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India , officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia.

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  1. 1. India <ul><li>India is a country in South Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>India is officially the Republic of India. </li></ul><ul><li>India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia in the Indian Ocean. </li></ul>
  2. 2. India <ul><li>Home to the ancient Indus Valley Civilization and a region of historic trade routes and vast empires was identified with its commercial and cultural wealth for much of its long history. </li></ul><ul><li>Vast empires were the Indian subcontinent. </li></ul><ul><li>Four of the world's major religions originated here. </li></ul>
  3. 3. India <ul><li>Zoroastrianism, Christianity and Islam arrived in the 1st millennium CE. </li></ul><ul><li>Zoroastrianism, Christianity and Islam also helped shape the region's diverse culture. </li></ul><ul><li>India became an independent nation in 1947 after a struggle for independence which was marked by non-violent resistance and led by Mahatma Gandhi. </li></ul>
  4. 4. India <ul><li>India was gradually annexed. </li></ul><ul><li>India was administered by the British East India Company from the early 18th century. </li></ul><ul><li>India was administered directly by the United Kingdom from the mid-19th century. </li></ul>
  5. 5. India <ul><li>The Indian economy is the world's tenth-largest economy by nominal GDP and third largest economy by purchasing power parity. </li></ul><ul><li>A nuclear weapons state and a regional power, it has the third-largest standing army in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>A nuclear weapons state and a regional power, it ranks tenth in military expenditure among nations. </li></ul><ul><li>It is also home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Ancient India <ul><li>BCE appeared on the subcontinent in Mehrgarh and other sites in western Pakistan around 7000. </li></ul><ul><li>BCE was the first known neolithic settlements. </li></ul><ul><li>These gradually developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation BCE in Pakistan and western India. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Ancient India <ul><li>The Indus Valley Civilisation was the first urban culture in South Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>The civilisation engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. </li></ul><ul><li>The civilisation was centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa, Dholavira, and Kalibangan, . </li></ul>
  8. 8. Ancient India <ul><li>The civilisation was relying on varied forms of subsistence. </li></ul><ul><li>Many regions of the subcontinent evolved from copper age to iron age cultures during the period 2000500 BCE. </li></ul><ul><li>The Vedas were composed during this period. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Ancient India <ul><li>Historians have analyzed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Ganges Plain. </li></ul><ul><li>The Vedas was the oldest scriptures of Hinduism. </li></ul><ul><li>The caste system appeared during this period. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Ancient India <ul><li>The caste system spawned a social hierarchy. </li></ul><ul><li>The large number of megalithic monuments found from this period, and nearby evidence of agriculture, irrigation tanks, and craft traditions suggest progression to sedentary life in South India. </li></ul><ul><li>The empire was once thought to have controlled most of the subcontinent excepting the far south. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Ancient India <ul><li>Its core regions are now thought to have been separated by large autonomous areas. </li></ul><ul><li>The Sangam literature of the Tamil language reveals that during the period from 200 BCE to 200 CE , the southern peninsula was being ruled by the Cheras , the Cholas , and the Pandyas , dynasties that traded extensively with the Roman Empire and with west and south-east Asia . </li></ul><ul><li>A renewed Hinduism based on devotion rather than the management of ritual began to assert itself under the Guptas. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Ancient India <ul><li>This was reflected in a flowering of sculpture and architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>The flowering of sculpture and architecture found patrons among an urban elite. </li></ul><ul><li>Classical Sanskrit literature flowered as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Indian science, astronomy, medicine, and mathematics made significant advances. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Medieval India <ul><li>They were defeated by the Pallavas from farther south from still farther south. </li></ul><ul><li>The Chalukyas attempted to expand southwards. </li></ul><ul><li>The Pallavas from farther south were opposed by the Pandyas and the Cholas in turn. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Medieval India <ul><li>Pastoral peoples whose land was usurped by cultivators were accommodated within caste society during this time. </li></ul><ul><li>These were imitated all over India. </li></ul><ul><li>These were led both to the resurgence of Hinduism and to the development of all the modern languages of the subcontinent. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Medieval India <ul><li>Indian royalty, big and small, and the temples they patronised, drew citizens in great numbers to the capital cities. </li></ul><ul><li>The capital cities became economic hubs as well. </li></ul><ul><li>The effects were evident in South Indian culture and elsewhere. