HFTP Network Operating SystemsA combination of programs, gives some computers and peripherals the capability to accepts request for service across the network, and provide computers the capability to correctly use network devices.
HFTP The O/S Kernel File Management Memory Management Peripheral Control Network Communication
HFTP Network Design Connectivity Provides communications across a defined network. Advantages Data Sharing Application Sharing Device Sharing Communications (packets) Local Area Network (LAN) Wide Area Network (WAN) Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
HFTP Network Architecture Definition: The technique used by a NIC/LAN adapter to control access to a cable and cable connectors.
HFTP Network ArchitectureTwo Types: Peer to Peer: client-based Client Server: server based Have a higher startup cost than peer to peer networks; provide good control, backup, and management of critical data; offers security, data management, fast response and room for expansion, but DOES NOT need all the software installed on the server.
HFTP LAN Definition: A configuration of workstations that enables users in the same office to share data, programs, and output devices (such as printers). Cable Connections: Fiber, Twisted Pair, Coax, and Twinax Fiber Optics is used for the fastest possible throughput at very long cable lengths Twinax is not the recommended line for moving large data or video files. Connection type and speed: 10Mbps, 100Mbps, 1000Mbps (Gigabyte)
HFTP WAN Definition: Multiple connection of computer networks, from building to building, city to city, state to state, and country to country utilizing DSU/CSU router.• CSU/DSU: Channel Services unit/ Data Services unit. Is used to connect computers, video equipment, and multiplexors to digital phone lines.
HFTP WAN Connections type and speed: ISDN (128Kbs) offers the lowest overall circuit cost type of service for connection of remote network sites to a central location. T1 (1.5Mbps) and T3 (up to 45Mbps) The standard speed is NOT 100Mbps. NOT Associated Technologies NIC’s, Repeaters, Hubs & Apple Talk
HFTP Network Security Network Login and Passwords Promptly change your password on initial login for proper security procedures for user-level passwords Single Sign-on Components of a single sign-on system include authentication and a directory service.
HFTP Network Security PGP - Pretty Good Privacy Software that implements public key cryptology that requires a key pair of both a public key and a private key SSL – Secure Socket Layer Is built upon Public key encryption, Digital Signature, and Digital Certificates, but NOT Single Key system using substitution encryption. To defeat SSL and PGP you would utilize Cryptanalysis, Reverse engineer of the implementation, and Pass phrase attack, but NOT insider security information.
HFTP Network Security SNMP – Simple Network Management Protocol an application layer protocol that facilitates the exchange of management information between network devices. Network File Access controls security rights for users files Biometric Technology Is capable of enhancing physical security such as guest and employee entry.
HFTP FirewallsSoftware and hardware that filters and securesyour private network, allowing only authorizedaccess and transmissions of your internal data.
HFTP Computer Viruses Malicious computer programs: Virus Unauthorized set of programmed code that attaches itself to other programs. Worm Independent programs that may replicate itself throughout the network. Trojan Horse Masquerades as a legitimate program but has malicious software inside Are computer bugs a virus??
HFTP TCP/IP TCP/IP – Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol Is NOT a telecommunication communications protocol. TCP Packets: Are numbered so they can be reassembled in the correct sequence at the destination. Are transmitted over the network as capacity becomes available. Forwarded across the network separately and do not necessarily follow the same route. Do not contain destination addresses only. Header information includes Total length of the packet, destination IP address, Source IP address, and Error checking information. DOES NOT include sender’s login information.
HFTP TCP/IP Packet Switching Checking for valid packets, destination address, best route, assembling packets in order, but NOT for data compression. Static verses Dynamic Addresses DHCP: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol is used to assign dynamic IP addresses on an as-requested basis. 3 Classes of IP Addresses
HFTP IP Address Classes Class A ###. xxx .xxx . xxx (ex. 26.x.x.x) (1-126).(1-254).(1-254).(1-254) Class B ### .###.xxx .xxx (ex. 172.16.x.x) (128-191).(1-254).(1-254).(1-254) Class C ### .###.###.xxx (ex. 192.168.1.x) (192-223).(1-254).(1-254).(1-254)
HFTP Parallel Transmission Multiple channels to transmit several bits of data at a time Timed pulses sent on other wires within the same cable to coordinate the flow of data Parallel ports, parallel cable, user configuration of controller Over short distances -LAN
HFTP Serial Transmission Single channel to transmit bit by bit Bits travel as a sequence over a single wire with start and stop bits to coordinate data flow Serial cable, serial ports, user configuration of controller Long distances - telephone transmission
HFTP Modems Converts on and off digital pulses of computer data into on-and-off analog tones that can be transmitted over a normal telephone circuit. Uses: Allow computers to communicate over distances E-mail, internet, bulletin boards Polling, file transfer, system support
HFTP Smart CardsEmbedded micro chips that store personal information, allow credit and commerce transactions, access to room and other information.
