Fh aachen-june2013


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Lecture slides for the Cross-Cultural Management Module of Dr Holger Siemons at FH AACHEN

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Fh aachen-june2013

  1. 1. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  Cross-­‐Cultural  Management  Welcome  
  2. 2. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  A  few  things  about  me  …  The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not haveenough memory to open the image, or the image may havebeen corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the fileagain. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete theimage and then insert it again.Dr. Holger SiemonsAssociate Professor for Professional Practice and Education,University of NorthamptonCross-Cultural Management, International Business, Leadershipdevelopment in global firmsHeading the Global Employability Development Initiative in the UKand in IndiaMBA Program leaderVisiting assignments at National Economics University, Hanoi;National University Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh; University of Jakarta,Leather Institute Addis Ababa, Donau-Universität Krems, MCIInnsbruck, Maxwell AFB, AlabamaWorked as corporate trainer, consultant with Accenture, Siemens,PitneyBowes, Global Marketing Deutsche Telekom
  3. 3. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  Some  logis>cs  and  understanding  Thursday,  6  June  2013    §  16.00  –  19.00  hrs  Friday,  7  June  2013  §  14.15  –  17.30  hrs  
  4. 4. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  Outline  of  the  lecture  by  topic  §  1.  Introduc>on  to  culture  §  Building  up  to  cross-­‐cultural  efficiency  §  Defini>ons  of  culture  §  Evolu>on  of  cultural  understanding  §  Cultural  differences  §  2.  Culture  and  thought  §  3.  Cultural  profiling  -­‐  bringing  reason  to  the  percep>on  of  culture  §  E.  T.  Hall  §  Geert  Hofstede  §  Fons  Trompenaars  and  Charles  Hampden-­‐Turner  §  4.  Culture  in  business  applica>on  §  Communica>on  §  Team  building  and  culture  §  Virtual  communica>on  and  team  building  §  Leadership  across  cultures  §  The  use  of  power  across  cultures  §  5.  Wrap  up  
  5. 5. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  1.  Culture  
  6. 6. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  1.1  Some  defini>ons  
  7. 7. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  1.2  Incremental  approach  to  this  module  Basic  understanding  Theore>cal  founda>on  Applica>on  of  the  previous  learning  content  
  8. 8. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  1.3  The  ladder  of  your  cultural  progress  Acceptance  of  responsibility   high  Accep>ng  accountability  Refusing  accountability  low  Toward  environment  Cultural ambiguityCultural awarenessApplied culturalcompetenceAdapted from M. Bennett (2004)
  9. 9. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  1.4  Evolu>on  of  cultural  competence  Acceptance  of  responsibility   high  Accep>ng  accountability  Refusing  accountability  low  Denial  of  a  situa>on  Blaming  others  Finding  reasons/excuses  Wait  and  hope  Acceptance  of  reality  Ownership  Finding/crea>ng  solu>ons  EFFICIENCY  Toward  environment  Ability  to  fully  func>on  
  10. 10. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  1.5  Other  [sub]forms  of  culture  National cultureProfessional cultureOrganizational cultureFamily cultureReligious cultureYouth culturePop cultureGender culture
  11. 11. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  1.6  Socio-­‐cogni>ve  processes:  Self-­‐concept  Independent  self   Interdependent  self  Self  Mother  Father  Sibling  Coworker  Friend  Enemy  Self  Mother  Father  Sibling  Coworker  Friend  Enemy  Source: Markus and Kitayama, Psychological Review, 1991
  12. 12. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  1.7  The  iceberg  model  of  culture  Non-­‐visible  culture  Ar>facts,  music,  dress,  art  Behaviors    Adtudes  Core  values    Beliefs  
  13. 13. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  
  14. 14. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  1.8  What  is  cross-­‐cultural  management?  Culture  Cross-­‐cultural  Management  Cross-­‐cultural  management  
  15. 15. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  1.9  What  are  differences  and  why  do  they  occur?  
