Makeup of the eart, lesson 3

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Minerals, Rocks, and Soil Introduction

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Makeup of the eart, lesson 3

  1. 1. What Materials Make Up the Earth’s Surface?<br />Diamonds, rubies, and gold! <br />These are minerals that come from the earth. Imagine—There are places on earth where people can dig up gems and metal!<br />
  2. 2. Nonliving, solid matter from the earth.<br />Minerals<br />
  3. 3. Luster: The way a mineral reflects light. Minerals that reflect a lot of light are shiny. <br />Gold is an example of a mineral that reflects a lot of light.<br />Properties of Minerals<br />
  4. 4. Color<br />Minerals come in many different colors.<br />Some minerals are found in several colors, and some may even change color.<br />Some minerals are used to make gemstones.<br />Properties of Minerals<br />
  5. 5. Hardness<br />If you want to know how hard a mineral is, rub it against another mineral. The harder mineral will scratch the softer mineral.<br />The hardness of a mineral helps to identify the mineral<br />Diamonds are the hardest mineral<br />Properties of Minerals<br />
  6. 6. Rocks are not all alike!<br />Some form deep inside the earth.<br />Others form at the bottom of lakes and oceans.<br />Rocks<br />
  7. 7. Some igneous rocks are made from magma that cools below the earth’s surface.<br />Granite is an igneous rock.<br />Igneous Rock<br />
  8. 8. Are made of tiny pieces of other rocks, shells, and other materials. <br />Formed in the bottom of the water by the pressure of the water.<br />Sandstone is an example of sedimentary rock.<br />Sedimentary Rock<br />
  9. 9. Rocks that are deep inside the earth and change into different kinds of rocks.<br />Heat and pressure change the rocks over many years.<br />Limestone (a sedimentary rock) can be changed into marble.<br />Metamorphic Rock<br />
  10. 10. Is formed from years of weathering of rocks and minerals and the decaying of dead plants and animals.<br />Contains air and water.<br />Used by plants and animals for nutrients.<br />Soil<br />
  11. 11. Sand<br />Loose and has large grains<br />Does not hold water well<br />Soil with too much sand is not best for growing crops<br />Types of Soil<br />
  12. 12. Clay<br />Smooth and has fine, tightly packed grains<br />Water does not soak into clay quickly<br />Clay can hold a lot of water<br />Rich in nutrients<br />Plants do not grow well in clay because it is too hard for roots to grow in<br />Types of Soil<br />
  13. 13. Topsoil<br />Dark soil<br />Rich in nutrients<br />Holds water well<br />Plants grow well in topsoil<br />Types of Soil<br />

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