HFTP XML – eXtended Markup LanguageLanguage that is not constrained to a fixed format and allows trading partners to create their own data tags for information exchange, has become the standard for all markup language, provides data in a format that is easily exchanged & non-proprietary.
HFTP Bluetooth Distance Limitations 30 feet (10 meters) New Technology Communications between any electrically powered device or appliance
HFTP VPN – Virtual Private NetworkAllow for secure connections that “tunnel” through the Internet to connect 2 private LAN’s or Computers, which reduces costs overall.
HFTP VoIP – Voice over Internet ProtocolSet of facilities used to manage the delivery of voice information over the Internet. VoIP involves sending voice information in digital form in discrete packets rather than by using the traditional circuit- committed protocols of the public switched telephone network
HFTPHSIA – High Speed Internet Access Acceptable methods for providing HSIA service to guest rooms: Wireless proximity Telephone network Electrical wiring system Cable system
HFTP ASP – Application Service ProviderIs the server model in which hardware is housed and maintained off-site, yet users can access the application and data via a web-based Internet connection.
HFTP Telephone Switches Trunking Trunk lines are defined as a telecommunications line between 2 switching systems. Incoming call routing Uses caller ID Automatic Number Identification (ANI) information to retrieve customer records from a database and send the records and call to a specific call center operator. DeMarc The point where responsibility for telecom services into a building transfers from the carrier to the end user organization.
HFTP Telephone Switches Voice over IP Place voice and fax calls over internet connections. Does not provide HSIA or In-room internet connectivity, hotel operators to receive free telephone services. Automated Call Distributor (ACD) Useful for Reservations, PBX and Room Service departments. ACDs would not be used to automatically generate Express Checkout reports. Automatic check out is not a function of a PBX system.
HFTP Guest Room Telephones Features that may be included Data port sets 2 line capability ADA hearing impaired feature handset Hands free speaker phone capability One button dialing and redialing
HFTP Database Management Software Allow users to catalog and store information for future use Collection of related facts and figures designed to serve a specific purpose Possible Uses: Preparing mailing lists for marketing and promotional activities. Help managers sort through personnel records to identify performance review dates for employees that correspond to the dates on which they were hired
HFTP Database StructuresFiles organized in ways that facilitate searching for data, updating data, and generating accurate, timely and useful reports for management.
HFTP Files, Records, and Fields Files “THE” Database i.e... Inventory, purchases, suppliers Records individual information contains “key” field Fields identified by type of info. Text, Calculated, Logical, Date, etc.
HFTP Database Structures Hierarchical Resembles that of the root of a tree Arranges Files, Records, and Fields Master Records and Subordinate Records Data inherit attributes, or rights, from it’s parent Relational Tables are related to each other through key field Tabular Structure Data appears only once and not replicated multiple times Flat One Large Table (Flat File) Files are stand-alone collections of data.
HFTP Data Management Concepts Data Warehouse Collection of data from different sources Provides input for decision making The repository of all data Data is received and stored following specific validation rules Data Mart Separate database designed for specific group of users (e.g. marketing, group sales, etc.) Data is extracted from Data Warehouse to protect its integrity Data Mining Statistical and rule-based reasoning to find patterns in data (e.g. forecasting occupancy) Should be performed against the Data Mart
HFTP Other Terms File Server - Computer that controls the flow of information along a network and stores files created by application programs, has large storage hard drive with space to share, and provides the capability to simultaneously access the same file. Application server - Enables several users to offload specialized tasks onto a shared computer. Secondary storage devices - Refers to Hard drives, CD-RW, DVD-RW, Zip Disks, Removable storage devices, but NOT RAM. High Availability - Options include Multi-processors, disk arrays, redundant power supplies, but NOT Spare Memory Modules.
