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Means & Methods of Developing Eccentric Strength for Sport

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These are the slides from Dr. Mike Young's lecture on the development of eccentric strength that was presented in Seoul, Korea.

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Means & Methods of Developing Eccentric Strength for Sport

  1. 1. MEANS & METHODS OF ECCENTRIC TRAINING Mike Young, PhD @mikeyoung
  2. 2. 1. What is “Eccentric” & why is it important 2. Role of Eccentric Capacity 3. Shortcomings of Traditional Methods 4. Basic Considerations 5. Means of Eccentric Training 6. Methods of Eccentric Training
  3. 3. WHAT IS ECCENTRIC WHY IS IT IMPORTANT?
  4. 4. WHAT IS IT?
  5. 5. WHY IS IT IMPORTANT?
  6. 6. INJURY PREVENTION
  7. 7. INJURY PREVENTION
  8. 8. INJURY PREVENTION
  9. 9. INJURY PREVENTION
  10. 10. PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT
  11. 11. MORE SIZE
  12. 12. ECCENTRIC TRAINING ➤Eccentric > standard resistance for hypertrophy ➤6% vs. 3% improvements
  13. 13. MORE STRENGTH
  14. 14. ECCENTRIC TRAINING ➤ Eccentric training improves concentric strength & high speed performance as a result of increases in fiber and cross-sectional area ➤ Neural factors also play a huge role
  15. 15. MORE POWER
  16. 16. ECCENTRIC TRAINING ➤Greater strength increases were observed as a result of the eccentric training modalities ➤Eccentric training + “overspeed” more effective than traditional resistance training for peak power in CM jump ➤Eccentric training alone not beneficial for maximal running speed
  17. 17. ECCENTRIC TRAINING ➤Greater strength increases were observed as a result of the eccentric training modalities ➤Eccentric training + “overspeed” more effective than traditional resistance training for peak power in CM jump ➤Eccentric training alone not beneficial for maximal running speed ➤Do ‘overspeed’ in addition to eccentric emphasis
  18. 18. MORE EFFICIENT
  19. 19. FORCE PRODUCTION DURING MUSCLE LENGTHENING IS DRIVEN ONLY PARTLY BY CHEMICAL ENERGY BEING CONVERTED INTO KINETIC ENERGY INSIDE THE SARCOMERES. IT IS ALSO PARTLY SUPPORTED BY THE PASSIVE ELEMENTS, WHICH REQUIRE LITTLE OR NO CHEMICAL ENERGY IN ORDER TO FUNCTION Herzog, 2014
  20. 20. MORE ENDURANCE
  21. 21. JUMP HIGHER SPRINT FASTER
  22. 22. ROLE OF ECCENTRIC CAPACITY
  23. 23. Eccentrics do this ➤ Joint stability ➤ Power transfer ➤ Movement efficiency ➤ Deceleration
  24. 24. An athlete’s capacity to [resist] yielding is a key determinant to athletic success in general & speed & explosiveness in particular
  25. 25. Benefits of Eccentric Strength Low metabolic cost High capacity to generate intramuscular tension High solicitation of Type II fibers Helps protect musculoskeletal system Changes stress-strain curve
  26. 26. SHORTCOMINGS OF TRADITIONAL METHODS
  27. 27. BENEFITS OF TRADITIONAL METHODOLOGY ➤ Simple & easy ➤ No special equipment ➤ Familiar ➤ Load as a correlate for intensity works great at near- maximal loads ➤ Excellent for developing maximal concentric strength
  28. 28. ➤ Load on the bar is being used as a correlate for force output ➤ Constrained by concentric emphasis Drawbacks of Traditional Methodology
  29. 29. DRAWBACKS OF TRADITIONAL METHODOLOGY ➤ Explosive efforts are often mistakenly assumed to provide an eccentric overload ➤ Explosive actions do not necessarily mean eccentric qualities are optimally trained ➤ Many ‘plyometric’ exercises actually FOCUS on concentric actions
  30. 30. ECCENTRIC TRAINING?
  31. 31. BASIC CONSIDERATIONS
  32. 32. HYPERTROPHY?
  33. 33. BUT WHAT ABOUT DOMS?
  34. 34. When an athlete experiences a novel or excessive eccentric training load it kick starts an inflammatory response
