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Multimedia development process

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Multimedia development process

  1. 1. IntroIntroMultimediaMultimedia TThe Multimediahe Multimedia Development ProcessDevelopment Process 2013-142013-14 Semester 1Semester 1
  2. 2. Unit 2: The Multimedia Development ProcessUnit 2: The Multimedia Development Process IntroIntroMultimediaMultimedia 2 Unit OutlineUnit Outline • In this unit, we will learn – Stages of a Multimedia Project • Planning and Costing – Target Audience – Flowcharts – Storyboards – Organizational Structures – Site Maps – Link Maps – Navigational Structure • Design and Production • Testing – Alpha Testing – Beta Testing • Delivery
  3. 3. Unit 2: The Multimedia Development ProcessUnit 2: The Multimedia Development Process IntroIntroMultimediaMultimedia 3 IntroductionIntroduction • Multimedia development is a project-based process. • Well-developed plan for multimedia product will save – time – money – multiple modifications • The rule of thumb for development is 80% planning and 20% production. 80% planning + 20% production
  4. 4. Unit 2: The Multimedia Development ProcessUnit 2: The Multimedia Development Process IntroIntroMultimediaMultimedia 4 Stages of a Multimedia ProjectStages of a Multimedia Project Stage 1 Planning and Costing Stage 1 Planning and Costing Stage 2 Design and Production Stage 2 Design and Production Stage 3 Testing Stage 3 Testing Stage 4 Delivery Stage 4 Delivery Four stages of a multimedia project
  5. 5. Unit 2: The Multimedia Development ProcessUnit 2: The Multimedia Development Process IntroIntroMultimediaMultimedia • Planning and costing – Determine the messages and objectives of the project – Identify how each message and objective may work within the authoring system – Before begin developing, plan what writing skills, graphic art, music, video, and other multimedia expertise will be required – Develop a creative graphic look and feel, as well as a structure and navigation system that will let the user visit the messages and content – Estimate the time needed to do all elements – Prepare a budget 5 Stages of a MultimediaStages of a Multimedia Project: OverviewProject: Overview
  6. 6. Unit 2: The Multimedia Development ProcessUnit 2: The Multimedia Development Process IntroIntroMultimediaMultimedia • Designing and producing – Perform each of the planned tasks to create a finished product – There may be many feedback cycles with a client until the client is happy • Testing – Always test the programs / applications to ensure they meet the objectives of the project, they work properly on the intended delivery platforms, and they meet the needs of the client or end user • Delivering – Package and deliver the project to the end user 6 Stages of a MultimediaStages of a Multimedia Project: OverviewProject: Overview
  7. 7. Unit 2: The Multimedia Development ProcessUnit 2: The Multimedia Development Process IntroIntroMultimediaMultimedia 7 Planning and CostingPlanning and Costing • To determine objectives / purposes of a project, we may ask: – How will users be using this product? – What will users gain from this product? – What types of features will be most useful to the users? – Why will users visit this web site (if the product is a web site)? – Which browser / platform will users use to access this web site (if the product is a web site)?
  8. 8. Unit 2: The Multimedia Development ProcessUnit 2: The Multimedia Development Process IntroIntroMultimediaMultimedia 8 Planning and CostingPlanning and Costing • Target audience – The designers should always focus on the user and tailor product to meet the user’s needs and wants. – The designer needs to get a clear picture about how the target audience will use the product. This can be accomplished through in-person interviews, online surveys, and various focus groups. – Users like to feel in control; give users opportunity to choose or create their own experience. – Categorization on audience might be useful. Examples: age, gender, income range, language, nationality, disability, computer literacy
  9. 9. Unit 2: The Multimedia Development ProcessUnit 2: The Multimedia Development Process IntroIntroMultimediaMultimedia Planning and CostingPlanning and Costing • Target audience 9 Case Study Product: A web site of an Italian café Objective: Introduces tiramisu recipes Target audience may be categorized as follows: • People from Italy • People from elsewhere in the world • Experienced tiramisu cooks • Inexperienced tiramisu cooks SSelf- elf-SStudy tudy SSlide lide
  10. 10. Unit 2: The Multimedia Development ProcessUnit 2: The Multimedia Development Process IntroIntroMultimediaMultimedia 10 Planning and CostingPlanning and Costing • A plan that outlines the required multimedia expertise is prepared. • A graphic template, the organizational structure and the navigational system are developed. • A time estimate, a manpower estimate and a budget are prepared. • Time, money, and people are the three elements that can vary in project estimates.
