Program on Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research (HPCR) Harvard University<br />The Environment in Armed Conflict: Mil...
The Environment in Armed Conflict:<br />Military or Civilian Asset?<br />Live WebseminarJuly 15, 2010<br />Mrs. Naz Modirz...
	The Live Seminar will examine the legal instruments and policy tools available to protect the environment in situations o...
Which mechanisms could best monitor legal infringements pertaining to, and address claims for, environmental damage sustai...
In what ways, if any, do international and domestic environmental law interact with international humanitarian law during ...
Panelists <br />Dr. Karen Hulme<br />University of Essex, UK<br />Tara Smith<br />Irish Centre for Human Rights<br />Profe...
Dr. Karen Hulmeis a senior lecturer in the School of Law at the University of Essex, England. Karen was awarded a PhD in 2...
Environment in armed conflict <br />IEL and IHL<br />Military or civilian?<br />IHL protections<br />WLS threshold of harm...
To what extent does IEL continue to apply in armed conflict?<br />Check out the ILC topic on the Continuation of Treaties ...
Environment: Military or Civilian?<br />‘military objective’ (Art.52(2) API)<br />	Attacks shall be limited strictly to mi...
Environment protected at all times by:<br />Art. 35(3) API<br />	‘It is prohibited to employ methods or means of warfare w...
Widespread, long-term AND severe (WLS)<br />	API Travauxpréparatoires<br />	Long-term = decades<br />	Severe = some human ...
Taking care of the environment<br />Art. 55(1) API<br />Care shall be taken in warfare to protect the natural environment ...
Environment and Armed Conflict<br />	Issues:<br />Climate change and conflict<br />Conflict resource exploitation<br />Wea...
Tara Smith is an Attorney-at-Law in New York and the Connect Doctoral Research Fellow at the Irish Centre for Human Rights...
Accountability for Breaches of Environmental International Humanitarian Law<br />ENFORCEMENT<br /><ul><li>     Contextuali...
     Enforcement of Relevant IHL Provisions</li></ul>International Armed Conflict<br />	Non-International Armed Conflict<b...
Accountability for Breaches of Environmental International Humanitarian Law<br />CRIMINAL ACCOUNTABILITY<br /><ul><li>    ...
     Appropriateness of available sanctions
     Advantages and disadvantages  to criminal prosecution</li></ul>Enforcement	Criminal Accountability	Civil Liability	Co...
Accountability for Breaches of Environmental International Humanitarian Law<br />CIVIL LIABILITY<br /><ul><li>     Overvie...
     Adapting the UNCC model for the future</li></ul>Enforcement	Criminal Accountability	Civil Liability	Conclusion<br />
Accountability for Breaches of Environmental International Humanitarian Law<br />CONCLUSION<br />Criminal <br />Accountabi...
Professor Eric Talbot Jensen is a Visiting Assistant Professor at Fordham Law School in New York City, where he teaches Pu...
Outline<br />Military Targeting Process<br />Principle of Proportionality<br />Environment as a “Civilian Object”<br />Mil...
Military Targeting Process<br />Necessity<br />Distinction<br />Civilian Objects and Military Objectives<br />Nature, Loca...
Principle of Proportionality<br />“may be expected” <br />Rendulic Rule<br />“incidental loss of civilian life, injury to ...
Environment as a “Civilian Object”<br />“Civilian object” or something different<br />Non-parties to API<br />Letter of Tr...
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The Environment in Armed Conflict: Military or Civilian Asset?

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The Live Seminar examined the legal instruments and policy tools available to protect the environment in situations of armed conflict. Against the backdrop of the release of a United Nations Environment Programme report, this Seminar addressed the following questions:

* How are notions such as “widespread,” “long-term,” and “severe” damage to the environment defined in international humanitarian law and international criminal law?

* Which mechanisms could best monitor legal infringements pertaining to, and address claims for, environmental damage sustained during armed conflict?

* In what ways, if any, do international and domestic environmental law interact with international humanitarian law during armed conflict?

These questions were examined by looking at the level and types of legal protection afforded to the environment in both international and non-international armed conflicts.

Naz Modirzadeh (Associate Director at the Program on Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research) hosted the discussion.

Panelists included:

Dr. Karen Hulme, University of Essex, School of Law

Professor Eric Jensen, Fordham University School of Law

Tara Smith, Irish Center for Human Rights

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The Environment in Armed Conflict: Military or Civilian Asset?

