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End Of The Cold War[1]


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End Of The Cold War[1]

  1. 1. End of the Cold War <ul><li>Iranian Revolution and Islamic fervor- Invasion of Afghanistan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. supports Afghanistan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic success in western Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communism takes a defensive role </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1978- China participates in the world economy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gain international investment and rapid growth </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Jimmy Carter points out deficiencies </li></ul><ul><li>Ronald Reagan “the evil empire” and massive military spending </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reagan Doctrine: anticommunism </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Intense reform, political movements in eastern Europe dismantled the Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><li>Forced industrialization- environmental problems, diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Production stagnated </li></ul><ul><li>Growing inadequacy for health care and housing </li></ul>
  4. 4. Reform <ul><li>More participation in world market </li></ul><ul><li>Opening of McDonald’s symbolized economic change </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial </li></ul><ul><li>Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Russia </li></ul>
  5. 5. Gorbachev’s Reforms <ul><ul><li>Western style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relatively open press conferences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction in arms production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ended the war in Afghanistan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glasnost (openness) new freedom to criticize and comment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced bureaucratic inefficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More decentralized decision making </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limits on political freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced isolation while criticizing Western politics and social structure </li></ul>
  6. 6. Perestroika <ul><li>Economic restructuring </li></ul><ul><li>More leeway for private ownership and decentralized control in industry and agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraged foreign investment </li></ul><ul><li>Self help </li></ul>
  7. 8. Gorbachev’s Politics <ul><li>1988 new constitution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abolished communist monopoly on elections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposition groups develop in response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radicals vs conservatives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Reform and economic stagnation caused tension </li></ul>
  8. 9. Women “return to their purely womanly missions”
  9. 10. Tearing it Down <ul><li>Bulgaria (1987) economic liberalization </li></ul><ul><li>Hungary installed noncommie president, and free market </li></ul><ul><li>Poland- non commie, and dismantled state run economy </li></ul><ul><li>East Germany 1989 </li></ul><ul><li>Wall down in 1990 </li></ul>
  10. 11. Effects of the Dismantling <ul><li>Sluggish production, pollution, and economic problems leads to political and social discontent </li></ul><ul><li>Free market in Poland= unemployment and price increases </li></ul><ul><li>Gorbachev “any nation has the right to decide its fate by itself.” </li></ul>
  11. 12. Back to Russia <ul><li>1991 Yeltsin proclaims the end of Soviet Union and the beginning of a republic </li></ul><ul><li>But what would happen with the economy now that the state is not involved? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hesitancy to convert to a complete market system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Yeltsin loses power as the economy goes down </li></ul><ul><li>Many Russians wanted a return to state operated economy </li></ul>
  12. 13. Rise of Democracy <ul><li>1970s- trend of democracy in regions where it was once shunned </li></ul><ul><li>Fall of communism reflected and encouraged the trend of democracy </li></ul><ul><li>1980s Taiwan, South Korea, and Philippines embraced the democratic idea </li></ul><ul><li>By 1990s nearly all of Latin America was democratic </li></ul><ul><li>Dismantling Apartheid helped bring democracy in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>American invasion in Iraq brought some ideas of democracy to the Middle East </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kuwait granted women the vote </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Limits of Democracy <ul><li>China made movements toward democracy in the late 80s – Tianamen Square </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy seemed linked to the economy </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic systems struggled against poverty and social unrest </li></ul><ul><li>Despite all of this, never had there been such an international agreement on political standards </li></ul>
  14. 15. Problems Emerge <ul><li>The Soviet totalitarian government kept the lid on social, ethnic, and religious conflict, once it fell… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Czechs vs Slovaks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serbs and Croats </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acts of Genocide </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic “cleansing” </li></ul>
  15. 16. 1994 & 1999 Chechnya <ul><ul><li>Chechnya </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. 1976: Cambodia
  17. 18. 1976: Cambodia
  18. 22. 1994: Rwanda
  19. 23. Now: Darfur Clip
  20. 24. Old School Problems <ul><li>Israeli-Palestinian conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Iraq, Iran, and Kuwait </li></ul><ul><li>India and Pakistan </li></ul>
  21. 25. Ethnic Issues <ul><li>Ethnic issues had always existed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some groups increased their investment in ethnic identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global interaction allowed from hostilities to generate among groups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Migration of workers in to Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear of foreigners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition for jobs </li></ul></ul>