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Time travel


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Time travel

  1. 1. Time travel
  2. 2. Introduction
  3. 3. Forward time travel• Ancient folk tales and myths sometimes involved something akin to travelling forward in time• He finds himself 300 years in the future• Another very old example of this type of story can be found in the Talmud with the story of HoniHaM ` agel who went to sleep for 70 years and woke up to a world where his grandchildren weregrandparents and where all his friends and family were dead
  4. 4. Backward time travel• Backwards time travel seems to be a more modern idea• One early story with hints of backwards time travel isMemoirs of the Twentieth Century by Samuel Madden• However, the framing story is that these letters were actualdocuments given to the narrator by his guardian angel onenight in 1728• Alkon qualifies this by writing• The narrator rides to ancient Greece on a hippogriff
  5. 5. Backward time travel• He encounters the Venerable Bede in a monastery• It is never entirely clear whether these events actually occurred or were merely a dream thenarrator says that when he initially found a comfortable-looking spot in the roots of the tree• A number of dreamlike elements of the story may suggest otherwise to the reader• The main character is transported into the prehistoric past by the magic of a lame demon• Another early example of backwards time travel in fiction is the short story The Clock ThatWent Backward by Edward Page Mitchell
  6. 6. Theory• Some theories, most notably special and general relativity, suggest that suitable geometries ofspacetime• Physicists avoid the commonplace language of moving or traveling through time• There are known to be solutions to the equations of general relativity that describe spacetimeswhich contain closed timelike curves• Relativity predicts that if one were to move away from the Earth at relativistic velocities andreturn• Many in the scientific community believe that backwards time travel is highly unlikely• Any theory that would allow time travel would require that problems of causality be resolved
  7. 7. Via faster-than-light (FTL) travel• There would be some inertial frame of reference in which the signal or object was movingbackward in time• This is a consequence of the relativity of simultaneity in special relativity• The mathematics of simultaneity ensures that all reference frames agree that the transmission-event happened before the reception-event• There would always be some frames in which the signal was received before it was sent• It must be possible in all frames• This means that if observer A sends a signal to observer B which moves FTL in A sframe butbackwards in time in B sframe
  8. 8. Using wormholes• A proposed time-travel machine using a traversable wormhole would work in the followingway: One end of the wormhole is accelerated to some significant fraction of the speed of light,perhaps with some advanced propulsion system, and then brought back to the point of origin• Another way is to take one entrance of the wormhole and move it to within the gravitationalfield of an object that has higher gravity than the other entrance• For both of these methods, time dilation causes the end of the wormhole that has been movedto have aged less than the stationary end, as seen by an external observer• This means that an observer entering the accelerated end would exit the stationary end whenthe stationary end was the same age that the accelerated end had been at the moment beforeentry• One significant limitation of such a time machine is that it is only possible to go as far back intime as the initial creation of the machine
  9. 9. Other approaches based on general relativity• Then a spaceship flying around the cylinder on a spiral path could travel back in time• Physicist Robert Forward noted that a na ve application of general relativity to quantummechanics suggests another way to build a time machine• A heavy atomic nucleus in a strong magnetic field would elongate into a cylinder• A more fundamental objection to time travel schemes based on rotating cylinders or cosmicstrings has been put forward by Stephen Hawking• This result comes from Hawking s1992 paper on the chronology protection conjecture• This theorem does not rule out the possibility of time travel 1 ) by means of time machines withthe non-compactly generated Cauchy horizons and 2 ) in regions which contain exotic matter
  10. 10. Experiments carried out• The experiment of Lijun Wang might also show causality violation since it made it possible tosend packages of waves through a bulb of caesium gas in such a way that the packageappeared to exit the bulb 62 nanoseconds before its entry• A wave package is not a single well-defined object but rather a sum of multiple waves ofdifferent frequencies• This effect can not be used to send any matter• The physicists G nter Nimtz and Alfons Stahlhofen, of the University of Koblenz, claim to haveviolated Einstein stheory of relativity by transmitting photons faster than the speed of light• Nimtz told New Scientist magazine: For the time being, this is the only violation of specialrelativity that I know of
  11. 11. Time travel to the future in physics• There are various ways in which a person could travel into the future in a limited sense: theperson could set things up so that in a small amount of his own subjective time, a large amountof subjective time has passed for other people on Earth• An observer might take a trip away from the Earth and back at relativistic velocities• It should be noted, though, that according to relativity there is no objective answer to thequestion of how much time really passed during the trip