HFTP Central Reservation Systems Affiliate Systems System that services an entire chain All properties are contractually related Non-Affiliate Systems Contracted to individual properties Subscription based service Apply to independent hotel properties Have some type of charge or cost Interfaces One-Way verses Two-Way
HFTP Global Reservation Systems (GDS) International joint ventures of diverse companies Direct linking of: hotels, airlines, car rental companies, and travel agencies using the internet or other private computer networks
HFTP Revenue and Yield Management Systems Revenue Management Program helps hotel managers determine whether a reservation request should be accepted or rejected in order to maximize revenue for a specific period of time. Takes advantage of rate hurdles Yield Management The ratio of actual revenue to potential revenue. Room rates should be higher when demand exceeds supply. Oversell Guidelines maximize revenue potential by selling all available rooms.
HFTPProperty Management System (PMS)The computer-based lodging information system that helps track guests and their special request or inquires.
HFTP PMS Front Office Applications Reservations Module Used to process room requests. Most helpful in forecasting occupancy Revenue Management Module Maintains the room and package rates Rooms Management Module Maintains current room status information. Guest Accounting Module Maintains the guest charges and payments
HFTP Property Level Reservations Module An integrated module of the PMS Reduces paperwork, redundancy, clerical Interface point to CRS Quick access to reservation information
HFTP Rooms Management Module Strengthen communications between Front Office and Housekeeping Current room status information Room assignment and check-in In-house guest information Organize Housekeeping activities Management reporting
HFTP Guest Accounting Module Enables posting directly to guest and non- guest accounts Enables management control over financial aspects of the guest cycle Eliminates the need for guest folio cards and posting machines Monitors credit and sets the folio at a no- post status when charges approach the house limit
HFTP The Audit TrailCross references from: source document serial number work-shifts cashiers POS terminals departmental accounts
HFTP Credit Card Processing Interface to Systems Reduces Cost Insures Accuracy Non-repudiation a solution that offers protection against disputed charges to the merchant.
HFTP Integration v. Interfacing Integrated Systems: A systems which contains a number of subsets that perform separate tasks yet operate within the same structure. Interfaced Systems: More than one system that are linked together through the use of hardware and software in order to provide communication between separate programs.
HFTP Call Accounting System (CAS) Designed to place and price outgoing calls, and post telephone charges to guest accounts. Not a guest’s credit card Interfaces to PMS and Telephone Switch Automatic ID of outward dialing (AIOD) immediately identifies the extension from which a call is placed Least cost routing Directs calls over the least-cost available line, regardless of carrier. When this line is busy, the device prompts the system to use the next least expensive line.
HFTP Call Accounting System (CAS) Performs the following functions call placement call distribution call routing call rating call recording Preferred Features Separate guest calls from admin calls Long-duration calls can be priced at flat rate Area codes can be updated by hotel management Reasons for reduced telecom revenue Increased use of Email Calling Cards/Pre-Paid Cards Growing cell phone usage High mark-ups on long distance phone calls
HFTP Inventory Valuation FIFO (First in First Out - Latest) LIFO (Last in First Out - Earliest) LIPO (Surgical Removal of Subcutaneous Fat) Actual cost Weighted average
HFTP Purchasing Module Purchase Order File par levels lead time quantity reorder point Telecommunication of P/O’s Bid Specification File
HFTP Financial Reporting Module Chart of Accounts Trial Balance File Financial Statements Balance Sheet Income Statement Statement of Cash Flows Ratio Analysis
HFTP POS TerminologyAuto-Coursing - time dependent circle of serviceForced Modifiers - automatic prompts for order detailsMenu Engineering - profitability and sales analysisPrechecking - authorization for production/servicePostchecking - check totaling for print/settlementReports - server, day part, shift, terminal, outletServer Banking - reconciliation by server, not cashierHand Held – remote input device
HFTP Food and Beverage Management Applications Process data related to back-of-the- house food service activities Common management applications Recipe Management Sales Analysis Menu Management, Engineering and Costing
HFTP The Menu Engineering Grid $$$ Puzzle StarContributionMargin $ Dog Plowhorse 70% Menu Mix %
HFTPF&B Cost Control Standard Recipe Benefits Net Weight/Volume Standard Portion Cost #60 Scoop
HFTP Event Management Systems Sales / Catering Software Proposal / Contract Maintains client requests, room nights, menu items, and records all equipment and space commitments. Banquet Event Orders (BEO) Serves as a final contract for client and generates work assignments for the Catering staff. Ingredient File Contains items like tables, chairs, china, flatware, tents and entertainment.
