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消滅危機言語のための書体開発 (A Typeface for Endangered Languages)


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A slideshow presented at AtypI2019 Tokyo.
Slides are in English only. A slide with the published manuscript is also available.

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消滅危機言語のための書体開発 (A Typeface for Endangered Languages)

  1. 1. 消 滅 危 機 言 語 の た め の 書 体 開 発 A Typeface for Endangered Languages 小川 晋史 (OGAWA Shinji) 山田 真寛 (YAMADA Masahiro) 林 由華 (HAYASHI Yuka) 上田 寛人 (UEDA Hiroto)
  2. 2. Presentation Outline 1.Endangered Languages in Japan 2.The “Unified writing system for the Ryukyuan Languages” 3.“Shima Shotai,” a typeface for the Ryukyuan Languages
  3. 3. Ainu Hachijo Amami Kunigami Okinawa Miyako YaeyamaYonaguni Ryukyuan Languages Endangered Languages in Japan
  4. 4. Kurima Dialect of Miyako Ryukyuan
  5. 5. Heritage speakers’ comprehension ability 0 5 10 15 20 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 ComprehensionScore(max20) Age Comprehension Scores of Three Language Communities Kunjai-Okinoerabu Hyoo-Okinoerabu Ikema-Miyako
  6. 6. The “Gap” Japanese native speakers have a writing system for general use. Ryukyuan native speakers have never had such a writing system.
  7. 7. “Ryukyu no kotoba no kakikata” (Kuroshio Publisher, 2015) ーThe “Unified Writing System for the Ryukyuan Languages”
  8. 8. Charactaristics of the Unified Writing System ☞ Using Kana -based letters including “new” letters for Ryukyuan languages. ☞ Not using Kanji (Chinese characters) ☞ Leaving a space between words ☞ All dialects of Ryukyuan languages are written under one system.
  9. 9. Ex. Nums and Kinds of Vowels in Different Ryukyuan Languages Yonaguni (3) i, a, u Hateruma- Yaeyama (6) i, e, ï, a, o, u Ogami- Miyako (5) i, ɛ, a, ɯ, u Tsuken- Okinawa (5) i, e, a, o, u Ura-Amami (7) i, e, ɨ, ə, a, o, u Std-Japanese (5) i, e, a, o, u
  10. 10. Nasalized p-series syll. pã pĩ pũ pẽ põ Aspirated k-series syll. kha khi khu khe kho Examples of Newley added letters Standard k-series syll. か き く け こ ka ki ku ke ko Standard p-series syll. ぱ ぴ ぷ ぺ ぽ pa pi pu pe po diacritic “ > ” added diacritic “ ~ ” added
  11. 11. “Taramafutsu Jiten” (2017) (Tarama village board of education) ーDictionary of Tarama Dialect
  12. 12. Playing cards of Yonaguni Ryukyuan (2016) (Yonaguni town board of education)
  13. 13. “Shima Shotai” a typeface designed for Ryukyuan languages Designed by Jiyukobo, Ltd. Engineered by Realtype, Inc. Funded by The Toyota Foundation
  14. 14. “Yu Shotai” and “Shima Shotai” Yu Gothic (Microsoft Word 2016) Shima Gothic
  15. 15. Input Method ligature ligature ka i ku te xe mu cka qqi qku lte xce xmu
  16. 16. Vertical Writing Shima Mincho vertical Shima Mincho horizontal OK!
  17. 17. 4 typefaces of “Shima Shotai” Shima Gothic horizontal Shima Mincho horizontal Shima Gothic vertical Shima Mincho vertical
  18. 18. Restriction on Use text OK Adobe Products OK Microsoft Excel NG Power Point NG Word OK (template file needed) MacOS Numbers OK Keynote OK Pages OK Smart Phone NG
  19. 19. ligature ligature ka i ku te xe mu cka qqi qku lte xce xmu
  20. 20. “Shima Shotai” on the Web ・Webfont is being prepared. ・Sales Site of “Shima Shotai”
  21. 21. Problem to Be Solved Unicode Registration!
  22. 22. Thank you !