  16. 16. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  1.9.1  Understanding  of  “I”  Western Eastern
  17. 17. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  1.9.2  Lifestyle  Western Eastern
  18. 18. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  1.9.3  Queing  behavior  Western Eastern
  19. 19. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  1.9.4  Addressing  problems  Western Eastern
  20. 20. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  1.9.5  Status  of  the  boss  Western Eastern
  21. 21. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  1.9.6  Transport  Western Eastern
  22. 22. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  1.9.7  The  posi>on  of  a  child  in  the  family  Western Eastern
  23. 23. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  1.9.8  Sundays  on  the  road  Western Eastern
  24. 24. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  1.9.9  Beauty  preferences  Western Eastern
  25. 25. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  1.9.10  Partying  behavior  Western Eastern
  26. 26. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  1.9.11  Senior’s  daily  life  Western Eastern
  27. 27. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  1.9.12  Expression  of  opinion  Western Eastern
  28. 28. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  1.9.13  Impression  of  the  other  Western Eastern
  29. 29. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  1.10.1  The  three  stages  of  the  U  (or  V)  curve  A.  Ini+al  adjustment  is  the  op>mis>c  or  ela>on  phase  of  the  adjustment  process    B.  Crisis  is  the  stressful  phase,  when  reality  sets  in  and  the  sojourner  is  overwhelmed  by  his/her  own  incompetence  C.  Regained  adjustment  is  seoling-­‐in  phase,  when  you  learn  to  cope  effec>vely  with  the  new  environment    Emo>onal  state  Ini*al  adjustment   Regained  adjustment  crisis  t  In-­‐host-­‐country  Pre-­‐departure   Post-­‐departure  
  30. 30. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  1.10.2  The  seven  stages  of  the  W-­‐curve  A.  Honeymoon  individuals  are  excited  about  their  new  cultural  environment—wearing  “rose  colored  glasses”  B.  Hos+lity  experience  major  emo>onal  upheavals—reality  sets  in  C.  Humorous  individuals  learn  to  laugh  at  their  cultural  mishaps,  and  realize  there  are  good  and  bad  in  every  culture  D.  In-­‐sync  sojourners  begin  to  “feel  at  home”  and  experience  iden>ty  security  and  inclusion  E.  Ambivalence  experience  grief,  nostalgia  and  pride,  with  a  mixed  sense  of  relief  and  sorrow  that  they  are  going  home  F.  Reentry  culture  shock    unexpected  jolt,  typically  causes  more  stress  &  depression  than  entry  culture  shock  G.  Re-­‐socializa+on  assimila>on  into  old  roles  and  culture    Emo>onal  state  Pre-­‐departure   In-­‐host-­‐country   Post-­‐departure   t  ShortInterventionperiod (in-country)LongInterventionperiod (in-country)ABCDEFG
  31. 31. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  2.  Thought  across  cultures  
  32. 32. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  2.1  Some  differences  between  West  and  East  1.  Visual  senses  2.  Medicine  3.  Art  and  music  4.  Educa>on  5.  Others  …  
  33. 33. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  2.2  Which  two  go  together?  
  34. 34. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  5.4.4  Art  and  music  
  35. 35. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  2.3  Aoen>on  to  detail  
  36. 36. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  2.4  Are  the  wolf  the  same?  
  37. 37. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  2.5  Another  example:  Different  degree  of  aoen>on  
  38. 38. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  2.6  Focal  object  vs.  contextual  informa>on  Focal ObjectInformationContextualInformation
  39. 39. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  5.4.4  Art  and  music  
  40. 40. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  2.7.1  Detailed  vs.  holis>c  
  41. 41. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  2.7.2  Detailed  vs.  holis>c  photos  
  42. 42. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  3.  Cultural  profiling  
  43. 43. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  3.  Important  cultural  researchers  §  George  Peter  Murdock  (1897-­‐1985)  §  Edward  Twitchell  Hall,  jr.  (1914-­‐2009)  §  Edgar  Henry  Schein  (1928-­‐)  §  Geert  Hofstede  (1928-­‐)  §  Fons  Trompenaars  (1952-­‐)  §  Fred  Strodtbeck  (1919-­‐2005)  HALL  HOFSTEDE  SCHEIN  TROMPENAARS  MURDOCK  STRODTBECK  