  1. 1. Program on Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research (HPCR) Harvard University<br />The Environment in Armed Conflict: Military or Civilian Asset?<br />July 15, 2010<br />
  2. 2. The Environment in Armed Conflict:<br />Military or Civilian Asset?<br />Live WebseminarJuly 15, 2010<br />Mrs. Naz Modirzadeh<br />Associate Director<br /> Program on Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research at Harvard University<br /> Ms. Angharad Laing<br />Program Associate<br />Program on Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research at Harvard University<br />
  3. 3. The Live Seminar will examine the legal instruments and policy tools available to protect the environment in situations of armed conflict. Against the backdrop of the release of a United Nations Environment Programme report, the Seminar will address the following questions: <br /><ul><li>How are notions such as “widespread,” “long-term,” and “severe” damage to the environment defined in international humanitarian law and international criminal law?
  4. 4. Which mechanisms could best monitor legal infringements pertaining to, and address claims for, environmental damage sustained during armed conflict?
  5. 5. In what ways, if any, do international and domestic environmental law interact with international humanitarian law during armed conflict?</li></ul> These questions will be examined by looking at the level and types of legal protection afforded to the environment in both international and non-international armed conflicts.<br />
  6. 6. Panelists <br />Dr. Karen Hulme<br />University of Essex, UK<br />Tara Smith<br />Irish Centre for Human Rights<br />Professor Eric Talbot Jensen<br />Fordham Law School<br />
  7. 7. Dr. Karen Hulmeis a senior lecturer in the School of Law at the University of Essex, England. Karen was awarded a PhD in 2002. And her book entitled, War Torn<br />Environment: Interpreting the Legal Threshold (2004) published by MartinusNijhoff, won the Lieber Society’s ASIL prize for 2004. Karen has also written articles on the legality of depleted uranium ammunition and cluster weapons, and authored a chapter analysing the environmental provisions of the ICRC Study in the BIICL/Chatham House book, Perspectives on the ICRC Study on Customary International Humanitarian Law (2007).<br />
  8. 8. Environment in armed conflict <br />IEL and IHL<br />Military or civilian?<br />IHL protections<br />WLS threshold of harm<br />Precautions and Rule 44<br />Outline<br />
  9. 9. To what extent does IEL continue to apply in armed conflict?<br />Check out the ILC topic on the Continuation of Treaties in Armed Conflict<br />Compatibility <br />
  10. 10. Environment: Military or Civilian?<br />‘military objective’ (Art.52(2) API)<br /> Attacks shall be limited strictly to military objectives. In so far as objects are concerned, military objectives are limited to those objects which by their nature, location, purpose or use make an effective contribution to military action and whose total or partial destruction, capture or neutralization, in the circumstances ruling at the time, offers a definite military advantage.<br />
  11. 11. Environment protected at all times by:<br />Art. 35(3) API<br /> ‘It is prohibited to employ methods or means of warfare which are intended, or may be expected, to cause widespread, long-term and severe damage to the natural environment.’<br /> CIHLS Rule 45<br /> The use of methods or means of warfare that are intended, or may be expected, to cause widespread, long-term and severe damage to the natural environment is prohibited. <br />
  12. 12. Widespread, long-term AND severe (WLS)<br /> API Travauxpréparatoires<br /> Long-term = decades<br /> Severe = some human harm<br /> Widespread??<br /> 2004 Operational Law Handbook for JAGs: ‘credible’ interpretations:<br /> Widespread = several hundred square kms<br /> Severe = any act that prejudices the health or survival of the population <br />
  13. 13. Taking care of the environment<br />Art. 55(1) API<br />Care shall be taken in warfare to protect the natural environment against widespread, long-term and severe damage… <br /> ART.57 API<br /> 1. In the conduct of military operations, constantcare shall be taken to spare the civilian population, civilians and civilian objects.<br /> 2. With respect to attacks, the following precautions shall be taken: <br /> (ii) take all feasible precautions in the choice of means and methods of attack with a view to avoiding, and in any event to minimizing, incidental loss or civilian life, injury to civilians and damage to civilian objects<br /> CIHLS Rule 44<br /> Methods and means of warfare must be employed with dueregard to the protection and preservation of the natural environment. In the conduct of military operations, all feasible precautions must be taken to avoid, and in any event to minimise, incidental damage to the environment. Lack of scientific certainty as to the effects on the environment of certain military operations does not absolve a party to the conflict from taking such precautions.<br />
  14. 14. Environment and Armed Conflict<br /> Issues:<br />Climate change and conflict<br />Conflict resource exploitation<br />Weapons – e.g., Depleted uranium<br />Clean-up/restoration <br />War crimes prosecution<br />Compensation for environmental damage<br />