HFTPCRM - Customer Relationship Management Enables organizations to know their customers on an on-going basis and not just for the life of that transaction, that meal or that guest stay. Will track the history and status of every customer interaction and help workers to give personalized service.
HFTPCRM - Customer Relationship Management Implementation Includes: Customer Data and Analysis Technology and Staff Strategies and goals Considerations should NOT include: Thanking regular customers for their loyalty Surveying customer needs
HFTP Marketing Techniques One to One Broadcast (Mass) Permission
HFTPWeb Based Marketing Cookies / Tokens Client-side tracking so customer does not have to identify themselves again Unique Visits / Hits Server-side tracking by using log files to identify the customer Banner Advertising Is a cost per action Conversion The moment a customer buys
HFTP E commerce b2b (business to business) Most sophisticated type of internet transaction Requires the highest level of trust between the parties b2c (business to customer) Customers should get same benefits at the store / location as on the Internet Discounted prices on the web site versus voice is not a consistent B2C ecommerce model b2e (business to employee) Employee portal that allows access to human resource information such as job postings, work schedules and work policies Secure Electronic Transaction (SET) More secure than SSL Non biased authentication A single trusted international source
HFTP Web Terminology World Wide Web (www) consists of three components HTTP – Hypertext Transfer Protocol HTML – Hypertext Markup Language URL – Uniform Resource Locator Domain Name System (DNS) An internet service that converts internet names and resolves them into Internet Protocol (IP) addresses.
HFTPTargeted Technology Section Three Facilities Clubs Resort/SPA Emerging Technologies
HFTP Electronic Locking Systems Hard-Wired System Codes the key and changes the door at time the key is first made at the front desk. Micro-Fitted System Depends upon a pre-coded microprocessor in each lockset at the guest room door and front desk encoder.
HFTP Electronic Locking Systems Features Unique keys (instantly changes) Audit trail capability Key code expiration Automated dead-bolt with “Do Not Disturb” Key must be removed for door to open to protect from possibility of keycard theft Control access to virtually every area of the hotel, including exterior doors, storage areas, admin areas, meeting rooms and guestrooms
HFTP Electronic Locking Systems Features Enhanced guest security by monitoring the status of every guestroom door opening, even when entry is achieved without the guest’s issued key Review the audit trail to determine which assigned keys gained entry to a guest room.
HFTP Energy Management Systems (EMS) Guest Control Enable guest to have full and complete control of room temperature when physically present in the room. Demand Control Turns off units for varying periods of time without affecting environment or comfort conditions. Maintains pre-determined energy usage levels. Duty Cycling Turns off equipment on a sequential basis for a given period of time each hour also without affecting environment or comfort conditions
HFTP Energy Management Systems (EMS) Room Occupancy Sensors Infrared or ultrasonic waves used to register the physical occupancy of a room When the guest leaves, sensors react, and following a short delay, lights, and HVAC are reset to default settings. PMS Interface Provides energy control opportunities to minimized energy usage in direct relation to anticipated occupancy levels.
HFTP Club SystemsMEMBERSHIP FIXED ASSET TRACKING ACCOUNTING GENERAL INVENTORYLEDGER ACCTG CONTROL PAYROLL/ EVENTPERSONNEL MANAGEMENTPOINT-of-SALE HOTEL CONTROL OPERATIONS
HFTP Club Systems Primary Objectives for Implementing a POS System in a Club Environment Increases internal controls Improves member services Enhances staff productivity NOT to reduce staff When planning to computerize a club’s information systems, they should identify the application software first.
HFTP SPA Systems Spa Reservation Systems 3 components A provider/associate A facility/room The equipment needed Allows automatic assignment of available time slots to multiple guest, all arriving during similar blocks of time, with various services being selected.
HFTP SPA Systems Spa Reservation Systems Utilize criteria for treatment rooms and service specialists, instead of just rooms and available space requirements. Priority and Percentage Load methods are used to allocate spa resources when making an appointment for a treatment.