  44. 44. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  3.1  Edward  Twitchell  Hall,  jr.  (1914-­‐2009)  Par+cularly  known  for  his  concept  of  the  „Hidden  Dimension“  describing  the  subjec>vity  of  cultural  dimensions  that  surround  mankind  Coined  the  term  ‚polychronic‘,  describing  the  ability  to  aoend  to  mul>ple  events;  simultaneoulsy,  and  opposed  to  „monochronic“  referring  to  handling  events  one  at  a  >me  One  of  his  main  contribu>ons  to  cultural  research  was  the  concept  of  ‚extension  transferrence‘,  meaning  humanity‘s  rate  of  evolu>on  increases  with  innova>on  and  crea>on  of  technology  His  most  noted  contribu>on,  however,  is  the  concept  of  high-­‐  vs.  low-­‐context  culture  He  is  considered  the  founding  father  of  intercultural  communica>on  studies  He  was  the  first  considering  ‚proxemics‘  as  one  element  of  cultural  difference,  and,  thus,  forming  a  dimension  HALL  
  45. 45. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  3.1.2  Hall’s  three  dimensions  1.  Monochroma>sm  vs.  polychroma>sm  2.  Personal  space  (proxemics)  3.  Low-­‐  vs.  high  context  
  46. 46. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  Monochroma>sm  vs.  polychroma>sm  Monochroma+c  >me-­‐oriented  cultures  are  more  comfortable  with  doing  one  thing  at  a  >me.  • Interrup>ons  are  to  be  avoided  • Everything  has  its  own  specific  >me  • Examples  are  USA,  Germany,  Switzerland  Polychroma+c  >me-­‐oriented  cultures  schedule  many  things  at  one  >me,  and  >me  is  considered  in  a  more  fluid  sense.  • Going  with  the  flow  means  that  interrup>ons  are  tolerated  as  they  ozen  lead  to  a  beoer  atmosphere  of  doing  business  • Time  may  formally  be  scheduled,  it  unfolds  with  flexibility  and  realloca>on  of  priority  • Examples  are:  Greece,  Italy,  Chile,  and  Saudi  Arabia    
  47. 47. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  
  48. 48. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  Proxemics  The  term  ‘proxemics’  was  coined  by  researcher  Edward  T.  Hall  during  the  1950s  and  1960s  and  has  to  do  with  the  study  of  our  use  of  space  and  how  various  differences  in  that  use  can  make  us  feel  more  relaxed  or  anxious.  Proxemics  differen>ates  between  • Physical  space  (the  constructed  built  environment  that  makes  us  comfortable)  • Personal  space,  also  knows  as  ‘personal  territory’  (the  distance  between  us  and  other  people  that  we  need  to  feel  comfortable)  
  49. 49. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  
  50. 50. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  Low-­‐  vs.  high  context  Low-­‐context  cultures  assign  primary  meaning  to  the  objec>ve  communica>on  message  and  secondary  meaning  to  the  context.  Low-­‐context  cultures  emphasize  speed,  accuracy,  and  efficiency  in  communica>on.  • “just  the  facts  please”  • “give  me  the  booom  line”  High-­‐context  cultures  assign  primary  importance  to  the  s>muli  surrounding  a  message  and  secondary  importance  to  the  message  itself.  High-­‐context  cultures  need  more  >me  to  make  decisions  and  perform  transac>ons  than  low-­‐context  cultures.  • “What  maoers  isnt  what  is  said  but  who  said  it”  • “Its  not  what  you  say  but  how  you  say  it”  • Read  between  the  lines  The  essen>al  difference  between  the  two  is  the  importance  that  each  culture  places  on  the  context  versus  the  actual  message  itself.  
  51. 51. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  
  52. 52. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  3.2  Geert  Hofstede  (1928  -­‐)  Inves>gated  the  interac>ons  between  na>onal  and  organiza>onal  cultures  Hofstede  is  very  famous  for  his  four  cultural  dimensions  (concept  later  expanded):  • Individualism  vs.  Collec>vism  • Power  distance  • Masculinity  vs.  Feminity  • High  vs.  Low  uncertainty  avoidance  • A  fiLh  dimension  was  later  added  with  the  contribu>on  of  Michael  Harris  Bond  (1985):  Long-­‐  vs.  short-­‐term  orienta>on  • A  sixth  dimension  was  added  in  2010  (inspired  by  Minkov):  Indulgence  vs.  restraint  These  classifica>ons  describe  societal  averages  or  tendencies,  but  not  characteris+cs  of  individuals    „level  of  analysis“;  it  is  about  gardens,  not  flowers“  IBM;    117,000  ques>onnaires;  1967  -­‐  1973  HOFSTEDE  
  53. 53. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  3.2.x  Hofstede’s  six  dimensions  1.  Individualism  vs.  collec>vism  2.  Low  vs.  high  power  distance  3.  Masculinity  vs.  femininity  4.  High-­‐  vs.  low  uncertainty  avoidance  5.  Short-­‐  vs.  long-­‐term  orienta>on  Indulgence  vs.  restraint  
  54. 54. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  Countries  as  per  Index    D        67  B        75  F        71  CH        68  A        55  CZ        58  PL        60  DK        74  IND        48  CHN        20  PAK        14  BANG        20  THA        20  INDO        14  US        91  CAN        80  UK        89  IRL        70  AUS        90  NZ        79  Individualism  vs.  collec>vism  INDIVIDUALISM  People  more  focus  on  themselves/self-­‐orienta>on/individual  iden>ty  Guilt  culture  Decisions  based  on  individual  needs  „I“-­‐mentality  Emphasis  on  individual  ini>a>ve  and  achievement  Everyone  has  the  right  to  private  life  COLLECTIVISM  Expect  high  group  loyalty  (family,  organiza>on),  and  favorable  decisions  Iden>ty  based  on  social  afilia>on  Shame  culture  „We“-­‐mentality  Emphasis  on  belonging  to  the  group  Private  life  ‚invaded‘  by  ins>tu>onal/  organiza>onal  affilia>on  INDIVIDUALISM   COLLECTIVISM  0  100   US  AUS  CAN  D  A  IND  PAK  BANG,  CHN  UK  