  15. 15. Tara Smith is an Attorney-at-Law in New York and the Connect Doctoral Research Fellow at the Irish Centre for Human Rights. She holds a Bachelor of Civil Law from University College Dublin and a Master of Laws in International Human Rights Law<br />from the National University of Ireland, Galway. Tara Smith is currently completing her doctoral thesis on the protection of the environment in non-international armed conflict. She is also a member of the Consortium for Comparative Research on Regional Integration and Social Cohesion’s environmental working group. Previously, she has worked as a Research Fellow on the post-conflict justice themed-project ‘Fighting Impunity and Promoting International Justice’ at the International Institute for Higher Studies in Criminal Sciences (ISISC), in Siracusa, Italy. Her research interests include international criminal law, domestic criminal law, the laws of armed conflict, environmental law, public international law and post-conflict justice. <br />
  16. 16. Accountability for Breaches of Environmental International Humanitarian Law<br />ENFORCEMENT<br /><ul><li> Contextualising Enforcement Issues
  17. 17. Enforcement of Relevant IHL Provisions</li></ul>International Armed Conflict<br /> Non-International Armed Conflict<br />Enforcement Criminal Accountability Civil Liability Conclusion<br />
  18. 18. Accountability for Breaches of Environmental International Humanitarian Law<br />CRIMINAL ACCOUNTABILITY<br /><ul><li> Elements of an environmental war crimes prosecution
  19. 19. Appropriateness of available sanctions
  20. 20. Advantages and disadvantages to criminal prosecution</li></ul>Enforcement Criminal Accountability Civil Liability Conclusion<br />
  21. 21. Accountability for Breaches of Environmental International Humanitarian Law<br />CIVIL LIABILITY<br /><ul><li> Overview of United Nations Compensation Commission</li></ul> (UNCC)<br /><ul><li> Advantages and disadvantages to civil liability
  22. 22. Adapting the UNCC model for the future</li></ul>Enforcement Criminal Accountability Civil Liability Conclusion<br />
  23. 23. Accountability for Breaches of Environmental International Humanitarian Law<br />CONCLUSION<br />Criminal <br />Accountability<br />vs.<br />Civil<br />Liability<br />Enforcement Criminal Accountability Civil Liability Conclusion<br />
  24. 24. Professor Eric Talbot Jensen is a Visiting Assistant Professor at Fordham Law School in New York City, where he teaches Public International Law, US National Security Law, International Criminal Procedure, and the Law of Armed Conflict. Prior to his current position, he spent 20 years in the US Army, serving in various positions including as the Chief of the Army’s <br />International Law Branch; Deputy Legal Advisor for Task Force Baghdad; Professor of International and Operational Law at The Judge Advocate General’s Legal Center and School; legal advisor to the US contingent of UN Forces deployed to Skopje, Macedonia as part of UNPREDEP; and legal advisor in Bosnia in support of Operation Joint Endeavor/Guard. Professor Jensen is a graduate of Brigham Young University (B.A., International Relations), University of Notre Dame Law School (J.D.), The Judge Advocate General’s Legal Center and School (LL.M.) and Yale Law School (LL.M.).<br /> <br />Professor Jensen’s scholarship focuses on international law, national security law and international criminal law. His recent publications in the area of targeting and environment warfare include Cyberwarfare and Precautions Against the Effects of Attacks, 88 Texas Law Review (forthcoming, 2010); The International Law of Environmental Warfare: Active and Passive Damage During Times of Armed Conflict, 38 Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 145 (2005); Prosecuting Members of the U.S. Military for Wartime Environmental Crimes, 17 Georgetown International Environmental Law Review 651 (2005) (with James Teixeira).<br />
  25. 25. Outline<br />Military Targeting Process<br />Principle of Proportionality<br />Environment as a “Civilian Object”<br />Military Enforcement Mechanisms<br />Active and Passive Environmental Damage<br />
  26. 26. Military Targeting Process<br />Necessity<br />Distinction<br />Civilian Objects and Military Objectives<br />Nature, Location, Purpose, Use<br />Proportionality<br />
  27. 27. Principle of Proportionality<br />“may be expected” <br />Rendulic Rule<br />“incidental loss of civilian life, injury to civilians, damage to civilian objects, or a combination thereof”<br />“excessive in relation to the concrete and direct military advantage anticipated”<br />
  28. 28. Environment as a “Civilian Object”<br />“Civilian object” or something different<br />Non-parties to API<br />Letter of Transmittal<br />Environment is protected as a civilian object<br />NWP 1-14M<br />
  29. 29. Military Enforcement Mechanisms<br />International Tribunals<br />National Courts<br />Courts-Martial<br />Law of War violation<br />Enumerated Crimes<br />Military Offenses<br />Incorporation<br />
  30. 30. Active and Passive Damage<br />Active Environmental Warfare<br />“Using” the environment as a weapon of war<br />Passive Environmental Warfare<br />Actions that have a degrading effect on the environment<br />
  31. 31. Questions and comments<br />
  32. 32. Panelists <br />Dr. Karen Hulme<br />University of Essex, UK<br />Tara Smith<br />Irish Centre for Human Rights<br />Professor Eric Talbot Jensen<br />Fordham Law School<br />
  33. 33. HostNaz ModirzadehProducerAngharad LaingTechnical DirectorJames BrockmanProduction TeamChristina Blunt, Dustin Lewis, Anaïde Nahikian & Catherine Sola<br />
  34. 34. The Live Seminars on Humanitarian Law and Policy are produced by:<br />Program on Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research (HPCR) Harvard University<br />Sponsored by:<br />For more information on the Humanitarian Law and Policy Forum, please visit:<br />http://ihlforum.ning.com<br />or <br /> http://twitter.com/hpcr <br />or contact:<br />ihlforum@hpcr.org<br />

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