2009 civil engineering modern date


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2009 civil engineering modern date

  3. 3. MONUMENTS OF THE MILLENNIUM  Airport Design And Development   Dams    Hoover Dam The Interstate Highway System Long-Span Bridges   Kansai International Airport Golden Gate Bridge Rail Transportation  Eurotunnel Rail System
  4. 4. Kansai International Airport
  5. 5. Hoover Dam
  6. 6.   Sanitary Landfills/Solid Waste Disposal Skyscrapers   Wastewater Treatment   Chicago Wastewater System Water Supply and Distribution   The Empire State Building The California Water Project Water Transportation  The Panama Canal
  7. 7. STEEL AND THE SKYSCRAPER    Henry Bessemer (1813-1898) is the man whose name we associate today with one of the major processes of producing steel. It was Bessemer's discovery of a process for making steel cheaply which led to its use in the construction industry. George A. Fuller (1851-1900), as a young man, was employed in his uncle's architectural office, drawing building plans. He soon became interested in the problem of load bearing capacities and how much weight each part of a building would carry.
  8. 8. Taipei 101 Structural height508 m (1667 ft) Height to roof448 m (1470 ft) Height to top floor438 m (1437 ft) Floors 101TopoutOctober 17, 2003 OpeningDecember 31, 2004 Gross floor area450,000m² 380 piles @80 m
  9. 9. A 660-ton tuned mass damper is held at the 88th floor, stabilizing the tower against earthquakes, typhoons, and wind. The damper can reduce up to 40% of the tower's movements.
  11. 11.  The Seven Wonders of the Modern World:  Channel Tunnel  CN Tower  Empire State Building  Golden Gate Bridge  Itaipu Dam  Netherlands North Sea Protection Works  Panama Canal
  12. 12. CHANNEL TUNNEL   The 31-mile Channel Tunnel (Chunnel) fulfilled a centuries-old dream by linking Britain and the rest of Europe. Three 5-feet thick concrete tubes plunge into the earth at Coquelles, France, and burrow through the chalky basement of the English Channel.
  13. 13. The Channel Tunnel terminal at Cheriton near Folkston in Kent, from the Pilgrims' Way on the escarpment on the southern edge of Cheriton Hill, part of the North Downs.
  14. 14. NUMBER OF DRIVES ( tunnels excavated ) 12 - 6 undersea, 6 underland NUMBER OF TBMS 11 - 6 undersea, 5 underland ( a French machine bored 2 underland tunnels)
  15. 15. GOLDEN GATE BRIDGE Official name Golden Gate Bridge Carries Motor vehicles, pedestrians and bicycles Crosses Straits of the Golden Gate Locale San Francisco, California Maintained by Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District[1] Design Suspension, Truss Arch & Truss Causeways Longest span 4200 feet (1280 m) Total length 1.7 miles (2,727 m) Width 90 feet Vertical clearance 14 ft at toll gates, higher truck loads possible Opening date May 27, 1937
  16. 16. Golden Gate Bridge When the bridge opened in 1937, with a main suspension span length of 4,200 feet, it was the longest in the world. The engineering obstacles poised by the mile-wide, turbulent Golden Gate Strait led engineers to devise a bridge that required four years to build, 83,000 tons of steel, 389,000 cubic yards of concrete, and enough cable to encircle the earth three times.
  17. 17. Previous ASCE designations for the Golden Gate Bridge include: the National Civil Engineering Landmark (1984) and Seven Wonders of the World (1955). Other significant bridges include the VerrazanoNarrows Bridge, the George Washington Bridge, the Akashi Kaikyo (Japan) and the Humber Bridge (England).
  18. 18. NETHERLANDS NORTH SEA PROTECTION WORKS   This singularly unique, vast and complex system of dams, floodgates, storm surge barriers and other engineered works literally allows the Netherlands to exist The North Sea Protection Works exemplifies the ability of humanity to exist side-by-side with the forces of nature.