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Medieval India <ul><li>Political systems were exported to Southeast Asia to lands now composing Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, and Java. </li></ul><ul><li>Southeast Asia was in particular. </li></ul><ul><li>Indian merchants, scholars, and at times armies were involved in this transmission. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Medieval India <ul><li>After the tenth century , Muslim Central Asian nomadic clans , using swift horse cavalry and raising vast armies united by ethnicity and religion , repeatedly overran South Asia 's north-western plains , and led eventually to the establishment of the Islamic Delhi Sultanate in 1206 . </li></ul><ul><li>The Sultanate was to control much of North India. </li></ul><ul><li>The Sultanate was to to make many forays into South India. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Medieval India <ul><li>The Sultanate largely left its vast non-Muslim subject population to its own laws and customs. </li></ul><ul><li>The Sultanate's raiding and weakening of the regional kingdoms of South India, paved the way for the indigenous Vijayanagara Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>The empire came to control much of peninsular India. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Medieval India <ul><li>The empire came to influence South Indian society and culture long afterwards. </li></ul><ul><li>The empire was embracing a strong Shaivite tradition. </li></ul><ul><li>The empire was building upon the military technology of the Sultanate. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Early modern India <ul><li>It came to rule balanced. </li></ul><ul><li>It pacified them through new administrative practices, and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. </li></ul><ul><li>The Mughal empire resulted. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Early modern India <ul><li>The Mughal state's economic policies caused peasants and artisans to enter larger markets. </li></ul><ul><li>The Mughal state's economic policies were deriving most revenues from agriculture. </li></ul><ul><li>The Mughal state's economic policies were mandating that taxes be paid in the well-regulated silver currency. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Early modern India <ul><li>The relative peace maintained by the empire during much of the seventeenth century was a factor in India's economic expansion. </li></ul><ul><li>The relative peace maintained by the empire during much of the seventeenth century resulted in greater patronage of painting, literary forms, textiles, and architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>Newly coherent social groups gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Early modern India <ul><li>Mughal rule gave them both recognition and military experience through collaboration or adversity. </li></ul><ul><li>Expanding commerce during Mughal rule gave rise to new Indian commercial and political elites in the southern and eastern coastal India. </li></ul><ul><li>The East India Company 's control of the seas , its greater resources , and its army 's more advanced training and technology , led it to increasingly flex its military muscle and caused it to become attractive to a portion of the Indian elite ; both these factors were crucial in allowing the Company to gain control over the Bengal region by 1765 , and sidelining the other European companies . </li></ul>
  24. 24. Early modern India <ul><li>Its further access to the riches of Bengal and the subsequent increased strength and size of its army enabled it to annex or subdue most of India by the 1820s. </li></ul><ul><li>The Company began to more consciously enter non-economic arenas such as education, social reform, and culture by this time with its economic power severely curtailed by the British parliament and effectively now an arm of British administration. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Modern India <ul><li>The age may have begun in 1857. </li></ul><ul><li>The age may have ravaged many parts of northern India. </li></ul><ul><li>It may also have begun in 1858 when , after the rebels were suppressed , the British government opted for direct administration of India and proclaimed a unitary state , which on the one hand envisaged slow transition to a British-style parliamentary system , but on the other hand favored Indian princes and landlords as a feudal safeguard against popular unrest . </li></ul>
  26. 26. Modern India <ul><li>Its modern era may have commenced with the founding of the Indian National Congress in 1885, thus marking the start of an all-India public life. </li></ul><ul><li>He rush of technology and the commercialization of agriculture in the second half of the 19th century was marked by economic setbacks-- many small farmers became dependent on the whims of far-away markets. </li></ul><ul><li>There was an increase in the number of large-scale famines. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Modern India <ul><li>Little industrial employment was generated for Indians. </li></ul><ul><li>There were also salutary effects : commercial cropping , especially in the newly canalled Punjab , increased food production for internal consumption , the railway network provided critical famine relief , reduced notably the cost of moving goods , and helped the nascent Indian owned industry . </li></ul><ul><li>After the first world war , in which some one million Indians served , a new period began , which was marked by British reforms , but also repressive legislation , by more strident Indian calls for self-rule , and by the beginnings of a nonviolent movement of non-cooperation , of which Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi would become the leader and enduring symbol . </li></ul>