  55. 55. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  An  alterna>ve  visualiza>on  of  the  dimension  
  56. 56. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  
  57. 57. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  3.2.2  Low  vs.  high  power  distance  LOW  POWER  DISTANCE  Society  makes  liole  difference  of  status  and  power  among  its  ci>zens  Power  inequality  is  mediated  by  the  group,  ozen  reflected  through  legisla>on  Wealth,  although  unequality  distributed,  is  partly  transferred  from  the  rich  to  the  poor  Regula>on  (law,  rights,  rules)  tend  to  be  in  favour  of  the  less  powerful  HIGH  POWER  DISTANCE  Society  greatly  differen>ates  between  its  ci>zens  regarding  power  and  status  Power  inequality  is  fully  affec>ng  the  less  powerful  Wealth  is  strongly  and  unequally  distributed,  and  liole  effort  is  made  to  support  the  poor  Regula>on,  if  existent,  that  may  protect  the  less  powerful  is  either  ambiguous  or  non-­‐enforceable  LOW  PD   HIGH  PD  0  100  Countries  as  per  Index    D        35  B        65  F        68  CH        34  A      11  CZ        57  PL        57  DK      18  IND      77  CHN        80  PAK        55  BANG        80  THA        64  INDO        78  US        40  CAN        39  UK        35  IRL      28  AUS        36  NZ        22  
  58. 58. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  
  59. 59. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  
  60. 60. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  3.2.3  Masculinity  vs.  femininity  MASCULINITY  Society  in  which  social  gender  roles  are  clearly  dis>nct  Men  are  asser>ve,  tough  and  focused  on  material  success  Women  are  to  be  more  modest,  tender,  and  about  quality  life  A  society  that  ozen  expresses  values  through  non-­‐codified  regula>ons  Strong  confining  pressures  from  within  society  to  conform  to  values  FEMININITY  Society  in  which  social  gender  roles  overlap  Both,  man  and  women,  are  supposed  to  be  modest,  tender,  and  concerned  with  quality  of  life  A  society  that  expresses  its  values  through  codified  regula>ons  Less  confining  and  restraining  pressures  from  within  society  MASCULINITY   FEMININITY  0  100  Countries  as  per  Index    D        66  B        54  F        86  CH        70  A        79  CZ        57  PL        64  DK      16  IND        56  CHN        66  PAK        50  BANG        55  THA        34  INDO        46  US        62  CAN        52  UK        66  IRL      68  AUS        61  NZ        58  
  61. 61. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  3.2.4  High  vs.  low  uncertainty  avoidance  HIGH  UNCERTAINTY  AVOIDANCE  Socie>es  experience  challenges  when  exposed  to  uncertainty  Socie>es  strongly  seek  to  obtain  clarity  for  future  happenings  Regula>ons  ozen  support  the  necessity  of  planning  and  certainty  for  the  popula>on  Society  feels  threatened  by  experienced  uncertainty  Affekts  risk  taking  behavior  à  lower  risk  taking  LOW  UNCERTAINTY  AVOIDANCE  Society  have  liole  challenges  when  confronted  with  uncertainty  Socie>es  liole  seek  to  obtain  clarity  for  future  happenings  Regula>ons  leave  room  for  interpreta>on  regarding  obtaining  clarity  for  future  events  Society  feels  anxious  by  experienced  uncertainty  Affects  risk-­‐taking  behavior  à  high  risk  taking  HIGH  UA   LOW  UA  0  Countries  as  per  Index    D        65  B        94  F        86  CH        58  A      70  CZ        74  PL        93  DK      23  IND      40  CHN        30  PAK        70  BANG        60  THA        64  INDO      48  US        46  CAN        48  UK        35  IRL      35  AUS        51  NZ      49  100  
  62. 62. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  3.2.5  Short-­‐  vs.  long-­‐term  orienta>on  SHORT-­‐TERM  ORIENTATION  Socie>es  with  a  short-­‐term  orienta>on  are  considered:  Personally  steady  Stable/liole  change  Respect  for  tradi>on  LONG-­‐TERM  ORIENTATION  Socie>es  with  a  long-­‐term  orienta>on  are  considered:  Persistant  Status-­‐  and  power-­‐oriented,  andme>culously  obeying  this  order  Thrizy  Shame  oriented  SHORT-­‐TERM  ORIENTATION   LONG-­‐TERM  ORIENTATION  0  Countries  as  per  Index    D        31  B        -­‐  F        -­‐  CH        -­‐  A      -­‐  CZ        -­‐  PL        -­‐  DK      -­‐  IND      61  CHN        118  PAK        -­‐  BANG      -­‐  THA        56  INDO      -­‐  US        29  CAN        -­‐  UK        25  IRL      -­‐  AUS        31  NZ      30  
