Paraphrasing Paraphrasing = putting something in your own words Paraphrase is often combined with quotation. Summarizing involves picking out the most important ideas and paraphrasing them (along with an occasional quotation). Quotation marks are not used, but the source must be credited for paraphrases
Imitation This is a form of plagiarism Literal paraphrase—changing some of the words to synonyms Wording too close to the original – merely rearranging the order and form of some of the words.
Example: Rearranging words “It’s increasingly clear that the biggest roadblock to improving the achievement of U.S. students is violence and disorder in our schools.” Albert Shanker Albert Shanker believes that clearly, we can increasingly realize that disorder and violence constitute the biggest roadblock for U.S. schools who want to improve their students’ achievement.
Example: Literal Paraphrase “It’s increasingly clear that the biggest roadblock to improving the achievement of U.S. students is violence and disorder in our schools.” Albert Shanker According to Albert Shanker, it becomes constantly more apparent that the largest hurdle to bettering the performance of American students is violent and disorderly behavior in our schools.
Example: Literal Paraphrase with a Thesaurus “It’s increasingly clear that the biggest roadblock to improving the achievement of U.S. students is violence and disorder in our schools.” Albert Shanker Shanker professes progressively unambiguously that the prevalent barricade to humanizing the triumph of U.S. students is carnage and mayhem in our schools.
How can you avoid imitation? One of the best ways is to read a passage, then look away and try to recall the important points from memory. This makes it difficult to remember the original well enough to imitate it.
Potential problem If the passage is very difficult and you can’t fully understand it you may have problems with Misreading Guessing Projection Leaving things out
Simplification method Make the sentences simpler. Paraphrase a sentence at a time using your own words and sentence structure. Drop any non-essential ideas. Combine the sentences. Add the source’s name and edit to make transitions,vary sentence structure, re-order and combine short sentences.
Inducing soldiers to comply with dangerous orders, inshort, is mostly an emotional game with mirrors, requiringpsychological sleight of hand. At the decisive moments,effective leadership consists in persuasively redefining thesituation, reconstructing the soldiers’ sense of reality, sothat what initially seems a foolhardy or even suicidalcourse of action comes to seem possible, evenindispensable. By Mark J. Osiel
Simpler sentences Inducing soldiers to comply with dangerous orders can be compared to an emotional game with mirrors. It requires psychological sleight of hand. Effective leadership consists in persuasively redefining the situation. Redefining the situation involves reconstructing the soldier’s sense of reality.
Simpler sentences continued Under this reconstruction of reality, what initially seems a foolhardy or even suicidal course of action is viewed differently. It comes to seem possible, even indispensable.
Paraphrase each sentence Inducing soldiers Getting soldiers to to comply with follow dangerous dangerous orders orders without question involves can be compared tricking them and to an emotional manipulating their game with emotions. mirrors.
Itrequires It is necessary to psychological mislead them. sleight of hand.
Effective Persuading them leadership to view the consists in situation in a persuasively different way from redefining the their instinctive situation. response is a crucial skill for military officers.
Redefining the The soldier must be situation involves made to believe, reconstructing the through the skills of soldier’s sense of his commanding reality. officer, that the reality is different from what he perceives.
Under this The soldiers’ reconstruction of opinions are reality, what changed so what initially seems a at first appeared foolhardy or even reckless, suicidal course of desperate, or action is viewed likely to cost their differently. lives, is accepted.
It comes to seem The soldier now possible, even thinks that the indispensable. mission is not only achievable but necessary; the order is made to seem the only plausible one.
Put it together Getting soldiers to follow dangerous orders involves tricking them and manipulating their emotions. It is necessary to mislead them. Persuading them to view the situation in a different way from their instinctive response is a crucial skill for military officers. The soldier must be made to believe, through the skills of his commanding officer, that the reality is different from what he perceives. The soldiers’ opinions are changed so what at first appeared reckless, desperate or likely to cost their lives is accepted. The soldier now thinks that the mission is not only achievable but necessary; the order is made to seem the only plausible one.
Add source’s name and revise Because people are instinctively reluctant to risk their lives, Mark Osiel believes that a crucial leadership skill for military officers is the ability to persuade soldiers to reinterpret dangerous situations. Getting soldiers to follow orders involves tricking them and manipulating their emotions. Through the skills of the commanding officer, the soldiers must be made to feel that what at first appeared reckless, desperate or likely to cost their lives is not only a plausible course of action but a necessary one.
Breakdown/build-up There is also a more time-consuming and extreme version of this technique. It is worthwhile to use when paraphrasing important points for students who have trouble paraphrasing without plagiarism. It is also useful for helping anyone understand a difficult passage.
Breakdown/build-up Break the sentences down into smaller units of meaning. Using a dictionary (or, with caution, a thesaurus) as necessary, try to find another way of saying each unit Eliminate non-essential units Recombine the rephrased units without looking back at the original.
Al Shanker: “It’sincreasingly clear that the biggest roadblock to improving the achievement of U.S. students is violence and disorder in our schools.”
Step 1Something( A) is A= Something (B)increasingly clear is the biggest roadblock to doing something (C)B= Violence and C= Improving thedisorder in our achievement ofschools U.S. students
Step 2Something( A) is A is becomingincreasingly clear easier to see A is becoming more obvious as time passes
Step 2 A= Something B is the main(B) is the biggest obstacle to C; B isroadblock to the main thingdoing something standing in the(C) way of C; The continuation of B is preventing C; Getting rid of B is the key to C
Step 2 B= Violence and B = disruptive anddisorder in our violent students inschools the classrooms; B = classroom disturbances caused by those who start fights or misbehave
Step 2 C=- Improving C = helpingthe achievement American pupilsof US students learn better C= Increasing academic performance in American classrooms
Step 3 Take the materials in step two and use them to build a new sentence without looking back at the original. If you decide that one part is non- essential (such as the idea of becoming increasingly clear) you can leave it out
Some good paraphrases Getting rid of students who start fights, bring weapons to school, or distract other students is the key to improving student learning in America’s schools, claims Albert Shanker.
Some good paraphrases Albert Shanker argues that it is becoming more and more obvious that if we want to improve the academic performance of American students, we must first banish violence from our classrooms and re-establish order.
Some good paraphrases According to Albert Shanker, permitting disruptive and violent students to remain in American classrooms is the main thing that is preventing our students from learning more effectively.