Career Education     An effective and cost-efficient solution     to increase access to career guidance              in So...
A quick overview …         (1) (Re)discovery of career guidance      (2) Delivery models of guidance provision(3) Career E...
(Re)discovery       ofcareer guidance
A trend also in EU                                                   neighbouring countries                               ...
Upward – Downward                                     Trend by countries                                             Preli...
KEY                                        FEATURES   CAREER GUIDANCE IS MOVING UP THE POLICY    AGENDA though provision ...
Delivery modelsof guidance provision
Delivery models                                    of career guidance                                                    (...
Paradigm shift                                  in career guidance…has started in EU and OECD countries(in policy making a...
Career Education -an attractive and valid option
BUT: Career education often marginalised
Triple role                                   career education                                     can have ……as a deliver...
Relevance of Career Education       in relation to EU Council Resolution on               Lifelong Guidance (2008)  Career...
Effectiveness and cost-                                                  efficiencyEvaluation / research on this topic lim...
Challenges and critical issues                             for career education… some challenges with a ´whole school´ app...
Examples fromEU neighbouring countries
TURKEY   Guidance Oriented Curriculum (GOC)    - a developmental and holistic approach to education-    7 competence area...
KOSOVO                                                  (UNSCR 1244,1999)    Piloting career education (EU funded project,...
Other                                 country examples Albania – compulsory subject called ´career education´   (edukimi ...
EU and internationalexamples of career education
FINLAND Career Education integrated in  National Curricula –          as a compulsory subject for  students in comprehens...
ESTONIA ´Career guidance´ as integrated theme in National Curriculumsince 1996 (as of 2011 ´Lifelong learning and career ...
SCOTLAND Schools are key deliverers of guidance    for young people (across all curriculum areas,    embedded; schools an...
NEW ZEALAND                             Career Education in schools                                                 Career...
NEW ZEALANDCareer Education in schools Source: Karen Vaughan (IAEVG Conference Cape Town 2011)                            ...
Other examples Singapore – introduced in late 1980s a model  more based on career education than on career  counselling; ...
Making career education work = Passion + Vision + Action    If you have vision and action but no passion you will be      ...
Thank you for your attention !      For further information      please visit our website         www.etf.europa.euOr ETF ...
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Career education for South-Eastern Europe, 08th Nov 2011, Part 2

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Helmut Zeloth presents on the topic: "Career Education: An effective and cost-efficient solution to increase access to career guidance in South-East Europe". The conference is organised in cooperation between European Training Foundation, ELGPN and Euroguidance Bulgaria.

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Career education for South-Eastern Europe, 08th Nov 2011, Part 2

  1. 1. Career Education An effective and cost-efficient solution to increase access to career guidance in South-East Europe´Career Education for South-Eastern Europe – Investment in Youth for Sustainable Economic Growth´ Joint Euroguidance-ELGPN-ETF Conference Sofia, 8 November 2011 Helmut Zelloth, ETF Senior Human Capital Development Specialist
  2. 2. A quick overview … (1) (Re)discovery of career guidance (2) Delivery models of guidance provision(3) Career Education – an attractive and valid option (4) Examples from EU neighbouring countries (5) EU and international experience
  3. 3. (Re)discovery ofcareer guidance
  4. 4. A trend also in EU neighbouring countries … for example … … Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Serbia, Montenegro, Albania, Kosovo (UNSCR 1244,1999) … and also in … … Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan ...Zelloth H. (2009), In demand: Career guidance in EU neighbouring countries
  5. 5. Upward – Downward Trend by countries Preliminary mapping 14 (Serbia, Montenegro, Kosovo, Croatia, Turkey, IcelanUPWARD trend d, Albania, former Yugoslav Republic of ↑ Macedonia, Ukraine, Georgia, Jordan, Lebanon, Egy pt, Syria)Upward – 8 (Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, Israel, Occupiedstagnation Palestinian Territory, Russia, Kyrgyzstan, Azerbaijan) ↑→ Stagnation – downward 1 (Bosnia and Herzegovina) →↓UNKNOWN 7 (Kazakhstan, Uzbzekistan, Taijikistan, Turkmenistan, Moldova, Armenia, Belarus )