  63. 63. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  3.2.6  Indulgence  vs.  restraint  INDULGENCE    A  percep>on  of  personal  life  control    Freedom  of  speech  seen  as  important    More  likely  to  remember  posi>ve  emo>ons    More  people  ac>vely  involved  in  sports  and  value  for  leisure    In  countries  with  enough  food,  higher  percentages  of  obese  people    Rich  countries:  lenient  sexual  norms    RESTRAINED  Fewer  very  happy  people    A  percep>on  of  helplessness:  what  happens  to  me  is  not  my  own  doing    Freedom  of  speech  not  a  big  concern    Less  likely  to  remember  posi>ve  emo>ons    Lower  importance  of  leisure    Fewer  people  ac>vely  involved  in  sports,  Fewer  obese  people    Rich  countries,  stricter  sexual  norms    Indulgence   Restraint  0  
  64. 64. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  3.2.7  Hofstede’s  profiling  Individualism  Low  power  distance  Masculinity  High  uncertainty  avoidance  Short  term-­‐orienta+on  Indulgence  Collec+vism/group  orienta+on  High  power  distance  Femininity  Low  uncertainty  avoidance  Long  term-­‐orienta+on  Restraint  
  65. 65. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  3.3  Fons  Trompenaars/Hampden-­‐Turner  Fons  Trompenaars  and  Charles  Hampden-­‐Turner  have  collected  the  largest  cross-­‐cultural  data  base  in  the  world,  compiling  key  business  issues  that  relate  to  cultural  differences  Trompennars‘  work  focuses  on  top-­‐management  and  thus  remained  within  a  dis>nct  social  class  • 30,000  top  managers  • 30  countries  Trompenaars  and  Hampden-­‐Turner  developed  a  seven-­‐dimensional  model  of  culture:  Trompenaars‘/Hampden-­‐Turner‘s  work  is  an  extension  to  the  work  of  Geert  Hofstede,  and  reflec>ng  E.T.  Hall‘s  three  dimensins  as  well  as  Hofstede‘s  five  dimension  Trompenaars  work  focuses  more  on  cultural  differences  at  the  workplace  TROMPENAARS  
  66. 66. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  3.3.x  Trompenaars’/Hampden-­‐Turner’s  7  dimensions  1.  Individualism  vs.  communi-­‐tarianism  2.  Universalism  vs.  par>cularism  3.  Neutral  vs.  affec>ve  4.  Specific  vs.  diffuse  5.  Achievement  vs.  ascrip>on  6.  Sequen>al  vs.  synchronic  7.  Internal-­‐  vs.  external  direc>on  control    
  67. 67. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  3.3.1  Individualism  vs.  communitarianism  Individualism  People  believe  in  personal  freedom  and  achievement.  They  believe  that  you  make  your  own  decisions,  and  that  you  must  take  care  of  yourself.  Praise  and  reward  individual  performance.  Give  people  autonomy  to  make  their  own  decisions  and  to  use  their  own  ini>a>ve.  Allow  people  to  involve  others  in  decision  making  Allow  people  to  be  crea>ve  and  to  learn  from  their  mistakes.  Communitarianism  People  believe  that  the  group  is  more  important  than  the  individual  and  provides  help  and  safety,  in  exchange  for  loyalty.  The  group  always  comes  first.    Praise  and  reward  group  performance.  Dont  praise  individuals  publically.  Link  peoples  needs  with  those  of  the  group  or  organiza>on.    Avoid  showing  favori>sm.  
  68. 68. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  3.3.2  Universalism  vs.  par>cularism  Universalism  People  place  high  importance  on  laws,  rules,  values,  and  obliga>ons.  They  try  to  deal  fairly  with  people,  but  rules  come  before  rela>onships.  Help  people  understand  how  their  work  >es  into  their  values  and  beliefs.  Clear  instruc>ons,  processes,  and  procedures.  Keep  promises  and  be  consistent.  Give  people  >me  to  make  decisions.  Use  objec>ve  processes  to  make  decisions  yourself,  and  explain  your  decisions  if  others  are  involved.  Par+cularism  Each  circumstance,  and  each  rela>onship  dictates  rules.  Their  response  to  a  situa>on  may  change,  based  on  whats  happening  in  the  moment,  and  whos  involved.  Give  people  autonomy  to  make  their  own  decisions.  Respect  others  needs  when  you  make  decisions.  Be  flexible  in  how  you  make  decisions.  Take  >me  to  build  rela>onships  and  get  to  know  people  for  a  beoer  understanding  of  needs.  Highlight  important  rules  and  policies  that  need  to  be  followed.  
  69. 69. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  3.3.3  Neutral  vs.  affec>ve  (emo>onal)  Neutral  People  make  a  great  effort  to  control  their  emo>ons.  Reason  influences  their  ac>ons  far  more  than  their  feelings.  People  dont  reveal  what  theyre  thinking  or  how  theyre  feeling.  Manage  emo>ons  effec>vely.  Watch  that  body  language  doesnt  convey  nega>ve  emo>ons.  "S>ck  to  the  point"  in  mee>ngs  and  interac>ons.  Watch  peoples  reac>ons  carefully,  as  they  may  be  reluctant  to  show  their  true  emo>ons.  Emo+onal  People  want  to  find  ways  to  express  their  emo>ons,  even  spontaneously,  at  work.  In  these  cultures,  its  welcome  and  accepted  to  show  emo>on.  Open  up  to  people  to  build  trust  and  rapport.  Use  emo>on  to  communicate  your  objec>ves.  Learn  to  manage  conflict  effec>vely,  before  it  becomes  personal.  Use  posi>ve  body  language.  Have  a  posi>ve  adtude.  