  19. 19. The Oosterschelde storm surge barrier
  20. 20. Bottom consolidation
  21. 21. The piers The construction of each pier almost took one and a half years. One started building a new pier every two weeks. This way, thirty piers were in production at the same time. It took an enormous amount of organisation and planning to finish the giant and complex structures in time. People worked day and night, because otherwise the concrete could not harden properly. The sixty-five piers were each between 30.25 and 38.75 metres high and weighed 18,000 tonnes. Two extra piers were built, for safety’s sake. Visitors of Neeltje Jans, the former artificial island, can now climb one of these left-over piers. The piers were the most important elements of the dam. They were produced in a building excavation with a surface area of about one square kilometre, located 15.2 metres below sea level. A ring-dike kept the sea water outside the excavation. The dry dock consisted of four parts. When the piers of one part were finished, this part would be flooded. The lifting ship then sailed into the dock, lifted the heavy pier and shipped it off to its place in the barrier. Each pier consisted of 7,000 cubic metre of concrete. Therefore, the dock may also be typified as a large concrete factory in which 450,000 cubic metre of concrete was manufactured between 1979 and 1983.
  22. 22. The placement When all the piers were finished, the building excavation in which they were built, was flooded. Two ships took the piers to the right place. The ship Ostrea could lift the piers one by one and sailed them to a floating pontoon. This pontoon marked the place where the pier should be sunk. When the piers stood firmly on the bottom of the Oosterschelde, the construction of the barrier could be finished. The piers were raised with the top-pieces, upon which the slides were fixed. Hollow tubes were placed on the piers, and on top of this came a road. The tubes provided room for the equipment responsible for making the slides move. Slides
  23. 23. Mytilus (mussel) This ship made sure that the bottom of the Oosterschelde was compressed along the section were the barrier would be built. When the bottom is compressed, the sand and clay parts are compacted more closely to each other. The bottom becomes more solid. Without the work of the Mytilus, the barrier would not have been as firm. The entire compression process took place under water and continued twenty-four hours per day. The needles transferred vibrations to the sea bottom, with a frequency of between 25 and 30 Hertz and an amplitude of 4 to 5 millimetres.
  24. 24. Cardium (cockle) Although the Ostrea was the most impressive ship of the fleet, the Cardium was the most expensive one. The Cardium carried out an important task: putting down the mats. These mats which were thirty-six centimetres thick, forty-two metres wide and two hundred metres long. The synthetic mats were filled with sand and gravel in a factory. The mats were put on the sea bottom at a rate of ten metres every hour. An extra mat was put at the areas where the piers were to be placed. This was to protect the mats against wear, which could be developed through the opening and closure of the slides.
  25. 25. The Ostrea (oyster) The Ostrea was the flagship of the Delta fleet. With its length of eighty-seven metres, the typical U-shape and a capability of 8,000 horsepower, it was the most impressive ship. The ship lifted the piers from the dry dock and sailed them to the place of the barrier. With the open side of the ‘U’, the ship manoeuvred around the pier. The ship could steer easily, thanks to its four screw propellers. On both sides there were two porches fifty metres high. The piers were fixed to these porches. The porches could not lift more than 10,000 tonnes however, whereas the piers weighed 18,000 tonnes. So how did the Ostrea put the piers in the right place? Fortunately, the levers did not have to lift the piers completely out of the water. The most important factor was that they did not touch the bottom of the sea during transportation. Because of the upward pressure of the water, the levers needed to provide less power.
  26. 26. Macoma (nun) This pontoon, named after a shellfish, was situated exactly in front of the place where a pier would be placed. When the Ostrea had taken a pier, it moored against the Macoma. To offer the Ostrea some stability, the pontoon had a coupling mechanism with a power of six hundred tonnes. The Macoma also had a second function: an enormous vacuum cleaner was used to ensure there was no sand between the pier and the bottom. This was an extremely difficult job, because the tidal movements moved large amounts of sand each day.
  27. 27. Jan Heijmans Another ship, the Jan Heijmans, helped the Cardium place the mattresses. The Jan Heijmans was also responsible for the filling of the holes between the mattresses and the gravel. The Macoma worked together with the Sepia and the Donax I during the placement of gravel ballast mats on the bottom.
  28. 28. Maeslant barrier The most important demand for the design was that the barrier should not hinder the shipping. The barrier should only be closed under exceptional circumstances - no more than once or twice every ten years. In 1991, four years after the competition was held, construction started. Which design had won? Out of six submissions, the design of the Building Combination Maeslant Barrier won. The Maeslant barrier would consist of two steel doors which could be sunk down and could be turned away in the docks in the shores.
  29. 29. BOS and BES The Maeslantkering is operated by a computer. In the case of a storm flood, the decision of whether or not to close the barrier is left to a computer system (BOS). The chance of mistakes is greatly increased if people were to make the decision. A computer will only follow predefined procedures, it doesn’t get its own ideas and it is not affected by poor environmental conditions. The system only takes into account the water and weather forecasts. On that basis it calculates the expected water levels in Rotterdam, Dordrecht and Spijkenisse. When the BOS decides to close the barrier, it gives orders to another computer system, the BES. The BES carries out the orders of the BOS. The system operates entirely automatically, but remains under constant human supervision with regards to the procedures.