  6. 6. KEY FEATURES CAREER GUIDANCE IS MOVING UP THE POLICY AGENDA though provision remains very limited (strategic frameworks adopted or emerging; policy co- ordination increasingly viewed as essential; new willingness to pilot or introduce services) LEVELS OF POLICY PROFILE (policy interest + policy priority) varies across countries and there is some correlation with geographical regions HOME-GROWN versus DONOR-DRIVEN career guidance development DIFFERENT APPROACHES AND DELIVERY MODELS (Psychological versus pedagogical; Centre approach dominant as well as Specialist versus Semi- specialist approach; Curriculum approach and Virtual approach underutilised)
  7. 7. Delivery modelsof guidance provision
  8. 8. Delivery models of career guidance (ZELLOTH 2009) (1) Compulsory subject ‘career education’ or similarCURRICULUM (2) Compulsory part of (an)other subject(s)MODEL (3) Compulsory curriculum principle (all or several subjects) (4) Elective subject ‘career education’ or similar (5) Part of (an)other elective subject(s) (6) Part of curricular activities (eg guidance programme) (7) Part of extra-curricular activities (eg career fairs)CENTRE (1) Centre inside school/universityMODEL (2) Centre outside school/university specifically for students (3) Centre for unemployed inside public employment services (4) Centre for all citizens – in- or outside educational or labour market settingsINDIVIDUAL (1) Specialist inside school / university / employment servicesMODEL (school counsellor, school psychologist or pedagogue, social worker, guidance specialist in employment offices) (2) Semi-specialist inside school / university / employment services (eg class teacher, subject teacher, (deputy)director, employment counsellor, generic career coordinator or career adviser)VIRTUAL or (1) Self-help facility at schools / public employment services /WEB-MODEL local communities (2) Web-based interactive (individual through Internet)
  9. 9. Paradigm shift in career guidance…has started in EU and OECD countries(in policy making and the academic community, less in practice / influencing also EU neighbouring countries)  from intervention at key points in life to a lifelong perspective  from psychological ‘testing’ to pedagogical «tasting the world of work»  from external expert support to career (self)-management skills  from individual guidance to group-and self-help approaches 9
  10. 10. Career Education -an attractive and valid option
  11. 11. BUT: Career education often marginalised
  12. 12. Triple role career education can have ……as a delivery method of career guidance … if well developed …  significantly enhancing access to guidance (eg covering not only few individuals but entire generation of students in schools, other educational settings, including training for the unemployed)  developmental, experimential and process role (career guidance as a continuum over time, a process which allows to ´learn´and is not limited to isolated, single-off interventions)  empowerment role for the individual (through career management skills the individual can be empowered to manage various transitions and to become/remain employable throughout life) 12
  13. 13. Relevance of Career Education in relation to EU Council Resolution on Lifelong Guidance (2008) Career Accessmanagement by all skills citizens Quality Co-ordination assurance andof provision co-operation
  14. 14. Effectiveness and cost- efficiencyEvaluation / research on this topic limited, butexperience suggests that Career Education1. Tends to be less expensive (eg elective subject in the curriculum)2. Can be more cost-efficient (eg through covering a larger number of population/students)3. Tends to motivate (eg students frquently like the subject, sessions)4. Can achieve longlasting effects
  15. 15. Challenges and critical issues for career education… some challenges with a ´whole school´ approach … Teachers tend to prepare students for exams Students and teachers might give less importance as it usually attracts no credits Careers component might depend on goodwill / energy of teacher (Re)training of teachers is often not sufficient Need to aquire competences for career education already in initial teacher training Teachers´ (extra) pay
  16. 16. Examples fromEU neighbouring countries
  17. 17. TURKEY Guidance Oriented Curriculum (GOC) - a developmental and holistic approach to education- 7 competence areas in the guidance programs (integrated in the subject curriculum of basic and secondary education, grades 1-12) among these areas are ´Orientation to the school and environment, ´Academic and career guidance´, ´Interpersonal relations´ etc- Special orientation and guidance class in the 9th grade as part of the guidance program with specific focus on career guidance (before choosing general or vocational pathways)- Guidance practitioner in schools has the coordination and consultation role- Classroom teacher conducts the program- 17,000 guidance practitioners in the country- No impact research available, recent master thesis explored certain variables of effectiveness of GOC
  18. 18. KOSOVO (UNSCR 1244,1999) Piloting career education (EU funded project, started 2007/08 as elective subject in the curriculum , in the 9th grade (so-called ‘orientation year’), 16 hours/year in 34 pilot schools; decision made to expand pilots- Monitoring and evaluation shows that students and teachers are hugely dedicated and enthusiastic about new subject- triggered off further interest in career education by other classes in the same schools- many teachers/some directors wished to have it as compulsory subject (as elective subject bears risk to get crowded out)- cost-efficient solution (rough calculation 2 Euro per student per year; as elective subject even ´zero cost´) Curriculum framework for career education developed for grades 6-13; still to be approved