  12. 12. Time travel to the future in physics• Time dilation is permitted by Albert Einstein sspecial and general theories of relativity• For example, a clock which is moving relative to the observer will be measured to run slow inthat observers rest frame• General relativity states that time dilation effects also occur if one clock is deeper in a gravitywell than the other, with the clock deeper in the well ticking more slowly• It has been calculated that ,under general relativity• There is a great deal of experimental evidence supporting the validity of equations for velocity-based time dilation in special relativity and gravitational time dilation in general relativity• Time dilation and suspended animation only allow travel to the future ,never the past
  13. 13. Paradoxes• The Novikov self-consistency principle and calculations by Kip S. Thorne indicate that simplemasses passing through time travel wormholes could never engender paradoxes there are noinitial conditions that lead to paradox once time travel is introduced• They would suggest ,curiously• This concept is most often used in science-fiction• Stephen Hawking has argued that even if the MWI is correct• Everett argues that even if Deutsch sapproach is correct• Daniel Greenberger and Karl Svozil proposed that quantum theory gives a model for timetravel without paradoxes
  14. 14. Theory of compossibility• David Lewiss analysis of compossibility and the implications of changing the past is meant toaccount for the possibilities of time travel in a one-dimensional conception of time withoutcreating logical paradoxes• The only problem for Tim is that his grandfather died years ago• Tim wants so badly to kill his grandfather himself that he constructs a time machine to travelback to 1955 when his grandfather was young and kill him then• Assuming that Tim can travel to a time when his grandfather is still alive, the question mustthen be raised: can Tim kill his grandfather?• This new fact about Tim s situation reveals that him killing his grandfather is not compossiblewith the current set of facts
  15. 15. Immutable timelines• Time travel in a type 1 universe does not allow paradoxes such as the grandfather paradox tooccur• This causes a time traveler to be ejected from the time in which he or she is about to cause aparadox• The general consequences are that time travel to the traveler spast is difficult• The traveler simply becomes an invisible insubstantial phantom unable to interact with the pastas in the case of James Harrigan in Michael Garrett sBrief Encounter• The predestination paradox is where the traveler sactions create some type of causal loop
  16. 16. Immutable timelines• D j Vu appears to be causal loops• Theresa section in which the player• This is an example of causal loop because those items were created purely from the timetravel• The Novikov self-consistency principle can also result in an ontological paradox where the veryexistence of some object or information is a time loop• Shakespeare pressed for time copies the information in the book from the future• Ross uses Somewhere in Time as an example where Jane Seymour scharacter givesChristopher Reeve scharacter a watch she has owned for many years
  17. 17. Mutable timelines• You could ,however• An example of this kind of universe is presented in Thrice Upon a Time• The Back to the Future trilogy films also seem to feature a single mutable timeline• The movie D j Vu depicts a paper note sent to the past with vital information to prevent aterrorist attack• The science fiction writer Larry Niven suggests in his essay The Theory and Practice of TimeTravel that in a type 2.1 universe• However, many other stable situations might also exist in which time travel occurs but noparadoxes are created
  18. 18. Gradual and instantaneous• There are two methods of time travel• The most commonly used method of time travel in science fiction is the instantaneousmovement from one point in time to another• In some cases, there is not even the beginning of a scientific explanation for this kind of timetravel• H.G. Wells explains that we are moving through time with a constant speed• Perhaps the oldest example of this method of time travel is in Lewis Carrolls Through theLooking-Glass : the White Queen is living backwards, hence her memory is working both ways• Her kind of time travel is uncontrolled: she moves through time with a constant speed of 1 andshe cannot change it
  19. 19. Time travel or spacetime travel• The idea that a traveler can go into a machine that sends him or her to 1865 and step out intothe exact same spot on Earth might be said to ignore the issue that Earth is moving throughspace around the Sun• However, the theory of relativity rejects the idea of absolute time and space• The laws of physics work the same way in every inertial frame of reference• The idea that the Earth moves away from the time traveler when he takes a trip through timehas been used in a few science fiction stories• Much earlier, Clark Ashton Smith used this form of time travel in several stories such as TheLetter from Mohaun Los where the protagonist ends up on a planet millions of years in thefuture which happened to occupy the same space through which Earth had passed
  20. 20. Thanks!