Live Seminar 37: Famine and War: A Critical Appraisal of the Challenges to Humanitarian Response in Somalia
Program on Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research (HPCR) Harvard University<br />Famine and War: A Critical Appraisal of the Challenges to Humanitarian Response in Somalia<br />October 11, 2011<br />
Famine and War: A Critical Appraisal of the Challenges to Humanitarian Response in Somalia<br />October 11, 2011<br />Live Web Seminar<br />Mr. Claude Bruderlein<br />Director<br /> Program on Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research at Harvard University<br /> Ms. Naz Modirzadeh<br />Associate Director<br /> Program on Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research at Harvard University<br />
Famine and War: A Critical Appraisal of the Challenges to Humanitarian Response in Somalia<br />The situation in Somalia is dire. More than 750,000 are believed to be at risk of starvation. In the midst of a violent civil war, Somalia is now facing drought and imminent famine. A range of actors — the internationally recognized government of Somalia, Al-Shabaab and its affiliates, third states, the United Nations, international NGOs and civil society organizations — are active in Somalia. Yet, Somalia is facing an almost unprecedented disaster.<br /> This live web seminar will consider the various challenges to humanitarian operations in Somalia, looking at such questions as:<br /><ul><li>What poses the greatest impediment to the population receiving much needed assistance?
What is the relationship – if any – between the armed conflict and famine in Somalia?
Were these conditions predictable? If so, what could have been done to avoid it?
What responsibility do the various actors operating in Somalia bear for the current situation?
What are the operational and policy options available to humanitarian organizations working to try to reduce the suffering of the population? </li></li></ul><li>Panelists <br />Ken Menkhaus<br />Davidson College<br />Bronwyn Bruton<br />Atlantic Council <br />EJ Hogendoorn<br />International Crisis Group<br />Joe Belliveau<br />Médecins Sans Frontières<br />
Dr. Ken Menkhausis professor of Political Science at Davidson College, where he has taught since 1991. Prior to his appointment at Davidson College, he taught for two years at the American University in Cairo, Egypt. He received his Ph.D. in International Studies in 1989 from the University of South Carolina, where he was awarded a Fulbright Scholarship for dissertation research on southern Somalia. His subsequent specialization on the Horn of <br />Africa has focused primarily on development, conflict analysis, peace operations, state-building, and political Islam, involving both academic research and policy work. In 1993-94, he served as special political advisor in the UN Operation in Somalia, and in 1994-95 was visiting civilian professor at the US Army Peacekeeping Institute. He regularly serves as a consultant for the UN, US government, non-governmental organizations, and policy research institutes, and has provided expert testimony on three occasions before subcommittees of the US Senate. In 2002 he was recipient of a US Institute of Peace grant to study protracted conflict in the Horn of Africa. Menkhaus is author of over fifty articles, book chapters, and monographs, including Somalia: State Collapse and the Threat of Terrorism (2004) and “Governance without Government in Somalia” in International Security (2007). He has recently been interviewed on BBC, CNN, FOX, NPR’s “All Things Considered,” the Voice of America, and other media on the crisis in Somalia.<br />
Causes of the crisis; Impediments to humanitarian response<br />Context: <br />long-term dependence on food aid; <br />low production, <br />high poverty; <br />insecurity; <br />recurring drought<br />remittances as safety net<br />Causes: “perfect storm”<br />Severe drought<br />spike in global food and fuel prices<br />market failure<br />US CT policy – suspension of aid late 2009<br />Shabaab agricultural and tax policies<br />Shabaab policy – blockage of most aid <br />Result : tipping point summer 2011: 750,000 in famine conditions, 4 million in need; poor access; dheere season rains and disease; expected fatalities<br />Current impediments:<br />Access without control: In Mogadishu (250,000 famine victims) – TFG corruption, militia diversion of aid, insecurity<br />Lack of access: (In shabaab areas, 500,000 victims): no access for biggest food aid deliverers; limits of new Islamic NGOs; ICRC<br />Restricted population movements<br />US and other CT laws<br />Lack of relief agency surge capacity<br />
Bronwyn Brutonis Deputy Director of the Atlantic Council’s Michael S. Ansari Africa Center. Bronwyn is a democracy and governance specialist with extensive experience in Africa, and was a 2008-2009 international affairs fellow in residence at the Council on Foreign Relations.<br /> Prior to her fellowship appointment, Bronwyn spent three years at the National Endowment for Democracy, where she managed a $7 million portfolio of grants to local and international nongovernmental organizations in east and southern Africa. She has also served as a program manager on the Africa team of the U.S. Agency for International Development’s Office of Transition Initiatives, and as a policy analyst on the international affairs and trade team of the Government Accountability Office. Bronwyn Bruton has authored a series of provocative reports and articles on the Horn of Africa, including the November 2009 Foreign Affairs essay, “In the Quicksands of Somalia,” the March 2010 Council on Foreign Relations Special Report, “Somalia: A New Approach,” and the July 25, 2010 New York Times op-ed, “In Somalia, Talk to the Enemy.” She holds an MPP, with honors, from the University of California at Los Angeles.<br />
EJ Hogendoornis Project Director for the Horm of Africa at International Crisis Group. EJ Hogendoorn and Crisis Group’s Horn of Africa analysts, based in the region, prepare analytical reports on the sources of conflict and violence in the region, with a particular focus on Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, South Sudan and Uganda.<br />He and his team have assessed political stability in both Eritrea and Ethiopia, electoral violence in Kenya, and produced a series of reports on the conflicts in Somalia, Sudan and Uganda. EJ frequently briefs the media, international organisations and government representatives on these issues. He is based in Washington, DC, and travels frequently to the region. EJ has previously examined political dynamics and peace and security issues conflicts in Kenya, Somalia and Sudan. EJ is a former Arms Expert with the United Nations Panel of Experts on Somalia (2002-2003) and Sudan (2005-2006). Prior to that, he worked as a researcher for the Human Rights Watch Arms Division. He has a PhD in Public Affairs (Security Studies), Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University.<br />
1. Conflict in Somalia is over control of resources<br /> 2. Resources include humanitarian aid<br /> 3. Many new aid providers coming to country<br /> 4. Will see more conflict between TGF and other armed actors over control of this assistance<br />
Joe Belliveauis Operations Manager for Médecins Sans Frontières. He is responsible for operations in Somalia, Somaliland, Ethiopia, Myanmar and Iraq. He has worked with MSF for 12 years. Joe has worked in Zambia, DR-Congo, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ethiopia, Zimbabwe, Pakistan and Sudan. He has a Masters in International Relations from the University of Toronto. <br />
The Limits of Emergency Response in Somalia <br /><ul><li>MSF runs 13 medical/nutritional programs in South-Central Somalia as well as large-scale programs in Dadaab, Kenya and Liben, Ethiopia.
The current medical-nutritional crisis will likely persist until mid 2012.
In addition to malnutrition, MSF expects to see more cholera, measles and malaria in the coming months.
Recent scale-up of MSF programs has been in non-Al Shebaab areas. Accessing new areas under Al Shebaab has been very limited, but negotiation is not impossible.
Humanitarian aid is clearly not the answer to this crisis. So what is? </li></li></ul><li>Questions and Comments<br />Questions and comments<br />
HostsNazModirzadeh<br />Claude Bruderlein ProducerElizabeth Holland Technical DirectorJames BrockmanProduction TeamDustin Lewis, Christina Blunt& AnaïdeNahikian<br />
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