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Cold War


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Cold War

  1. 2. US During the Cold War <ul><li>Marshall Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grants US substantial leverage in the west </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NATO- North Atlantic Treaty Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Warsaw Pact (eastern version of NATO) </li></ul><ul><li>US involvement in Canada, Australia, and NZ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First it was invited, but eventually they wanted to remove the American influence </li></ul></ul>
  2. 3. The “US Century?” <ul><li>Defenders of capitalism and democracy </li></ul><ul><li>US becomes the new world police, replacing Great Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Truman promised: “free peoples who are resisting subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressure.” </li></ul><ul><li>CIA formed to monitor the world </li></ul><ul><li>Eisenhower’s policy of containment </li></ul><ul><li>US emerges as the only super power at the end of the cold war </li></ul>
  3. 4. Women’s Revolution: WEST <ul><li>More schooling, </li></ul><ul><li>New working patterns for women- WWII as the catalyst- women wanted jobs for consumer items </li></ul><ul><li>Vote </li></ul><ul><li>Access to divorce </li></ul><ul><li>Desire for higher standard of living limited children </li></ul>
  4. 5. New Feminism <ul><li>Feminist Mystique and The Second Sex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressed for more literal equality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Redefinitions of what it means to be male and female </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Western Culture <ul><li>US “Coca-colanization” of Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Critics of western culture because of its superficiality and distracting people from social problems </li></ul><ul><li>But no reactions like the Nazis had </li></ul><ul><li>Western culture helped set the standard for global cultural standards </li></ul>
  6. 8. Cold War: Soviet Union <ul><li>Foreign Policy under Stalin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regain tsarist boundaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active role in European diplomacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy industry and weapons development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Links to communist movements </li></ul></ul>
  7. 9. Cold War: Soviet Union <ul><li>The Soviet Empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collectivization and industrialization of its new satellites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soviet and eastern European trading zone was separate from the trends of international commerce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tensions in Germany caused many to flee to the West- Berlin Wall 1961 </li></ul></ul>
  8. 15. Soviet Domestic Policy <ul><li>US blasted as an evil power and fear of another war caused many citizens to agitate for a strong government </li></ul><ul><li>The attitude allowed Stalin to continue to shield the people from contact with foreigners </li></ul>
  9. 16. Soviet Culture <ul><li>Declared war on the Orthodox Church and other religions beginning in 1917 </li></ul><ul><li>Education used to train, recruit, but indoctrinate </li></ul><ul><li>May Day parades- devotion to the state </li></ul><ul><li>Marxist view of history- class struggle </li></ul><ul><li>Attacked western style of art and literature </li></ul>
  10. 17. Soviet Culture <ul><li>Literature was diverse, despite Writer Union controls </li></ul><ul><li>Gulag Archipelago: author banned from Soviet Union moved to the west but unhappy there </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on science and social science </li></ul><ul><li>Culture was not traditional nor western </li></ul>
  11. 18. Soviet Economy and Society <ul><li>Soviet Modernization had unique features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State control of all sectors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imbalance between heavy industry goods and consumer goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Complaints about poor consumer goods and long lines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Capital went towards heavy industry and armaments and not farming industry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Not domestic idealization of women </li></ul>
  12. 19. Industry: East-West Patterns <ul><li>Speed up the pace of work </li></ul><ul><li>Incentive systems </li></ul><ul><li>Similar leisure activities </li></ul><ul><li>Urban society divided among class lines </li></ul><ul><li>Mass movement to the city </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced nuclear unit </li></ul><ul><li>Patterns of childbearing- promote child’s education </li></ul>
  13. 20. De-Stalinization <ul><li>Despite Stalin’s death the Soviet Union remained in-tact </li></ul><ul><li>Krushchev </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attacked concentration of power and arbitrary dictatorship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More tolerant political climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decentralization of decision making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Party control and economy remained centralized </li></ul></ul>
  14. 21. Krushchev’s Russia <ul><li>No desire for war- peaceful coexistence </li></ul><ul><li>Cautious diplomacy </li></ul><ul><li>Sputnik </li></ul><ul><li>Little incentive to work </li></ul><ul><li>Youth rebellion- access to western culture </li></ul>
  15. 22. Communist Collapse <ul><li>Many rejoiced but many were disoriented </li></ul><ul><li>What would replace the system that dominated for so many years? </li></ul>
  16. 23. Conclusions <ul><li>Tensions between US and USSR gave other countries the opportunity to play the countries against each other for their own gain </li></ul><ul><li>Western and Soviet influences were not always contradictory </li></ul>