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6-Cross Section Elements ( Transportation and Traffic Engineering Dr. Sheriff El-Badawy )

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6 cross section elements ( Transportation and Traffic Engineering Dr. Sheriff El-Badawy )

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6-Cross Section Elements ( Transportation and Traffic Engineering Dr. Sheriff El-Badawy )

  1. 1. ‫والتكنولوجيا‬ ‫للهندسة‬ ‫العالي‬ ‫مصر‬ ‫معهد‬–‫المدنية‬ ‫الهندسة‬ ‫قسم‬-‫المنصورة‬ Introduction
  2. 2. ‫والتكنولوجيا‬ ‫للهندسة‬ ‫العالي‬ ‫مصر‬ ‫معهد‬–‫المدنية‬ ‫الهندسة‬ ‫قسم‬-‫المنصورة‬ Highway Cross Section Elements • Travel Lanes (Carriageways) • Shoulders • Medians • Roadside Barriers • Curbs • Gutters • Guard Rails • Sidewalks • Side (cross) slopes Principal Elements Marginal Elements
  3. 3. ‫والتكنولوجيا‬ ‫للهندسة‬ ‫العالي‬ ‫مصر‬ ‫معهد‬–‫المدنية‬ ‫الهندسة‬ ‫قسم‬-‫المنصورة‬ Typical Cross Section of Rural Road Highway Engineering, Tonias, D.
  4. 4. ‫والتكنولوجيا‬ ‫للهندسة‬ ‫العالي‬ ‫مصر‬ ‫معهد‬–‫المدنية‬ ‫الهندسة‬ ‫قسم‬-‫المنصورة‬ Typical Cross Section of Rural Road
  5. 5. ‫والتكنولوجيا‬ ‫للهندسة‬ ‫العالي‬ ‫مصر‬ ‫معهد‬–‫المدنية‬ ‫الهندسة‬ ‫قسم‬-‫المنصورة‬ Typical Cross Section of Urban Road
  6. 6. ‫والتكنولوجيا‬ ‫للهندسة‬ ‫العالي‬ ‫مصر‬ ‫معهد‬–‫المدنية‬ ‫الهندسة‬ ‫قسم‬-‫المنصورة‬ Typical Cross Section of Urban Road
  7. 7. ‫والتكنولوجيا‬ ‫للهندسة‬ ‫العالي‬ ‫مصر‬ ‫معهد‬–‫المدنية‬ ‫الهندسة‬ ‫قسم‬-‫المنصورة‬ Travel Lanes • In general, the number of travel lanes should be based on the design traffic volume and level of service. • No. of travels lanes in both directions are usually equal. • Travel lanes generally range in width from 10 to 13 ft. (3 to 3.95 m). • Typically is 12 ft (3.65 m) • Under extreme circumstances, a width of 9 ft (2.75 m) may be used.
  8. 8. ‫والتكنولوجيا‬ ‫للهندسة‬ ‫العالي‬ ‫مصر‬ ‫معهد‬–‫المدنية‬ ‫الهندسة‬ ‫قسم‬-‫المنصورة‬ Shoulder • Shoulders usually range in width from 2 ft (0.6 m) for minor local roads. (6 to 8 ft – 1.8 to 2.44 m- is preferred) to 12 ft (3.65 m) for major highways. • Typical cross slope is 3% for paved shoulders and 5% for unpaved shoulders .
  9. 9. ‫والتكنولوجيا‬ ‫للهندسة‬ ‫العالي‬ ‫مصر‬ ‫معهد‬–‫المدنية‬ ‫الهندسة‬ ‫قسم‬-‫المنصورة‬ Medians • A median is a wide strip of a highway used to separate traffic traveling in opposite directions. • Offer a recovery area for errant vehicles • Provide an area for emergency stopping • Serve as a safe waiting area for left-turning and U-turning vehicles • Decrease the amount of headlight glare • Allow for expansion to future lanes • Medians can be Flushed – Depressed- Raised.