  70. 70. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  3.3.4  Specific  vs.  diffuse  Specific  People  keep  work  and  personal  lives  separate.  As  a  result,  they  believe  that  rela>onships  dont  have  much  of  an  impact  on  work  objec>ves.    Although  good  rela>onships  are  important,  they  believe  that  people  can  work  together  without  having  a  good  rela>onship.  Be  direct  and  to  the  point.  Focus  on  peoples  objec>ves  before  you  focus  on  strengthening  rela>onships.  Provide  clear  instruc>ons,  processes,  and  procedures.  Allow  people  to  keep  their  work  and  home  lives  separate.  Diffuse  People  see  an  overlap  between  their  work  and  personal/private  life.  People  believe  good  rela>onships  are  vital  to  mee>ng  business  objec>ves  whether  they  are  at  work  or  mee>ng  socially.  People  spend  >me  with  colleagues  and  clients  outside  work  hours  Building  good  rela>onships  before  focusing  on  business  objec>ves.  Find  out  as  much  as  you  can  about  the  people  that  you  work  with  and  the  organiza>ons  that  you  do  business  with.  Be  prepared  to  discuss  business  on  social  occasions,  and  to  have  personal  discussions  at  work.  Try  to  avoid  turning  down  invita>ons  to  social  func>ons.  
  71. 71. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  3.3.5  Achievement  vs.  ascrip>on  Achievement  People  believe  that  you  are  what  you  do,  and  base  their  value  accordingly.  These  cultures  value  performance,  no  maoer  who  you  are.  Reward  and  recognize  good  performance  appropriately.  Use  >tles  only  when  relevant.  Be  a  good  role  model.  Ascrip+on  People  believe  that  you  should  be  valued  for  who  you  are.  Power,  >tle,  and  posi>on  maoer  in  these  cultures,  and  these  roles  define  behavior.  Use  >tles,  especially  when  these  clarify  peoples  status  in  an  organiza>on.  Show  respect  to  people  in  authority,  especially  when  challenging  decisions.  Dont  "show  up"  people  in  authority.  Dont  let  your  authority  prevent  you  from  performing  well  in  your  role.  
  72. 72. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  3.3.6  Sequen>al  vs.  synchronous  >me  Sequen+al  Time/mono-­‐tasking  People  like  events  to  happen  in  order.  They  place  a  high  value  on  punctuality,  planning  (and  s>cking  to  your  plans),  and  staying  on  schedule.  “Time  is  money,"  and  people  dont  appreciate  it  when  their  schedule  is  thrown  off.  Focus  on  one  ac>vity  or  project  at  a  >me.  Keep  to  deadlines.  Set  clear  deadlines.  Synchronous  Time/mul+-­‐taksing  People  see  the  past,  present,  and  future  as  interwoven  periods.  They  ozen  work  on  several  projects  at  once,  and  view  plans  and  commitments  as  flexible.  Be  flexible  in  how  you  approach  work.  Allow  people  to  be  flexible  on  tasks  and  projects,  where  possible.  Highlight  the  importance  of  punctuality  and  deadlines  if  these  are  key  to  mee>ng  objec>ves.  
  73. 73. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  3.3.7  Internal  vs.  external  control  Internal  Direc+on/Control  (This  also  known  as  having  an  internal  locus  of  control.)  People  believe  that  they  can  control  nature  or  their  environment  to  achieve  goals.  This  includes  how  they  work  with  teams  and  within  organiza>ons.  Allow  people  to  develop  their  skills  and  take  control  of  their  learning.  Set  clear  objec>ves  that  people  agree  with.  Be  open  about  conflict  and  disagreement,  and  allow  people  to  engage  in  construc>ve  conflict.  External  Direc+on/Control  (This  also  known  as  having  an  external  locus  of  control.)  People  believe  that  nature,  or  their  environment,  controls  them.  People  ozen  need  reassurance  that  theyre  doing  a  good  job.  Give  people  direc>on  and  regular  feedback,  so  that  they  know  how  their  ac>ons  are  affec>ng  their  environment.  Manage  conflict  quickly  and  quietly.  Balance  nega>ve  and  posi>ve  feedback.  Encourage  people  to  take  responsibility  for  their  work.  