HFTP SPA Systems Interfaces: Property Managements System(s) Point of Sale System Internet Reservations Retail Inventory Point of Sale Gift/Debit Card System
HFTP Golf Tee Time Systems Usage Book rounds weeks in advance Match individual players to create 4-somes (yield manage) Block individual holes for planned maintenance Manage play on multiple courses Ways To Book Reservations In Person Via Lottery Internet Email
HFTP Golf Tee Time Systems Golf Operations Terminology Shotgun Aeration Handicap
HFTP Club Websites Typical divided into 3 sections Member Partition Staff Partition Guest Partition Desired synchronization features Member roster synchronization Member online account review
HFTP Club Websites Member Accounting on the Web most commonly shared via a zipped file generated from the accounting system and sent to the website nightly Real-time data access methods, such as XML (eXtended Markup Language) or OLTP (OnLine Transaction Processing), is not widely used in today’s Club applications Reasons For Failure Content under-appreciated Site is under-promoted Site is under-funded Site is under-appreciated
HFTP RFID Definition – Radio Frequency Identification A technology used to transmit data by a mobile device and read by a reader that is not connected via a wired connection
HFTP RFID Types of Tags Passive Have no internal power supply Incoming radio signal provides just enough power for the CMOS integrated circuit in the tag to power up and send a response Practical ranges of 10cm up to a few meters Active Have their own internal power source used to power integrated circuits and broadcast the signal to the reader Usually more reliable making them more effective in harsh environments Practical range of 100 meters Battery life up to 10 years
HFTP RFID Privacy Concerns Purchaser of an item may not be aware of the existence of the RFID device Myths related to RFID Privacy include Easy to intercept the RFID signal and steal the individual’s identity Since many tags contain similar data elements, it is easy to confuse one’s identity with another Tags can easily be removed and attached to other items or people
HFTP Uses of RFID in Hospitality Cashless RFID Systems Asset Management Waterparks Lost Children Resort Tasks Casino Operations Gaming chips are now embedded with RFID devices to track where users go and precisely how many gaming chips are used
HFTP Universal Serial Bus (USB) A widely used hardware interface for attaching peripheral devices. Up to 127 peripheral devices can be attached to the bus History Began to appear on PCs in 1997 Windows 98 was first version of the Windows operating system to support USB natively Types of Connections A – Upstream B – Downstream Mini A & Mini B Used on small portable devices such as PDAs, music players, digital cameras and cell phones
HFTP Cell Coverage In The Hotel Operational Benefits Staff members can communicate with one device and not require cell phones, PDAs and pagers Staff can be contacted easily when away from the property Staff can respond to issues in real-time Concrete and Steel Cell Phone Amplification It’s expensive Can be directly tied to guest satisfaction and Guest recovery strategies In-building solutions do not affect external coverage areas
HFTP Evolving US TV Regulations Stations Convert to Digital Format US Markets must convert by 2/17/2009 Most provide digital today Analog signals must be turned back to the government for first responder use Point of Encryption Digital movie producers require their signals to be encrypted All the way to the display unit!!!
HFTP Evolving US TV Regulations All TVs Sold After March 01, 2007 Must be HDTV Ready HDTV ready does not mean it includes a ATSC tuner ATSC – Advanced Television Standards Committee Created voluntary standards for TV sets which were adopted by the FCC in 1996 Addresses aspect ratios, resolution and frame rates and includes how the sound and video are encoded and transmitted
HFTPManaging Technology Section Four HR / Time and Attendance General Management System StrategiesSystem Analysis and Selection
HFTP HRIS SystemsPersonnel & Benefits Administration Business Expense Tracking Vacation days earned I-9 Information Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA) Tracking Organizational Information
HFTP HR ConceptsPersonnel & Benefits Administration Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) Provides opportunities for employees and applicants without regard to Race, Religion, Pregnancy, Veteran Status Bereavement Leave employee benefit used to grant excused time away from the workplace to attend a funeral
HFTP HR ConceptsPersonnel & Benefits Administration Computer Usage & Security Policy Should be in place and understood by ALL to safeguard both the company and the employee Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA) A federal law that allows an individual up to 12 weeks leave based on medical necessity for self, child, spouse or parents Employers with 50 or more employees E-Mail & Internet Usage Policy All Electronic mail messages are the property of the company
HFTP General Management Executive Information Systems (EIS) Provide an overview and report statistics on Rooms, Payroll and Financial Data within your property Lifting never twist at the waist rather than using your feet to change direction Slide load as close to your body as you can Get help if too heavy or bulky Raise yourself using leg and hip muscles Slightly bend your knees
