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SPRINT MECHANICS:
WHAT TO LOOK FOR & HOW TO
EFFECTIVELY MAKE CHANGES!
Mike Young, PhD
HPC - Athletic Lab
Cary, NC
@mikeyou...
•General Concepts of Sprinting
•Motor Learning Fundamentals
•Optimizing Acceleration Mechanics
•OptimizingTransition Mecha...
GENERAL
CONCEPTS OF
SPRINTING
by
Hugo Faasta
BACK SIDE MECHANICS
Refers to the
motions of the swing
leg that occurs
BEHIND the body
FRONT SIDE MECHANICS
Refers to the
motions of the swing
leg that occurs IN
FRONT of the body
ACCELERATION
CHARACTERISTICS
• Velocity @10m: ~8.2 m/s!
• Ground ContactTime: ~0.17 sec!
• Height of foot @ 1st step: 12-3...
*MaximalVelocity: ~12.8 m/s!
!
!
*Ground ContactTime: ~0.08 sec!
*40-45 steps for sub 9.80 100m
*Stride Frequency: ~5 Hz!
...
KINETIC PARAMETERS
• Ground reaction forces
approaching 5x bodyweight!
• Muscle forces in excess of
7x bodyweight
Sprinting 101
Small Mass
+
Big Force
+
Right Direction
+
Minimal Time
Run Faster
• To increase running speed an athlete must increase force to
the ground in the appropriate direction and do so over
incre...
Horizontal vsVertical Propulsive Forces....!
and why you don’t have to pick a side
VERTICAL FORCE
MATTERS…
Rela%onships,among,jumping,performances,and,sprint,parameters,
during,maximum,speed,phase,in,sprin...
from Strength & Conditioning Research
…BUT SO DOES
HORIZONTAL FORCE
THE LEG AS A SWINGING
SPRING
• Refers of the ability of the leg to act as like a spring
• Momentum is developed during acceleration
• Body will move at...
• Increased vertical force
produces:!
• Greater displacement!
• Stiffer spring!
• Better maintenance of
momentum
VERTICAL ...
Vertical
Displacement?
The path of COM will follow a sinusoidal
curve when viewed in the sagittal plane
COM reaches apex i...
Vertical force production is
the key component of top-end
speed and that in turn
influences the ability to
maintain a slig...
Charlie Francis
To go faster, you need
more force. The more
force you apply, the
higher you will rise off
the ground.
Better sprinters may
appear to bounce
In reality, flight times are similar and
ground contact times are shorter
• Stride frequency is comprised of two components: !
1. Ground contact time !
2. Flight time!
• The best sprinters spend l...
The benefit of greater force application is two-fold:!
• Increased stride length • Increased stride frequency
STRIDE LENGTH...
To run faster there is only ONE solution
Apply More Mass
Specific Force to
the Ground!
Motor
Learning
Sprinting is an extremely complex motor task
involving repeated rapid ‘switching on and off’
of practically every muscle i...
Dr. Ralph Mann
Sprinting fast is an
unnatural activity
Loren Seagrave
TRUE learning is
assessed by retention
Things to Consider
Intrinsic
vs.
Augmented feedback
Knowledge of results
vs.
Knowledge of performance
Novice
vs.
Expert
X
Internal vs External Cues
Feedback
Frequency
Clear.
Concise.
Concrete.
Accelerate like a
plane taking off
Elbow the short person
Hit the ground like
a sledge hammer
You’re running like
a hamster in a
spinning wheel
Make your legs
like pistons
Good Feedback is like Triage…
Don’t fix a hangnail before a heart attack
Optimizing
Mechanics
General Sprinting
Mechanics
•Better sprinters are front-side
dominant
•Better sprinters have shorter
contact times
•Full extension neither needed
nor ...
POS TU URE
The first most
important
aspect of speed
is posture.
TomTellez
Posture is like the mast and rudder for the limbs
Posture
Trunk Erect
Head Level
Hips Tall
Posture
• Movements of the limbs
originate from the core of
the body!
• Proper stabilization and
alignment of the core
ensures app...
PELVIC TILT
Posterior Tilt = less
hamstring tension,
more QFM tension!
Anterior Tilt = more
hamstring tension, less
QFM te...
Acceleration:
What to See.
What to Say.
What to See
• Big split of arms & legs
• Forward lean (from the ankles)
• Neutral postural alignment
pushing through long ...
What to Say
• “Knees to chest”
• “Shade the sun”
• “Feel the feet behind you”
• “Push the ground away”
• “Legs like piston...
Transition:WhatToSee.WhattoSay.
What to See
• Continued progression of
body angles
• Preservation of posture
• Gradual changes in limb
movement magnitude
...
What to Say
• “Push yourself tall”
• “Tuck the hips”
• “Cheek to cheek”
• “Step over the ankle, step
over the calf, step o...
Top Speed: What To See. What To Say.
EFFECTIVE GROUND
CONTACT POSITION
What to See
• Upright posture
• Powerful & dynamic arm swing (not
locked at 90 deg)
• High knee recovery
• Front side domi...
What to Say
• “Balance a bowl on your head”
• “Slam the elbows down”
• “Step over the knee”
• “Feel everything in front”
•...
Creating a learning
environment
Creating a learning
environment
Try to coach without “coaching” by
creating an environment that
facilitates motor learning...
Block Serial Random
Falling Start! Falling Start! Crouch Start
Falling Start! Crouch Start Falling Start!
Falling Start! S...
Practice Variability?
Increasing Variability Enhances Learning
Surface
Weather
Block position
Gun vs Clap
Alone or with pa...
FRAMEWORK FOR SKILL
ACQUISITION
Contextual Interference
Movement
& Task
Variability
Low Practice
Variability
Beginners
Exp...
Use Tools And
environments
that facilitate
learning
SPRINTING IS A SKILL
SPRINTING FASTER IS THE RESULT OF PUTTING MORE FORCE IN
TO THE GROUND AT AS LITTLE BODY MASS AS POSSI...
@MIKEYOUNG!
ATHLETICLAB.COM!
ELITETRACK.COM!
FITFORFUTBOL.COM!
HPCSPORT.COM!
SLIDESHARE.NET/HPCSPORT!
THANKS
Vertical Displacement? The path of
Vertical Displacement? The path of
Vertical Displacement? The path of
Vertical Displacement? The path of
Vertical Displacement? The path of
Vertical Displacement? The path of
Vertical Displacement? The path of
Vertical Displacement? The path of
Vertical Displacement? The path of
Vertical Displacement? The path of
Vertical Displacement? The path of
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Vertical
Displacement?
The path of COM will follow a sinusoidal
curve when viewed in the sagittal plane
COM reaches apex in flight
COM low point during support

Published in: Sports
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  • Hey guys! Who wants to chat with me? More photos with me here 👉 http://www.bit.ly/katekoxx
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  • Hi Mike... Thanks for Sharing these Infomation.
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  • Hi Mike where did you get the info regarding kinetic parameters for this presentation, really interesting how much force goes through the body and i need to reference this for a presentation?
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  • Love your stuff
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