  11. 11. Unit 2: The Multimedia Development ProcessUnit 2: The Multimedia Development Process IntroIntroMultimediaMultimedia Planning and CostingPlanning and Costing • Critical Path Method (CPM) is used to calculate the total duration of a project based upon each identified task. • Critical tasks are also identified using CPM. • Critical tasks, if lengthened, will result in a delay in project completion. • CPM scheduling functions are usually included in project management software. 11
  12. 12. Unit 2: The Multimedia Development ProcessUnit 2: The Multimedia Development Process IntroIntroMultimediaMultimedia Planning and CostingPlanning and Costing • Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT) charts are used to show task relationships. Prerequisites for each task can be observed easily. • A Gantt chart is used to illustrate the project schedule by depicting all the tasks along a timeline. • Example of project management software: Microsoft Project 12
  13. 13. Unit 2: The Multimedia Development ProcessUnit 2: The Multimedia Development Process IntroIntroMultimediaMultimedia Planning and CostingPlanning and Costing Task Duration (Weeks) A 3 B 4 C 1 D 2 E 2 F 3 13 CPM PERT SSelf- elf-SStudy tudy SSlide lide
  14. 14. Unit 2: The Multimedia Development ProcessUnit 2: The Multimedia Development Process IntroIntroMultimediaMultimedia 14 Planning and CostingPlanning and Costing Gantt Chart SSelf- elf-SStudy tudy SSlide lide
  15. 15. Unit 2: The Multimedia Development ProcessUnit 2: The Multimedia Development Process IntroIntroMultimediaMultimedia Planning and CostingPlanning and Costing • Flowcharts – provide a graphical representation of how the information within the application is organized and flows – are used to illustrate interactivity – can be modified as the application evolves 15
  16. 16. Unit 2: The Multimedia Development ProcessUnit 2: The Multimedia Development Process IntroIntroMultimediaMultimedia Planning and CostingPlanning and Costing • Storyboards – are diagrams showing the layouts of all screens – describe the content and sequence of each screen – specify how multimedia elements are positioned on each screen 16
  17. 17. Unit 2: The Multimedia Development ProcessUnit 2: The Multimedia Development Process IntroIntroMultimediaMultimedia 17 Planning and CostingPlanning and Costing • Organizational structure is the way in which information is organized. • Four main types of organizational structure: – Hierarchical organizational structure – Nonlinear organizational structure – Linear organizational structure – Database-driven organizational structure
  18. 18. Unit 2: The Multimedia Development ProcessUnit 2: The Multimedia Development Process IntroIntroMultimediaMultimedia 18 Planning and CostingPlanning and Costing • Hierarchical organizational structure – Top-down approach – Sets and subsets of information form a hierarchy. – Information is chunked down from most important or general to least important. – Can be “broad and shallow” or “deep and narrow”
  19. 19. Unit 2: The Multimedia Development ProcessUnit 2: The Multimedia Development Process IntroIntroMultimediaMultimedia 19 Planning and CostingPlanning and Costing • A deep and narrow hierarchical organizational structure provides deep knowledge on a few topics.
  20. 20. Unit 2: The Multimedia Development ProcessUnit 2: The Multimedia Development Process IntroIntroMultimediaMultimedia Planning and CostingPlanning and Costing • A broad and shallow hierarchical organizational structure provides a little information on many topics. 20
  21. 21. Unit 2: The Multimedia Development ProcessUnit 2: The Multimedia Development Process IntroIntroMultimediaMultimedia 21 Planning and CostingPlanning and Costing • Nonlinear organizational structure: – No prescribed or sequential path – Information is linked from one discrete piece of information to another. Most information on the Web is read nonsequentially, so most web sites use a nonlinear organizational structure.