  28. 28. Modern India <ul><li>The next decade would be beset with crises. </li></ul><ul><li>Vital to India's self-image as an independent nation was its constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>Its constitution was completed in 1950. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Modern India <ul><li>Its constitution put in place a sovereign democratic republic. </li></ul><ul><li>It has remained a democracy with civil liberties , an activist Supreme Court , and a largely independent press ; economic liberalization , which was begun in the 1990s , has created a large urban middle-class , transformed India into one of the fastest-growing economies in the world , and increased its global clout ; and Indian movies , music , and spiritual teachings , have increasingly contributed to global culture . </li></ul><ul><li>India harbors seemingly unyielding rural and urban poverty. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Modern India <ul><li>India hosts religious, caste-related violence, Maoist-inspired Naxalite insurgencies, and separatists in Jammu and Kashmir. </li></ul><ul><li>It has unresolved territorial disputes with the People's Republic of China. </li></ul><ul><li>The Indo-Pakistani nuclear rivalry came to a head in 1998. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Modern India <ul><li>India's democratic freedoms are unique among the world's new nations. </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom from want for its disadvantaged population, remains a goal yet to be realized. </li></ul><ul><li>India's democratic freedoms have survived for over 60 years. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Geography <ul><li>India comprises the bulk of the Indian subcontinent. </li></ul><ul><li>India lies atop the minor Indian tectonic plate. </li></ul><ul><li>The minor Indian tectonic plate belongs to the Indo-Australian Plate in turn. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Geography <ul><li>The Eurasian Plate bore aloft the planet's highest mountains the subcontinent's subsequent collision with, and subduction under. </li></ul><ul><li>The planet's highest mountains were the Himalayas. </li></ul><ul><li>Plate movement created a vast trough that has gradually filled with river-borne sediment in the former seabed immediately south of the emerging Himalayas. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Geography <ul><li>It now forms the Indo-Gangetic Plain. </li></ul><ul><li>The Thar Desert lies to the west. </li></ul><ul><li>The Thar Desert is cut off by the Aravalli Range. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Geography <ul><li>These parallel ranges run from the Arabian Sea coast in Gujarat in the west to the coal-rich Chota Nagpur Plateau in Jharkhand in the east. </li></ul><ul><li>To the south the remaining peninsular landmass , the Deccan Plateau , is flanked on the west and east by the coastal ranges , the Western and Eastern Ghats respectively ; the plateau contains the nation 's oldest rock formations , some over one billion years old . </li></ul><ul><li>Constituted in such fashion , India lies to the north of the equator between 644 ' and 3530 ' north latitude -LRB- c -RRB- and 687 ' and 9725 ' east longitude . </li></ul>
  36. 36. Geography <ul><li>The mainland coast consists of the following: 43 % sandy beaches including cliffs, and 46 % mudflats or marshy coast. </li></ul><ul><li>43 % sandy beaches are 11 % rocky coast. </li></ul><ul><li>Major peninsular rivers's steeper gradients prevent their waters from flooding. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Geography <ul><li>The Krishna drain into the Bay of Bengal; and the Narmada and the Tapti. </li></ul><ul><li>The Bay of Bengal; and the Narmada and the Tapti drain into the Arabian Sea. </li></ul><ul><li>The marshy Rann of Kutch in western India, and the alluvial Sundarbans delta are among notable coastal features of India. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Geography <ul><li>India shares the alluvial Sundarbans delta with Bangladesh. </li></ul><ul><li>The Indian climate is strongly influenced by the Himalayas and the Thar Desert. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Biodiversity <ul><li>Habitat ranges from the tropical rainforest of the Andaman Islands, Western Ghats, and Northeast India to the coniferous forest of the Himalaya. </li></ul><ul><li>The medicinal neem is a key Indian tree. </li></ul><ul><li>The medicinal neem is widely used in rural Indian herbal remedies. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Biodiversity <ul><li>The luxuriant pipal fig tree shaded Gautama Buddha as he sought enlightenment. </li></ul><ul><li>He sought enlightenment. </li></ul><ul><li>The luxuriant pipal fig tree was shown on the seals of Mohenjo-daro. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Biodiversity <ul><li>Many Indian species descend from taxa originating in Gondwana. </li></ul><ul><li>Mammals then entered India from Asia through two zoogeographical passes flanking the rising Himalaya. </li></ul><ul><li>Only 12. 6 % of mammals and 4. 5 % of birds are. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Biodiversity <ul><li>45. 8 % of reptiles and 55. 8 % of amphibians are endemic. </li></ul><ul><li>India contains 172, or 2. 9 %, of IUCN-designated threatened species. </li></ul><ul><li>The system of national parks and protected areas was substantially expanded in response. </li></ul><ul><li>The system was first established in 1935. </li></ul>