomplished the thought comprehensively. At the writing part, it 9
  12. 12. progressed slowly so I was able to think into more detail which was reversed when I was focused on graphic. I took this work to replace the typical essay, in order to best demonstrate my understanding of the learning outcomes. ! Consequently, instead of the essay, this work demonstrates my understanding as a creative and cultural entrepreneur design pathway student not only theoretically but also practically. From theoretical point of view, I understand what kind of capabilities the entrepreneur and the designer should be equipped with (C8, G8). As a postgraduate course student, I also presented my understanding of how academic writing works (H3) and make a debate from different aspects. The writing part of this work still possesses traits as an essay, like statements, arguments, references, appendices, leaving ambiguity for the right of this work as an essay replacement. From a practical point of view, as a designer, I visualised the concept into this graphic work for people to easily understand the idea. As an creative and cultural entrepreneur, instead of blocking myself in a ordinary path, I understand my weaknesses and the strength and figured out what works better for me — replacing the essay with this work. Whether this is as a designer or an entrepreneur, I demonstrate the negotiation and problem-solving capabilities to achieve what I want. When the issue occurred to me — eliminating the essay on my way towards a masters degree (G5), I could evaluate my condition in terms of benefit and loss (K8), understand who I was negotiating with — tutors and the school (F5, H5), cogitating what they may want from the thing (essay) I tried to eliminate, binding my benefit with them, and proposing a better offer, without being trapped by existing options (e.g. dyslexia(J8)). Hence, this work can better prove that I am eligible for a master degree of creative and cultural entrepreneurship design pathway. ! 10
  13. 13. MORE INFORMATIONS There are some relevant information in the graphic which are not mentioned in the writing, because it will distract the focus from the issues. Here are some explanations for these parts. ! (A8)(C6) The origins of research in western world and eastern world can be roughly analysed to the pursuing of alchemy and immortality(A8). In the western world, the science was based on the alchemy, so western scientist focused much effort on how things are composed, so that they could find a method to produce precious metals. The atomic theory of John Dalton and the discovery of electron from Joseph Thomson are examples of scientists attempting to deconstruct substances in oder to find the rule behind them. In the eastern world, immortality was the base of the eastern medicine in terms of “eastern science”. (There was no concept of “science” in the eastern world until the May Fourth Movement in 1919 (B5).) Several empires such as Qin Shi Huang and Houyi were known to be the pursuit of immortality. People studied how things could be employed by understanding the traits of substances. These different ways of thinking leave some hints in the other fields, like linguistics(C6). English, as a phonogram, is accomplished by a group of letters. Chinese, as a logogram, creates the letters representing what it indicates. ! (A3-C3) These three are examples for the relationship between theories (D3), demonstrating how a theory inherits from another theory. The first example(A3) was left here because in the first module of creative and cultural entrepreneurship course, we studied “Theories of The Cultural Industry” and we were asked to track culture objects with the method in Celia Lury and Scott Lash’s “Global Culture Industry”. (It was on of the topics we can chose to work on the essay.) However, Celia Lury and Scott Lash’s method referred to Theodor Adorno and Max Horkeiner’s Dialectic of Enlightenment (A3). Theodor Adorno and Max Horkeiner inherited from the Frankfurt School. In other words, the Frankfurt School’s concept was practiced by these experts in their eras according to the context they encountered. When I referred to some materials in the essay, I referred to a specific book or specific words from Celia Lury or Scott Lash, instead of tracing back to Frankfurt School. This is to understand how the theory was generated and generate some concepts according to our own. That was the first time my doubts of the essay assignment began. The second example (B3) was based on a similar idea as the first one. Martin Heidegger was mentioned again and again when I took the second module’s optional course: Creative Technology. He influenced a lot of followers’ philosophies and theories. However when we tried to refer to some theories or sayings, as supporting materials, we referred to his followers instead of Heidegger himself. The theories from the followers make the philosophy of Heidegger more complicated and included more conditions introduced from the followers. The third example (C3) was left here because Confucianism plays an important role in eastern philosophy, influencing Chinese people over thousands years. It reflects how the same theory or philosophy can be employed in different conditions along the changing eras.
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  14. 14. BIBLIOGRAPHY Franzese, M. (2009). I’ll Make You an Offer You Can’t Refuse: Insider Business Tips from a Former Mob Boss. Nashville: Thomas Nelson. Diamond, S. (2010). Getting More: How You Can Negotiate to Succeed in Work and Life. London: Penguin Group. Robinson, K (2001). Out Of Our Minds: Learning To Be Creative. Oxford: Capstone Publishing Limited. TED.com. (2006). Ken Robinson: How schools kill creativity. [Online Video]. February. Available from: http://www.ted.com/talks/ken_robinson_says_schools_kill_creativity#t-751334. [Accessed: 20 August 2014]. Stribling, J., Krohn, M., and Aguayo, M. (2005). SCIgen - An Automatic CS Paper Generator. [ONLINE] Available at: http://pdos.csail.mit.edu/scigen/. [Accessed 28 August 14]. TED.com. (2010). Patricia Ryan: Don't insist on English!. [Online Video]. December. Available from: http://www.ted.com/talks/patricia_ryan_ideas_in_all_languages_not_just_english. [Accessed: 10 August 2014]. ! 12

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