  74. 74. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  3.3.8  Trompenaars’/Hampden-­‐Turner’s  overview  Individualism  Universalism  Neutral  Specific  Achievement  Sequen+al  +me/monotasking  Internal  Direc+on/Control  Communitarianism  Par+cularism  Affec+ve  (emo+onal)  Diffuse  Ascrip+on  Synchronous  +me/mul+tasking  External  Direc+on/Control  
  75. 75. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  3.4  The  Hall,  Hofstede  and  Trompenaars  dimensions  E.  T.  Hall   G.  Hofstede   F.  Trompenaars  Low  vs.  high  context  Proxemics/  personal  space  Monochroma>c  vs.  polychroma>c  >me  Individualism  vs.  collec>vism  Low  vs.  high  power  distance  Masculinity  vs.  femininity  High  vs.  low  uncertainty  avoidance  Short-­‐  vs.  long-­‐term  orienta>on  Individualism  vs.  communitarianism  Universal  vs.  par>cular  Neutral  vs.  affec>ve  Specific  vs.  diffuse  Achievement  vs.  ascrip>on  Sequen>al  vs.  synchronic  Internal  vs.  external  
  76. 76. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  4.  Business-­‐relevant  applica>on  of  culture  
  77. 77. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  4.1.1  A  cross-­‐cultural  communica>on  model  Sender   Receiver  Message  CULTURE  Noise  Encodes  meaning  Decodes  meaning  Medium  [Some  kind  of]  feedback  Decodes  meaning  Encodes  meaning  Feedback  Message  Receiver   Sender  Message  nature  Importance  level  Context/expecta>ons  Timing  Personal  interac>ons  
  78. 78. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  
  79. 79. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  4.1.2  Level  of  directness  and  expressiveness  
  80. 80. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  
  81. 81. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  4.2.1 Team/group development stages - TuckmanForming:•  Confusion•  Orientation•  Testing•  Dependence•  Testing the groundStorming:•  Resistance togroup influence•  Resistance totask requirements•  DisagreementNorming:•  Openness to othergroup members•  Establish trust•  Define rolesPerforming:•  Constructiveaction•  Helpfulness•  OpennessAdjourning:•  DisengagementPerformancelevelSource: Tuckman, 1965?Different management/leadership for different tasks
  82. 82. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  Group members§  learn about eachother§  Discover tasksActivities in thisstage are:§  Determineobjectives§  Become involved§  Showcommitment§  Work towardclarity§  Discover groupmorale§  Handle surfacingfeelingsGroup members§  Discuss structureof the group§  Work for statusActivities in thisstage are:§  Identify cohesion§  Subjectivity§  Hidden agendas§  Discover conflict/confrontation§  Volatility shows§  Resentment§  Anger surfaces§  Inconsistency§  Experiencespersonal failureGroup members§  Establish im-/explicit rules toachieve task§  Identify type ofcommunicationActivities in thisstage are:§  Questionperformance§  Review/clarifyobjectives§  Change/confirmroles§  Opening risks§  Assertiveness§  Feel Strength/WeaknessGroup members§  Reachconclusion/implementationof solutionActivities in thisstage are:§  Show creativity,initiative andflexibility§  Relationshipsopen up§  Becoming proud§  Show concernfor people§  Learning§  Confidence rises§  Level of moraleGroupdissolvesForming Storming Norming Performing Adjour-ning4.2.2 Tuckman’s (1965) team development model
  83. 83. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  4.2.3  Team  defini>ons  Team  •  “A  group  of  individual  organized  to  work  together  in  order  to  achieve  a  specific  objec>ve”  (American  Heritage  Dic*onary)  •  “A  collec>on  of  individuals  who  are  independent  in  their  tasks,  who  share  responsibility  for  outcomes,  who  see  themselves  and  are  seen  by  others  as  an  intact  social  en>ty  embedded  in  one  or  more  larger  social  systems  ,  and  who  manage  their  rela>onship  across  organiza>onal  boundaries”  (Cohen  and  Baily,  1997)    Tradi>onal  (face-­‐to-­‐face)  team  •  The  above,  limited  to  one  shared  work  place  with  the  predominant  form  of  non-­‐electronic  communica>on  Virtual  team  •  “A  group  of  geographically,  organiza>onally  and  >me  dispersed  workers  brought  together  by  informa>on  technologies  to  accomplish  one  or  more  objec>ves  of  the  organiza>on  (DeSanc>s  &  Poole,  1997;  Powell  et  al.,  2004)        
  84. 84. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  
  85. 85. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  4.2.4  The  spectrum  of  e-­‐communica>on  in  team  work  Tradi>onal  team  • Exclusive  use  of  non-­‐electronic  communica>on  for  communica>on  • Single  loca>on  Matrixed,  remote  team  • Members  in  many  loca>ons  • Collabora>on  exclusively  by  electronic  media  Team  members  are  oLen  not  aware/do  not  fully  understand  the  exis+ng  difference  between  face-­‐to-­‐face  and  virtual  teams  and  the  impact  on  team  work  processes  Degree/extent of use of electronic communication
  86. 86. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  4.2.5  Trust  in  teams/virtual  teams  Trust  is  not  sta>c,  but  dynamic  and  needs  to  be  managed  Trust  is  role  and  context  specific  The  forma>on  of  trust  is  significantly  different  between  face-­‐to-­‐face  and  virtual  teams  …  …  and  different  based  on  the  cultural  background  0  20  40  60  80  100  120  US  GER  IND  