HFTP General Management Human Resources As a Technology manager, your first priority is to ensure the safety and security of your employees in the workplace Fire and Safety Upon detecting a fire Call 911 Remove yourself and others from harm’s way Notify your leaders Print an in-house guest list by room number (for EMS services to use)
HFTPAsset Management Manage total cost of ownership (TCO) and life cycle Mandate employees use company owned equipment Track location of assets
HFTPCost of Ownership Software Costs Help Desk / Support Functions Training
HFTP Networks / Security Peer to Peer / Client Server Peer to Peer share equally the processing Multiprocessors Security Controls The IT security plan should be designed and implemented by the systems manager not the security department, GM, or risk manager Disaster Plan Should include prevention, evacuation and recovery
HFTP System Decision Factors Application Functionality System Reliability Vendor Service/Support System Performance Ease of Operation Vendor Reputation / References Communications Capabilities Software Flexibility Price/Total System Cost
HFTP1. Put together a “Systems Team” People from different areas of the operation Everyone has the potential to provide important input Include representatives from management, kitchen operations, service, and accounting
HFTP2. Analyze Current Information Needs Create a profile of your operation outlines the needs of the operation for the vendors Meeting users needs is critical when purchasing a new computer system Put together a “wish list” Include absolutely necessary and “nice to have” Attributes will become the “frame of reference”
HFTP3. Collect Sales Information Contact system vendors Request sales information Obtain vendor information from local, or national organizations or publications Visit trade shows like…
HFTP4. Establish System Requirements Use the list of attributes from step 2 Add the optimum configuration For example in a restaurant How many terminals and printers will be necessary What types of terminals (touch screen, keyboard interface, etc.) What type of network you would like to implement
HFTP5. Write an RFP Request for Proposals Create a Property Profile Describe the selection process and its parameters List your system requirements Don’t allow vendors to use their own bid format Obtain Vendor Information Request Program Documentation List System and Service Costs Request estimation of hidden, indirect, direct but not opportunity costs
HFTP Request for Proposals Whose systems meet your needs?RFP’s should include: Property/Company Materials (describe your business) Bidding Requirements Computer Application Requirements Should NOT include financial statements
HFTP6. Evaluate Vendor Responses Establish criteria and a scoring system Have each member of the project team evaluate each proposal Combine the results and narrow the field to 2 or 3 vendors Respond to all vendors relaying their status in the selection process following the results of the evaluation of vendor responses
HFTP7. Visit “Live” Sites Schedule a site visit to one or more sites that are using the system in question. Take along a list of questions to ask the operator regarding the system and the vendor’s performance. It is hard to forget a bad experience, or stop talking about a good one.
HFTP8. Conduct Scripted Demonstrations Allows you to see exactly what you want rather than what the sales person wants you to see. Prevents unfocused demonstrations of neat system tricks Provide the vendor with your menu, or a sample of your menu. Construct a series of transactions that you would like to see, highlighting those transactions that are frequent and particular to your operation. Maintain control of the demo
HFTP Support Does software support include upgrades? If not, what is the charge? What are the hours of the support help- line (nights and weekends)? How is support time billed? How are fractions of hours billed? Is there an additional charge for support that requires a site visit? What is the charge?
HFTP Installation Factors Training System Site Preparation Conversion Documentation Design of Printed Materials Contingency Planning Initial entry of Vendor Support database Acceptance elements Testing
HFTP Definitions Strategic Planning following levels of decision- making, supported by a management information system, involves future- oriented goals and objectives of an organization Operator’s Guide computer system documentation serves as training material oriented toward specific application procedures
HFTP Definitions System Conversion Process of switching from the current information to the capabilities of a newly purchased computerized system Contingency Planning Plans which are developed for possible operations where the planning factors (eg scope, forces, destination, risks, area of responsibility etc) have been identified or can be assumed. is NOT one of the Fundamental areas of acceptance testing of a new computer system
HFTP Keys to a Successful Purchase Organize, Organize, Organize Avoid being rushed Maintain control of the process Never pay until product is ACCEPTED Acceptance testing includes – system integrity, hardware and software efficiency but NOT contingency planning