  10. 10. ‫والتكنولوجيا‬ ‫للهندسة‬ ‫العالي‬ ‫مصر‬ ‫معهد‬–‫المدنية‬ ‫الهندسة‬ ‫قسم‬-‫المنصورة‬ Sharja, UAE Moscow, Idaho UI Campus
  11. 11. ‫والتكنولوجيا‬ ‫للهندسة‬ ‫العالي‬ ‫مصر‬ ‫معهد‬–‫المدنية‬ ‫الهندسة‬ ‫قسم‬-‫المنصورة‬ Medians
  12. 12. ‫والتكنولوجيا‬ ‫للهندسة‬ ‫العالي‬ ‫مصر‬ ‫معهد‬–‫المدنية‬ ‫الهندسة‬ ‫قسم‬-‫المنصورة‬ Cross (Side) Slope • The slope selected generally depends on the type of pavement used. • Typical cross slope of 1.5 to 3% is recommended. • Cross slopes greater than 2% should be avoided (for safety).
  13. 13. ‫والتكنولوجيا‬ ‫للهندسة‬ ‫العالي‬ ‫مصر‬ ‫معهد‬–‫المدنية‬ ‫الهندسة‬ ‫قسم‬-‫المنصورة‬ A curb is a raised element that is used, among other things, to denote the edge of a roadway. Functions of curbs • Drainage control • Roadway edge delineation • Enhanced appearance • Right-of-way reduction • Delineation of pedestrian walkways • Reduction of maintenance operation Types of curbs: Vertical curbs -- discourage vehicles from leaving the roadway, not desirable on high-speed highways, desirable on urban roads, and along long walls, tunnels to protect safety walks. Sloping curbs -- vehicle can cross them readily when required, used at median edges, to outline channelizing islands, at the outer edge of the shoulder. Curbs
  14. 14. ‫والتكنولوجيا‬ ‫للهندسة‬ ‫العالي‬ ‫مصر‬ ‫معهد‬–‫المدنية‬ ‫الهندسة‬ ‫قسم‬-‫المنصورة‬ Curbs • Barrier Curbs • The purpose of a barrier curb is to prevent or limit the possibility of a vehicle’s leaving the roadway. • A general rule of thumb is that barrier curbs should not be used when the design speed is greater than 40 mph. • Mountable Curbs • A mountable curb offers the advantage that a vehicle can cross it when necessary.
  15. 15. ‫والتكنولوجيا‬ ‫للهندسة‬ ‫العالي‬ ‫مصر‬ ‫معهد‬–‫المدنية‬ ‫الهندسة‬ ‫قسم‬-‫المنصورة‬
  16. 16. ‫والتكنولوجيا‬ ‫للهندسة‬ ‫العالي‬ ‫مصر‬ ‫معهد‬–‫المدنية‬ ‫الهندسة‬ ‫قسم‬-‫المنصورة‬
  17. 17. ‫والتكنولوجيا‬ ‫للهندسة‬ ‫العالي‬ ‫مصر‬ ‫معهد‬–‫المدنية‬ ‫الهندسة‬ ‫قسم‬-‫المنصورة‬ Sidewalks • Sidewalks are an integral part of city roads, sometimes provided in rural areas. • In residential areas the sidewalk width varies between 1.2 to 2.4 m.
  18. 18. ‫والتكنولوجيا‬ ‫للهندسة‬ ‫العالي‬ ‫مصر‬ ‫معهد‬–‫المدنية‬ ‫الهندسة‬ ‫قسم‬-‫المنصورة‬
  19. 19. ‫والتكنولوجيا‬ ‫للهندسة‬ ‫العالي‬ ‫مصر‬ ‫معهد‬–‫المدنية‬ ‫الهندسة‬ ‫قسم‬-‫المنصورة‬ Roadside Barriers & Guard rails
  20. 20. ‫والتكنولوجيا‬ ‫للهندسة‬ ‫العالي‬ ‫مصر‬ ‫معهد‬–‫المدنية‬ ‫الهندسة‬ ‫قسم‬-‫المنصورة‬ Right of Way

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