  30. 30. Movement works The movement works are operated from control buildings at the north and south side. The movement works consist of three parts: the dock gate, the locomotive and the ballast system of the retaining wall. The dock gate opens when the barrier is activated. The barrier is driven into the New Waterway by the locomotive. The ballast system allows the barrier to sink.
  31. 31.    The Millau Viaduct (French: le Viaduc de Millau) is a large cable-stayed road-bridge that spans the valley of the River Tarn near Millau in southern France. Designed by Lord Foster of Foster and Partners, and bridge engineer Michel Virlogeux, it is the tallest vehicular bridge in the world, with one mast's summit at 343 metres (1,125 ft) — slightly taller than the Eiffel Tower and only 38 m (125 ft) shorter than the Empire State Building. The viaduct is part of the A75-A71 autoroute axis from Paris to Béziers. It was formally dedicated on 14 December 2004 and opened to traffic two days later.
  32. 32. Official name Le Viaduc de Millau Carries 4 lanes of the A75 autoroute Crosses Valley of the River Tarn Locale Millau, France Design Cable-Stayed Longest span 342 m (1,122 ft) Total length 2,460 metres (8,071 ft) Width 32 m (105 ft) Clearance below 270 m (886 ft) at maximum Opening date December 14, 2004
  35. 35. AGAIN! 品質改善的手法  思考問題的本質  產品問題 or 找錯客戶、時間 ? 提升服務品質  提升內部效率  降低成本 
  36. 36. 新材料 HPC  Polymeric materials  BIPV  ……… 
  37. 37. 設計工具 Computer  Software  Internet  Data storage and exchange 
  38. 38. GIS civil engineering http://www.esri.com/industries/civil_engineering/index.html
  39. 39. Contamination site map has ortho set at 30 percent transparency to depict underground contamination, concrete footings and columns, and concrete structures on top of the slabs. Circular and square meshes are concrete supports for storage tanks, which were long since removed. This map makes it easy for anyone to understand where excavation must be done. This fully rotatable model is an underground perspective looking up at the concrete and the contamination surface.
  40. 40. Reinforced Concrete Design http://www.structurepoint.org/index.asp
  41. 41. 新技術 Transportation  Structure  Hydraulic  Geotechnical  ……… 
  42. 42. PUBLIC/PRIVATE TECHNOLOGY PARTNERSHIPS  Challenge   Approach   Identify, commercialize, deploy existing capital projects-related technologies from govt. labs Form teams to identify ripe techs, determine and implement effective path to commercialization Technologies      Smart Chips Cybernetic Buildings Spatial Data Acquisition Construction Process Simulation Digital As-Builts
  43. 43. DIGITAL-AS-BUILT DOCUMENTATION  Challenge   Accelerate deployment of tools to capture as-built conditions digitally and deliver data models for use during O&M Approach   Develop user requirements for accurate, intelligent digital models interoperable with commercial CAD, GIS, CMMS, and CAFM systems Demonstrate with pilot projects
  44. 44. 施工技術 Machines  Vehicles  Ships  Automation  Robots   ………
  45. 45. 管理工具 Computer  Software  Internet  Wireless technology  Data storage and exchange 
  46. 46. WIRELESS MONITORING TECHNIQUES BASED ON MEMS MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems) Fig 1. Scheme for wireless sensing of large structures using radio frequency transmission techniques and MEMS [2, 4]. Data are sending from the base station to the supervisor using e.g. internet
  47. 47. 1998-MicroWIS™ Micro-Miniature Wireless Instrumentation System The development effort included the conceptual design, fabrication, and demonstration of a batterypowered, miniature wireless temperature sensor. MicroWIS™-XG Micro-Miniature Wireless Instrumentation System - Next Generation The MicroWIS-XG system is a set of miniature wireless units that asynchronously transmit data to a receiver attached to a standard RS-232 port on a PC. The remote units are capable of interfacing with any type of resistive sensor: strain, temperature, pressure, humidity, etc.
  48. 48. The MicroWIS system is being used to monitor external grout pressure during construction of two tunnels in the Netherlands. Grout pressure determines the amount of grout that is deposited on the outside of the tunnel and is critical to the water-seal and durability of the tunnel.
  49. 49. LET’S HAVE A BREAK!