Environmental Conditions
Types of Environmental Health Issues
•
•
•
•
•
•

Hyperthermia
Hypothermia
Altitude
Sunburn
Lightning
Air Pollution
Heat
• Heat illness is a serious threat to health, but it
is preventable
Physiology
• Metabolic Heat Production
– Normal metabolic function results in heat
production (“burning” of calories)

• T...
Heat Exchange
•
•
•
•

Conduction – direct contact (loss or gain)
Convection – circulation (loss or gain)
Radiation – sun ...
Heat Index
• Wet Bulb Globe Temperature
Index (WBGT)
– Incorporates

• Dry bulb – standard air
temperature
• Wet bulb – he...
Heat Index
Heat Index
The sun’s heat is an example of
this type of heat exchange:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Conduction
Convection
Radiation
Evaporation
No...
Heat Illness
• Heat Rash (prickly heat)
– Red, raised rash that stings from sweat

• Heat Syncope (fainting)
– Associated ...
Heat Illness
• Heat Exhaustion

– Result of dehydration and overexertion
– Cardiac output drops
– S&S
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

P...
Heat Illness
• Heat Stroke

– Life – threatening condition
– Sudden onset
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Collapse
Loss of consciousness
Dy...
Prevention of Heat Illness
• Stay cool and ingest fluids
• Drink before thirsty

– 1-2% drop in body weight indicated dehy...
Prevention of Heat Illness
• Identify those who are at risk

– Athletes with large muscle mass
– Overweight athletes
– Wom...
Heat exhaustion is a medical
emergency and is the most severe
heat illness.

1. True
2. False

50%

1

50%

2
Hypothermia is a heat related
illness.
1. True
2. False

50%

1

50%

2
Hypothermia
• Most activities in sport allow for adequate
heat production (watch warm up and down
times)
• Temperature in ...
Prevention of hypothermia
•
•
•
•
•

Wear gear that wicks moisture away from skin
Windproof and waterproof fabrics
Dress i...
Altitude
• Natives

– Larger chest capacity, more alveoli, capllaries, and red
blood cells

• Residents

– Partial adaptat...
Altitude illness
• Acute mountain sickness

– Due to disruption in fluid balances in the brain
– Headache, nausea, vomitin...
Lightning

Lightning is only seen after it has hit the ground, and is travelling back to the sky
Lightning Safety
• #2 Cause of death by weather phenomena
• For safety of athletes and spectators, there
must be a plan of...
Lightning Safety
• Flash to bang method
– Estimates the distance of the storm from your
location
• Count the time from the...
If the hair on your head stands up,
you should lie flat on the ground so
the lightning doesn’t strike you.
1. True
2. Fals...
Air Pollution
• Problem in urban areas
• Types

– Photochemical haze – nitrogen dioxide and stagnant air
• When mixed with...
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Environmental conditions