  22. 22. Unit 2: The Multimedia Development ProcessUnit 2: The Multimedia Development Process IntroIntroMultimediaMultimedia 22 Planning and CostingPlanning and Costing • Linear organizational structure: – Traditional method of navigation with a set sequence – Organizes information sequentially – Examples: training sites, online slide shows The linear organizational structure is an uncommon method for organizing information on the Web because most web sites have no set path or sequence that must be followed.
  23. 23. Unit 2: The Multimedia Development ProcessUnit 2: The Multimedia Development Process IntroIntroMultimediaMultimedia 23 Planning and CostingPlanning and Costing • Database-driven organizational structure – Increasingly popular – Large volume of short bits of information – Sites that use internal search engines use databases. – Examples: library, research, and e-commerce sites Data Containers Any web site that includes an internal search engine uses a database-driven organizational structure.
  24. 24. Unit 2: The Multimedia Development ProcessUnit 2: The Multimedia Development Process IntroIntroMultimediaMultimedia Planning and CostingPlanning and Costing • Discrete and short bits of information are appropriate for online viewing because very few users will spend time reading long passages of text onscreen. • Inclusions of site maps and link maps are helpful to users. 24
  25. 25. Unit 2: The Multimedia Development ProcessUnit 2: The Multimedia Development Process IntroIntroMultimediaMultimedia Planning and CostingPlanning and Costing • Site Maps – provide an overview of the organizational structure of a multimedia application / web site – can be used at the planning stage to help the designer see the big picture – are often included in the final products so users can view the overall structure – may be graphical in nature, or in a text-based menu format – Many web-authoring programs will generate site maps. 25 SSelf- elf-SStudy tudy SSlide lide
  26. 26. Unit 2: The Multimedia Development ProcessUnit 2: The Multimedia Development Process IntroIntroMultimediaMultimedia Planning and CostingPlanning and Costing A site map provides an overview of the web site’s structure. 26 SSelf- elf-SStudy tudy SSlide lide
  27. 27. Unit 2: The Multimedia Development ProcessUnit 2: The Multimedia Development Process IntroIntroMultimediaMultimedia Planning and CostingPlanning and Costing • Link Maps – illustrate the interconnectivity of web pages within the web site as well as the links to external sites and all of the multimedia elements included within the web site 27 A link map provides an overview of the web site’s links. SSelf- elf-SStudy tudy SSlide lide
  28. 28. Unit 2: The Multimedia Development ProcessUnit 2: The Multimedia Development Process IntroIntroMultimediaMultimedia Planning and CostingPlanning and Costing • Navigational Structure – The navigational structure is the means through which the users will know where they are, where they have been, and where they want to go. – It’s imperative to offer simple, consistent navigation available from every page. – Frames divide the screen / page into multiple regions. Normally, one region of the screen / page remains constant. – Navigational bars are found on many multimedia applications / web sites. 28
  29. 29. Unit 2: The Multimedia Development ProcessUnit 2: The Multimedia Development Process IntroIntroMultimediaMultimedia Planning and CostingPlanning and Costing • Navigational Structure – Hub and spokes is a cumbersome navigation method, which relies too heavily on the browser’s back button, as the users must return to the home page to go to the other pages of web site. – With a search feature, users navigate directly to their content of interest. The user can enter specific search terms. – The directed navigational structure is efficient because the site becomes tailored to the user. The user is asked to provide information when entering the site, and then information is available to the user based on their initial input. 29
  30. 30. Unit 2: The Multimedia Development ProcessUnit 2: The Multimedia Development Process IntroIntroMultimediaMultimedia Planning and CostingPlanning and Costing This frame-based web site uses the left frame to establish a consistent navigational structure that remains constant from screen to screen. 30
  31. 31. Unit 2: The Multimedia Development ProcessUnit 2: The Multimedia Development Process IntroIntroMultimediaMultimedia Planning and CostingPlanning and Costing There are many different types of navigation bars, including text only, buttons, and tabs. 31 The hub and spokes navigational structure should be avoided because it forces the user to rely too heavily on the browser’s Back button.