  87. 87. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  4.2.6  Barriers  to  communica>on  in  teams  Language:  Degree  of  proficiency  Level  of  detail  of  required  interac>on  • High-­‐  vs.  low  context  • Urgency  • Individualis>c  vs.  collec>vis>c  orienta>on  • Individual  vs.  shared  responsibility  Ambiguity  Lack  of  visibility  Informa>on  sharing  (extent,  form,  >me,  circle  of  addressees)  Time  zone  differences  
  88. 88. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  4.3.1  Leadership  -­‐  Some  faces  
  89. 89. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  4.3.2  More  faces  
  90. 90. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  4.3.3  Meaning  of  a  manager  “Management  is  the  process  of  reaching  organiza>onal  goals  by  working  with  and  through  people  and  other  organiza>onal  resources”  (Management  Innova>ons,  2008).  Three  major  characteris>cs:  • Process  or  series  of  con>nuing  and  related  ac>vi>es  • Involves  and  concentrates  on  reaching  organiza>onal  goals  • Reaches  these  goals  by  working  with  and  through  people  and  other  organiza>onal  resources  Four  basis  management  func>ons:  • Planning  • Organizing  • Influencing  • Controlling  
  91. 91. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  4.3.4  Leadership  defined  Leadership  is  a  process  of  influence  Directed  at  the  ac>vi>es  of  an  organized  group  Directed  toward  achieving  goals  and  the  sedng  thereof  (Stodgil,  1950:  3)  • Leadership  is  an  interpersonal  process  in  which  one  person  seeks  to  influence  another  person(s)  • It  iden>fies  the  group  to  be  influenced  • Seeks  to  achieve  goals  and  thereby  improve  organiza>onal  performance    
  92. 92. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  4.3.5  Manager  vs.  leader  Managers  tend  to  adopt  impersonal  or  passive  adtudes  towards  goals  Managers  tend  to  co-­‐ordinate  and  compromise  Managers  tend  to  maintain  low  levels  of  emo>onal  involvement  Managers  tend  to  iden>fy  with  and  belong  to  an  organisa>on  -­‐  part  of  the  hierarchy  Managers  tend  to  see  themselves  as  regulators  Leaders  tend  to  adopt  a  more  personal  and  ac>ve  adtude  towards  goals  Leaders  tend  to  create  excitement    Leaders  tend  to  show  empathy  and  get  involved  Leaders  tend  to  work  in  but  do  not  belong  to  an  organisa>on  -­‐  not  necessarily  part  of  the  hierarchical  structure  Leaders  tend  to  see  themselves  as  innovators  
  93. 93. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  4.3.6  Beginning  of  leadership  =  end  of  management?  The  different  stages  of  management  and  leadership  and  their  evolu>on  (to  be  completed  in  the  lecture/seminar)  OnlymanagementOnlyleadership
  94. 94. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  4.3.7  End  of  management  =  Beginning  of  leadership?  •  Plans  and  budgets  •  Decides  ac>ons  and      >metables  •  Allocates  resources•  Organizes staffing•  Decides structures andallocates staff, developspolicies, procedures andmonitoring•  Controlling, problem solving•  Monitoring of results againstplan and taking of correctiveactions  •  Produce order, consistencyand predictability•  Establishes  direc>on  •  Creates vision for the future•  Develops strategies forchange to achieve goals•  Aligning people•  Communication of visionand strategy•  Influencing the creation ofteams that accept validity ofgoals•  Motivation and inspiration•  Energizing people toovercome obstacles andsatisfy human needs•  Produces positive andsometimes dramatic change?Adopted from: John Kotter A force for change: How leadership differs frommanagement. Free Press. New York. 1990OnlymanagementOnlyleadership
  95. 95. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  4.3.8  Differen>a>on  reality:  Management/leadership  Manager LeaderWhat  do  we  do  with  that  informa>on?  
  96. 96. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  
  97. 97. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  4.3.9  Leadership/management:  One  explana>on  Management          Organiza>on   Planning   Staffing   Direc>ng   Controlling  Leading  
  98. 98. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  4.4.1  Sources  of  powerlessness  Women/gender  Race/ethnicity  Disability  Sexual  orienta>on  Na>onality  Physique  Beauty  expecta>ons  Behavior  Social  class  208, 211-217
  99. 99. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  196
  100. 100. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  4.4.2  Sources  of  power/influence  Personal  Expert  Legi>mate/posi>on  Reward  Coercive  Informa>on  196
  101. 101. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  4.4.3  Accessing  power  across  cultures  http://ipac.kacst.edu.sa/eDoc/eBook/4477.pdf Based on: Alanaziand Rodrigues, 20031.  Referent/personal    2.  Expert  3.  Legi>mate/posi>on  4.  Reward  5.  Coercive  6.  Informa>on  0 1 2 3 4 5 6USABrazilSaudi Arabia
  102. 102. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  4.4.4  Power  visibility  2021.  Visible power-  Control over resources (i.e.determining other people’s budget)2. Less visible power- Control over resource allocation bymeans of having access to otherdeciders through influencing3. Invisible power- ‘Gatekeeper’ function with thepower to filter, summarize, analyzeand shaping information inaccordance with their self-interest
  103. 103. Prof.  Dr.  Holger  Siemons  Thank  you  very  much  for  your  kind  aoen>on.  How was your workshop experience, please share with us.EncouragementsAreas for improvement