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Environmental conditions

  1. 1. Environmental Conditions
  2. 2. Types of Environmental Health Issues • • • • • • Hyperthermia Hypothermia Altitude Sunburn Lightning Air Pollution
  3. 3. Heat • Heat illness is a serious threat to health, but it is preventable
  4. 4. Physiology • Metabolic Heat Production – Normal metabolic function results in heat production (“burning” of calories) • Therefore, we need to find a way to dissipate the heat in order to maintain normal body temperature
  5. 5. Heat Exchange • • • • Conduction – direct contact (loss or gain) Convection – circulation (loss or gain) Radiation – sun (heat gain only) Evaporation (heat loss only) – When radiant heat and environmental temperature is greater than body temperature, the body must cool via sweat evaporation • Cannot evaporate sweat in relative humidity of 75% or more
  6. 6. Heat Index • Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Index (WBGT) – Incorporates • Dry bulb – standard air temperature • Wet bulb – heat with humidity • Black bulb – radiant heat – These readings together provide a heat index reading that yields exercise recommendations – WBT and DBT are measured using a sling psychrometer (manual or digital)
  7. 7. Heat Index
  8. 8. Heat Index
  9. 9. The sun’s heat is an example of this type of heat exchange: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Conduction Convection Radiation Evaporation None of the above 20% 1 20% 20% 2 3 20% 4 20% 5
  10. 10. Heat Illness • Heat Rash (prickly heat) – Red, raised rash that stings from sweat • Heat Syncope (fainting) – Associated with rapid fatigue, overexposure to heat, and long periods of standing • Heat Cramps – Due to dehydration and electrolyte imbalance
  11. 11. Heat Illness • Heat Exhaustion – Result of dehydration and overexertion – Cardiac output drops – S&S • • • • • • • • • Profuse sweating Pale skin Mild elevation in temperature Dizziness Nausea Vomiting/diarrhea Hyperventilation Muscle cramps Loss of coordination – Must be hydrated and cleared by a physician to return to play
  12. 12. Heat Illness • Heat Stroke – Life – threatening condition – Sudden onset • • • • • • • Collapse Loss of consciousness Dysfunction of the central nervous system Flushed, hot, dry skin (minimal sweating) Shallow breathing Strong rapid pulse High core body temperature – Drastic cooling measures must be implemented – Constant core temperature evaluation – Remove from cold tub when core temp reaches 10
  13. 13. Prevention of Heat Illness • Stay cool and ingest fluids • Drink before thirsty – 1-2% drop in body weight indicated dehydration • Modify exercise in hot humid climates • Allow athletes unlimited access to water • Sports drinks – Replaces electrolytes – Flavor enhances desire to drink • Aclimitization – Preseason conditioning – graded conditioning over 7-10 days – 80% acclimitization can occur in the first 5-6 days of double practices
  14. 14. Prevention of Heat Illness • Identify those who are at risk – Athletes with large muscle mass – Overweight athletes – Women are physiologically more efficient with temperature regulation – Individuals with • Poor fitness • History of heat illness • Heart conditions • Wear light clothing that is breathable • Weight records • Temperature and humidity readings
  15. 15. Heat exhaustion is a medical emergency and is the most severe heat illness. 1. True 2. False 50% 1 50% 2
  16. 16. Hypothermia is a heat related illness. 1. True 2. False 50% 1 50% 2
  17. 17. Hypothermia • Most activities in sport allow for adequate heat production (watch warm up and down times) • Temperature in combination with wind chill, and wetness increases chance of hypothermia
  18. 18. Prevention of hypothermia • • • • • Wear gear that wicks moisture away from skin Windproof and waterproof fabrics Dress in layers Hydration assists with heat maintenance Associated cold injuries – Frost nip, frost bite – Raynaud’s Syndrome
  19. 19. Altitude • Natives – Larger chest capacity, more alveoli, capllaries, and red blood cells • Residents – Partial adaptations include • Increased mitochondria, hemoglobin and glycogen conservation • Visitor – Increased breathing and heart rates – Changes in blood flow and enzyme activity – Takes 2-3 weeks to adjust
  20. 20. Altitude illness • Acute mountain sickness – Due to disruption in fluid balances in the brain – Headache, nausea, vomiting, sleep disturbance, dyspnea • Pulmonary edema – Lungs accumulate fluid – Dyspnea, cough, headache, weakness, LOC • Sickle Cell Trait – 8-10% of African Americans have this trait • High red blood cell hemoglobin – In high altitudes, the blood is deoxygenated, and the RBC’s clump together, causing deoxigenation of the tissues and tissue death. – Results in enlarges spleen and possibly rupture
  21. 21. Lightning Lightning is only seen after it has hit the ground, and is travelling back to the sky
  22. 22. Lightning Safety • #2 Cause of death by weather phenomena • For safety of athletes and spectators, there must be a plan of action • Safety – Avoid large trees, flag/light poles, standing water, telephones, bleachers, pools, showers, umbrellas, other metal objects – If hair stands up on your hand, you are in imminent danger and should minimize the surface area for the lightning to strike
  23. 23. Lightning Safety • Flash to bang method – Estimates the distance of the storm from your location • Count the time from the flash of lightning to the sound of the thunder – – – – 5 seconds = 1 mile 30 seconds indicated inherent danger 15 seconds - should evacuate the field May return to the field 30 minutes following the last sound of thunder
  24. 24. If the hair on your head stands up, you should lie flat on the ground so the lightning doesn’t strike you. 1. True 2. False 50% 1 50% 2
  25. 25. Air Pollution • Problem in urban areas • Types – Photochemical haze – nitrogen dioxide and stagnant air • When mixed with sun, creates and ozone – Smog – carbon monoxide (effects lungs and cognitive performance)and sulfur dioxide (effects lung capacity and efficiency) • Ozone – Athletes may experience shortness of breath, coughing, chest tightness, pain with deep breathing, nausea, eye irritation, fatigue, lung irritation, etc – Asthmatics are at greater risk of symptoms – May become desensitized over time

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