  35. 35. The Athlete Experiences: Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness Stiffness Decrease in Strength Increase Passive Tone Presence of Blood Markers (CK, LHD)
  36. 36. ECCENTRIC TRAINING IS THE BEST INOCULATION FROM DOMS
  37. 37. Negative Velocity Force Isom etric Positive Eccentrically, Heavy Weight = More Force & Faster Speed Eccentrically, Lighter Weight = Less Force & Slower Speed Concentrically, Heavier Weight = More Force & Slower Speed Concentrically,Lighter Weight= Less Force &Faster Speed
  38. 38. Negative Velocity Force Isom e Eccentrically, Heavy Weight = More Force & Faster Speed Eccentrically, Lighter Weight = Less Force & Slower Speed To safely & efficiently develop eccentric force generating capacity we need to train submaximal isometric, maximal isometric, slow submaximal eccentric and fast maximal eccentric contraction types
  39. 39. TRULY MAXIMAL FAST ECCENTRIC CONTRACTIONS MAY ACTUALLY BE A FAILED ISOMETRIC CONTRACTION.
  40. 40. ISOMETRIC TRAINING
  41. 41. SUBMAXIMAL ISOMETRIC & QUASI-ISOMETRIC
  42. 42. PAUSED SQUAT
  43. 43. QUASI-ISOMETRIC HIP EXTENSION
  44. 44. MAXIMAL ISOMETRIC
  45. 45. MAXIMAL ISOMETRIC PIN HOLD
  46. 46. MAXIMAL ISOMETRIC SINGLE LEG PIN HOLD
  47. 47. ECCENTRIC TRAINING
  48. 48. MEANS OF ECCENTRIC TRAINING
  49. 49. Flywheel Training
  50. 50. FLYWHEEL & PERFORMANCE ➤Flywheel > standard resistance for eccentric activation ➤6% vs. 3% improvements
  51. 51. FLYWHEEL & PERFORMANCE ➤ Traditional training is effective for power and acceleration➤ Use traditional AND flywheel training
  52. 52. ECCENTRIC TRAINING ACCENTUATED ECCENTRIC TRAINING
  53. 53. ECCENTRIC TRAINING
  54. 54. SUB-MAX LOAD CONTROLLED ECCENTRIC DESCENT
  55. 55. SLOW ECCENTRIC SQUAT
  56. 56. FLYWHEEL RDL
  57. 57. ACCENTUATED ECCENTRIC TRAINING
  58. 58. ECCENTRIC >100% CONCENTRIC
  59. 59. “a short period of resistance training performed with eccentric fast-velocity isokinetic muscle contractions is able to enhance relative and absolute RFD”
  60. 60. WHO SHOULD USE ADVANCED ECCENTRIC TRAINING? ➤ DO YOU WANT TO IMPROVE MUSCLE SIZE? ➤ DO YOU NEED MORE MAX STRENGTH? ➤ DO YOU NEED TO REDUCE INJURY RISK? ➤ DO YOU WANT TO WANT TO IMPROVE ABSORBUTION OF KINETIC ENERGY? ➤ DO YOU WANT TO IMPROVE CHANGE OF DIRECTION?
  61. 61. ACCENTUATED ECCENTRIC OVERLOAD 110-120% CONCENTRIC MAXIMAL LOAD.
  62. 62. SUPRAMAXIMAL ECCENTRIC FLYWHEEL SQUAT
  63. 63. SHOCK LOADING Shock loading requires the rapid deceleration of load and can be performed with specific plyometrics or in resistance training
  64. 64. METHODS OF ECCENTRIC TRAINING
  65. 65. The Importance of Order
  66. 66. FREQUENCY
  67. 67. PARTIAL RANGE
  68. 68. STRONG-WEAK
  69. 69. 2 UP-1 DOWN
  70. 70. PARTNER ASSISTED
  71. 71. PARTNER ASSISTED ECCENTRIC OVERLOAD
  72. 72. Concentric Loading Maximum concentric strength Submaximal Isometric Volitional pauses and quasi-isometric contractions Eccentric Controlled speed at loads <100% of concentric maximum Maximal Isometric Maximal contraction against immovable object for 4-6 seconds Accentuated Eccentric High speed eccentric at loads <100% of concentric maximum Shock Loading High speed and high load contraction with rapid deceleration
  73. 73. Take Home Points A. The importance of eccentric force generating capacity can not be overstated B. Traditional strength methods aren’t sufficient C. Use the appropriate means & methods for your objective D. Max Strength —> Sub Max Iso —> Sub Max Ecc —> Max Iso —> Max Ecc —> Shock Loading
  74. 74. THANKS. Mike Young @mikeyoung ATHLETICLAB.COM PROFORMANCE.PRO FITFORFUTBOL.COM ELITETRACK.COM

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