  19. 19. Other country examples Albania – compulsory subject called ´career education´ (edukimi per karrieren) was introduced in core curricula of gymnasia and vocational schools in 2010/11 (11th and 12th grade); career education syllabus has 54 hours (36 for career and 18 for entrepreneurship); Delivered by social science or economics teachers Montenegro – planning to strengthen guidance in education as part of an EU project on ´Labour Markt Reform and Workforce Development´; touching upon school work plans, role of school +*psychologists / pedagogues, integration in curricula of primary and secondary schools Ukraine - ´labour lessons´in a separate subject ´Occupations of Today´from the 5th grade onwards contain some elements of career guidance + class-teacher hours are sometimes used for guidance
  20. 20. EU and internationalexamples of career education
  21. 21. FINLAND Career Education integrated in National Curricula – as a compulsory subject for students in comprehensive schools (since 1970s) and in upper secondary general and vocational education (1980s) Time allocation - distribution of hours to career education classes: lessons 2.5 hours in comprehensive education during grades 7-9; 1 obligatory and 1 specialisation course during 3 years in upper secondary general education; minimum 1.5 study weeks in vocational education) Curriculum Guidelines – each school must produce a plan indicating how the relevant goals are to be reached both by the school counsellors and by all teachers, parents must have opportunity to be involved
  22. 22. ESTONIA ´Career guidance´ as integrated theme in National Curriculumsince 1996 (as of 2011 ´Lifelong learning and career planning´as cross-curricular topic in the new National Curriculum for basicand upper secondary school) Elective subject ´Careers education´ at basic schools (3rdstage) and in upper secondary schools; length 35 lessons; syllabusset by the National Curriculum Content of learning: knowledge of oneself and its importance incareer planning; knowledge of career information; planning anddecision-making
  23. 23. SCOTLAND Schools are key deliverers of guidance for young people (across all curriculum areas, embedded; schools and local authorities are supported by ´Careers Scotland´) – Career Information, Advice and Guidance Service (CEIAG) Strategy 2011 Curriculum for Excellence - a framework for learning and teaching- within ´Developing skills for learning, skills for life and skills for work´ the areas of ´personal learning planning and career management skills´ are included- involves students about the world of work, helping them to make connections between learning and work, and enabling them at all stages to develop self-awareness and develop an understanding of the important transition periods in their life
  24. 24. NEW ZEALAND Career Education in schools Career Education legallyOLD MODEL: Careers Advisors required in schoolscoordinate careers activities - for students Y7 and aboveNEW MODEL: Careers Advisors work with - especially students at risk ofSubject Teachers as well as coordinate leaving schools unpreparedcareers activities and provide guidance Career Management Competencies for young people in 21st century (linked to curriculum, are a framework and foundation for designing career education and guidance programs in schools) 1. Developing Self-Awareness 2. Exploring Opportunities 3. Deciding and Acting Demands rich learning opportunities and engaging pedagogies
  25. 25. NEW ZEALANDCareer Education in schools Source: Karen Vaughan (IAEVG Conference Cape Town 2011) Learning programmes STAR courses Gateway Industry units Careers units Info & guidance 1:1 guidance Information distribution Activities & events Careers expos Tertiary campus visits Guest speakers Work experience Testing & planning
  26. 26. Other examples Singapore – introduced in late 1980s a model more based on career education than on career counselling; ´Education and Career Guidance (ECG) Programme, with primary schools focusing on career awareness; secondary schools on career exploration; and upper secondary schools on career planning; delivered through a variety of means, including career education lessons, counselling, projects and career portfolios Canada – developed creative career education resources (eg ´The Real Game´) and a framework for developing career management skills (´Blueprint´); career education varies much across provinces; guidance counsellors are mostly licensed teachers; in Quebec the concept of ´guidance-oriented school´was developed – collaboration teachers and guidance professionals and true partnerships with parents and community
  27. 27. Making career education work = Passion + Vision + Action If you have vision and action but no passion you will be mediocre………………..If you have passion and action but no vision you will reach the wrong goal……….... If you have passion and vision but no action you will be daydreaming …………..
  28. 28. Thank you for your attention ! For further information please visit our website www.etf.europa.euOr ETF in the city of Turin (Italy)

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