  32. 32. Unit 2: The Multimedia Development ProcessUnit 2: The Multimedia Development Process IntroIntroMultimediaMultimedia Planning and CostingPlanning and Costing Directed navigation makes choices for the user based on the user’s input. 32
  33. 33. Unit 2: The Multimedia Development ProcessUnit 2: The Multimedia Development Process IntroIntroMultimediaMultimedia 33 Design and ProductionDesign and Production • The structure and user interface (1) are designed, implemented and continuously refined. • Multimedia elements (text, graphics, animation, sound, video) are created. • Content is added. • Scripts are added. • The product is revised, based on the continuous feedback received from the client. (1) Issues about user interface will be discussed in Unit 3.
  34. 34. Unit 2: The Multimedia Development ProcessUnit 2: The Multimedia Development Process IntroIntroMultimediaMultimedia TestingTesting • It is important to test and review a project to ensure that: – the product is bug-free, accurate, and operationally and visually on target. – the client's requirements have been met. – the reputation of the developer/company is not damaged by a premature or erroneous release. 34
  35. 35. Unit 2: The Multimedia Development ProcessUnit 2: The Multimedia Development Process IntroIntroMultimediaMultimedia 35 TestingTesting • Alpha testing – An alpha release is the first working draft of a project and is only for internal circulation. – Alpha testing is usually done “in-house” by team members. – Alpha releases are expected to have problems or to be incomplete.
  36. 36. Unit 2: The Multimedia Development ProcessUnit 2: The Multimedia Development Process IntroIntroMultimediaMultimedia 36 TestingTesting • Beta testing – Beta testing is done with a wider array of testers. – Beta testers should be representative of real users and who were not involved with the actual production. – Beta level bugs are typically less virulent than alpha bugs. – Managing beta test feedback is critical.
  37. 37. Unit 2: The Multimedia Development ProcessUnit 2: The Multimedia Development Process IntroIntroMultimediaMultimedia TestingTesting • Terms that are used to indicate the version status of the project: – Bronze: close to being finished – Release candidate: approach a gold master – Gold master: nothing is left to change or correct; ready for mass production 37
  38. 38. Unit 2: The Multimedia Development ProcessUnit 2: The Multimedia Development Process IntroIntroMultimediaMultimedia 38 DeliveryDelivery • The final project is packaged and delivered to the end user. • Delivering the project on an optical disc (e.g.: CD-ROM, DVD-ROM) is the most popular method among multimedia developers. • Multimedia can also be delivered on the Web by hosting the pages on a web server.
  39. 39. Unit 2: The Multimedia Development ProcessUnit 2: The Multimedia Development Process IntroIntroMultimediaMultimedia DeliveryDelivery • Issues about delivery on the Web: – Every web site on the Web has a numeric address called an IP (Internet Protocol) address. IP address example: 134.39.42.57 – The domain name system allows people to use easy- to-remember names instead of long sequences of numbers to get to specific web sites. Domain name example: hkuspace.hku.hk – A domain name is a powerful marketing tool. We should select one that is easy to use and easy to remember. 39
  40. 40. Unit 2: The Multimedia Development ProcessUnit 2: The Multimedia Development Process IntroIntroMultimediaMultimedia DeliveryDelivery • Issues about delivery on the Web: – Once designed and named, the web site must be uploaded to a web server. – We can buy a web server and host our site in-house, or outsource to a web hosting company. – There are some free web hosting sites available, but many have limitations. 40
  41. 41. Unit 2: The Multimedia Development ProcessUnit 2: The Multimedia Development Process IntroIntroMultimediaMultimedia DeliveryDelivery • Some considerations for web hosting: – Storage space for web site – Connection bandwidth – Scripts and software to use to add features to the site – Technical support – Site administration – Security keeps data secure from hackers – Search engine registration service 41
  42. 42. Unit 2: The Multimedia Development ProcessUnit 2: The Multimedia Development Process IntroIntroMultimediaMultimedia ReferenceReference • Part of this slide set is prepared or/and extracted from the following book: – Multimedia For The Web Revealed, Calleen Coorough & Jim Shuman, Thomson Learning, 2006, ISBN:1-4188-3953-1 • This set of slides is for teaching purpose only. • Self-study slide(s) is / are within the scope of the final examination. 42

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