Competition Phase Training for Elite Jumpers


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This is a presentation given by Dr. Mike Young at the USATF Elite Jumps Summit in Las Vegas in November 2010.

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  • 2008 USATF SuperClinic Dan Pfaff
  • Competition Phase Training for Elite Jumpers

    1. 1. Mike Young, PhD HPC-Athletic Lab Cary, North Carolina
    2. 2. <ul><li>Examining the concept of peaking </li></ul><ul><li>Factors affecting competitive performance </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-competitive phase training to enhance performance readiness </li></ul><ul><li>Regulating performance readiness </li></ul><ul><li>Overshoot phenomenon </li></ul><ul><li>Balancing detraining while achieving overshoot shift during the competitive phase </li></ul><ul><li>Application of concepts </li></ul>
    3. 4. <ul><li>Need for a peak </li></ul><ul><li>Is there really a PEAK? </li></ul>
    4. 7. <ul><li>Peak performance occurs at the intersection of high levels of fitness and low levels of fatigue </li></ul>
    6. 9. <ul><li>Detraining phenomenon </li></ul><ul><li>Training & competitive conundrum- to get better some form of fatigue must be present but to compete at high levels requires low levels of fatigue </li></ul>
    7. 12. <ul><li>The role of the biomotor abilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holistic training </li></ul></ul>
    8. 15. <ul><li>Psychosomatic </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive control issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acute loading fatigue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short approaches </li></ul></ul>
    9. 16. <ul><li>Psychological readiness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-meet activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition warmups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cueing systems </li></ul></ul>
    10. 17. <ul><li>External factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Therapy, etc </li></ul></ul>
    11. 18. <ul><li>Roles of training volume, intensity, frequency and density </li></ul>
    12. 19. <ul><li>Weights are more than just a means of developing strength </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have the potential for profound affect on all systems of body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very strong endocrine and paracrine effect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Likelihood for increasing post-synaptic potentiaion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Loads and intensities are easily quantifiable </li></ul>
    13. 21. <ul><li>3 months of resistance training can produce a significant fiber type shift from IIb  IIa (Andersen and Aagaard, 2000) with IIb decreasing from 9% to 2% </li></ul><ul><li>3 months of detraining caused more than the reversal of these changes, IIb percentage went from 2% post training to 17% post detraining </li></ul>
    14. 22. <ul><li>Staron et al (1991) found similar effects of detraining and also found that prior training history conferred a protective effect on IIb maintenance in subsequent training </li></ul>
    15. 23. <ul><li>Detraining for 7 weeks produces increase in RFD by 6% while sprint performance over 40m remains better than pre-training </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme detraining (thru injury - including 10days bed-rest) caused a 24% increase in RFD! </li></ul>
    16. 24. <ul><li>After 3 months of detraining – the training induced strength gains at low and moderate speeds and EMG levels return to baseline </li></ul><ul><li>However, max unloaded shortening speed and power increased after detraining </li></ul><ul><li>High velocity un-weighted movements (like sprinting and jumping) are likely enhanced with detraining </li></ul>
    17. 25. <ul><li>1994 Jonathon Edwards misses 6 months of training with Epstein Barr virus… </li></ul><ul><li>1995 Jonathon Edwards breaks the world triple jump record 3 times (progresses his PB from 17.44m to 18.29m WR and 18.43m Windy) </li></ul>
    18. 26. <ul><li>He later became Olympic champion and won another World Championship but never regained his performances from 1995….perhaps because he never detrained to the same extent </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme competition taper - last 20 days in the lead up to 1995 World Champs included: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 competitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 x 1RM weights sessions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 sprint session </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 travel days and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>11 rest day </li></ul></ul>
    19. 27. <ul><li>May require near complete cessation of weight training </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of training load by 60+% </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolic impact & caloric output </li></ul><ul><li>Almost certain loss of fitness </li></ul>
    20. 29. <ul><li>The roles of training volume, intensity, frequency and density </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of intensity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role of frequency (“refreshers”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neuro-endocrine considerations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Means and method of loading </li></ul>
    21. 30. <ul><li>Rates of decline of biomotor abilities vary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anaerobic capacities are lost very quickly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximal strength, speed, and power capabilities are relatively long lasting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effect on training design </li></ul>
    22. 32. <ul><li>A warm-up routine that is specific to the day’s goal </li></ul><ul><li>Technical or high neural demand </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate power or elastic strength routines </li></ul><ul><li>The role of general strength activities </li></ul><ul><li>Regenerative modules </li></ul><ul><li>Structured and purposeful cool-down routines </li></ul><ul><li>Prescribed physiotherapy and “RX” work </li></ul>
    23. 33. <ul><li>Specific to tasks and demands of the session </li></ul><ul><li>Elevation of core temps </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility and mobility work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Static </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scripted soft tissue therapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sprint development exercises </li></ul><ul><li>Acceleration progressions </li></ul>
    24. 34. <ul><li>Warmup A </li></ul><ul><li>Acceleration development </li></ul><ul><li>Special endurance runs (optional refresher) </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple jump or throw series: 10-24 total efforts / contacts </li></ul><ul><li>Weight training </li></ul><ul><li>Cooldown with 5’ of jog/skip routines and ART work </li></ul>
    25. 35. <ul><li>Long warmup </li></ul><ul><li>Technical runs and approaches </li></ul><ul><li>General fitness: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General strength series </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barbell complexes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medicine ball routines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cooldown with barefoot and multi-directional work </li></ul>
    26. 36. <ul><li>Warmup B </li></ul><ul><li>Speed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed or Special Speed Endurance Runs; 2-3sets x 3 runs x 40-50m with 2’ and 5’ recoveries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sprint-float-sprint alactic runs w/ full recoveries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intensive multi-jump routine: bounding, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Weight training: similar to Monday with power / eccentric loading </li></ul><ul><li>Neural cooldown </li></ul>
    27. 37. <ul><li>Warmup C </li></ul><ul><li>Grass runs </li></ul><ul><li>Remedial jumping / approach work </li></ul><ul><li>General fitness: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strength series </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medicine ball routines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hurdle mobility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Skipping & barefoot running </li></ul><ul><li>IF A REST DAY IS NEEDED THIS IS WHERE TO DO IT </li></ul>
    28. 38. <ul><li>Warmup B </li></ul><ul><li>“ Dealer’s choice” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acceleration Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weight training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-throw series </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-jumps routines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Therapy? </li></ul>
    29. 39. <ul><li>Warmup B </li></ul><ul><li>Speed endurance or Anaerobic glycolytic emphasis </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility & strength </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special walks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hurdle mobility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cooldown with multi-directional jogging, skipping and shuffling </li></ul><ul><li>Great day for therapy </li></ul>
    30. 40. <ul><li>Competing is training </li></ul><ul><li>Design events entered to fit time of year, athlete’s needs, and health of athlete </li></ul><ul><li>Timing of warm-ups </li></ul><ul><li>Accelerations prime the pump and serve as a checklist </li></ul><ul><li>Hydration and diet </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Post meet therapy and cool-down </li></ul>
    31. 41. <ul><li>Day 1: Explosive emphasis </li></ul><ul><li>Day 2: Elastic and metabolic emphasis </li></ul><ul><li>Day 3: General fitness emphasis </li></ul>
    32. 42. <ul><li>Extend the training plan </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize training plan interruptions </li></ul><ul><li>To overshoot or not to overshoot? </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize detraining of desired physical characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Train all biomotor abilities concurrently throughout the macrocycle </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize varying residual effects of training </li></ul>
    33. 43. <ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>