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MOVING BEYOND THE BEHAVIOR-CHANGETRAPHP LiveApril 12, 2013Rosie Ward, Ph.D., MPH, MCHES, BCC, Certified Intrinsic Coach®He...
ORGANIZATIONAL CULTUREMARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC
THE CRISIS OF CAPACITY• Humans are NOT Computers!  – Continuously, at high speeds, for long periods of time,    running mu...
A CULTURE OF BELIEF: Exponential Engagement Attachment to                 Engagedthe company & willingness togive extra ef...
THE IMPORTANCE OF ENERGYThe New Values ExchangeValues                                              How to Renew Each Value...
COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OF E + E + E                                                              27.4%                     ...
SHIFTING FROM BEHAVIOR CHANGETO CULTURE“Behavior change is really the mantra ofwellness, but if a person achieves a lifest...
Section 1THE REALITIES OF MOTIVATIONThe Limitations of “Behavior Modification”
TRAITS OF HUMAN NATURE   •       To be curious   •       To be active   •       To initiate thought and behavior   •      ...
WHY WE DO WHAT WE DO Autonomy &                           Control & Alienation: Authenticity:                            •...
INCREASING COST OF INCENTIVES     • 73% of companies used incentives in 2011 in       health-improvement programs     • Av...
MOTIVATION IS NOT ENOUGH!          Behaviors that change quickly also change back quickly!                                ...
INCENTIVES & RISK REDUCTION • Higher behavior change program completion   rates     – No changes in risk     – No increase...
THE FLAWED PATH TOWARDSOUTCOMES-BASED INCENTIVESMARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC   13
WORDS OF WISDOM…   “After 35 years studying wellness as an economic   strategy, I …challenge and engage organizations   an...
CHANGING THE QUESTION…           How can we motivate others to…?                     How can we create               • Tak...
FOSTERING INTRINSIC MOTIVATION                              FOSTERING INTRINSIC                                  MOTIVATIO...
Section 2       MOVING BEYOND BEHAVIORS       The Critical Role of THINKINGMARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC
REALITY OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENTWhy Behavior Modification Isn’t SustainableMARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC
THE ROLE OF THE BRAIN IN CHANGE                              BRAIN: FRIEND OR FOE?  Prefrontal   Cortex                   ...
BRAINS ARE LIKE RW CDS “Scientists estimate that the average person has 50,000 to 60,000 thoughts a day. 90% of those are ...
WHY DON’T WE ACT IN OUR OWNBEST INTEREST? “Leaders don’t have time for the future because they’re too busy with the presen...
CHANGING WHEN CHANGE IS HARD                              CHANGING WHEN CHANGE IS                                      HAR...
THE HABIT LOOPMARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC   23                                   Source: Charles Duhigg (2012), The Power ...
LESSONS FROM CLAUDE C. HOPKINSMARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC   24                                   Source: Charles Duhigg (2...
MARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC   25
REPLACING HABITSMARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC   26                                   Source: Charles Duhigg (2012), The Powe...
IT ALL COMES DOWN TOLEADERSHIP…   Organizational Effectiveness & Health Determined by:   • Who leaders are BEING, not what...
Section 3       THE ROLE OF INTRINSIC THINKING       A Road Map for SustainabilityMARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC
DEFINING & ASSESSING EFFECTIVETHINKING PATTERNS                              ROBERT S. HARTMAN, PH.D.                     ...
VALUES THINKING / VALUINGHartman’s Hierarchy of Values:• Intrinsic (I) – valuing individual uniqueness• Extrinsic (E) – va...
I, E & S IN ORGANIZATIONS                              Intrinsic       Extrinsic                                  Systemic...
SYSTEMIC (S) vs. INTRINSIC (I)THINKING / VALUING  •S > E > I:                 •I > E > S:  • Values OUR thinking       • V...
APPEARANCE OF VALUE Why so much of the good we want to do doesn’t happen: •        Intrinsic Valuing of People • Extrinsic...
PROGRAMS FAIL BECAUSE THEYARE PROGRAMS  • Programs are nearly always designed to accomplish a    specific goal in a relati...
PROGRAMS ARE TOO NARROWLYFOCUSEDAvoiding the Reductionist Trap…MARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC                              So...
WHEN WE ONLY WORK WITH WHAT IS APPARENT TO US…   •Jumping to conclusions   •Judgment   •Impatience   •Frustration     With...
MARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC
“I wish my parents would see mefor all that I AM instead of all the  things that I haven’t become!”  MARSH & McLENNAN AGEN...
“We cannot solve problems       by using the same kind of       thinking we used when we             created them.”       ...
SHIFTING THINKING PATTERNS “Cracking Open the Intrinsic”                              CHRISTINA MARSHALLMARSH & McLENNAN A...
INTRINSIC COACHING®Strengthening Intrinsic& Overall Thinking     “A paradigm changing approach to better results     for, ...
IC® = IMPROVED COMMUNICATIONSKILLSTHOUGHT                       FROM…                   TO…PATTERN /BEHAVIORListening     ...
IC® = IMPROVED WORK RELATIONSHIPSTHOUGHT                       FROM…                    TO…PATTERN /BEHAVIOR              ...
IC® = IMPROVED RESILIENCY / COPINGWITH STRESSTHOUGHT                       FROM…                    TO…PATTERN /BEHAVIORPe...
Section 4       LEADERS’ ROLE IN       ORGANIZATIONAL HEALTHMARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC
LEADERS’ ROLE IN WELL-BEING •        Leaders shouldn’t ignore well-being as if it’s          beyond the scope of their job...
A “REBIRTH OF PERCEPTION”MARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC
SEEING MORE THAN OUR IDEASABOUT PEOPLEMARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC
Section 5       PUTTING CONCEPTS INTO ACTION       The Journey Towards Sustainable Well-BeingMARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC
SHIFTING OUR APPROACH       Yesterday’s             Today: Organizational Well-Being        Approach                      ...
CHANGING ORGANIZATIONAL HABITS                              PAUL O’NEILLMARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC                  51   ...
I>E>S IN ACTION“Correcting” for Incentives• “Now That” vs. “If/Then”MARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC
I>E>S CASE STUDYCity of Ames, IA• Profile: –    560 employees, 1350 total insured members –    75% M: 25% F –    Avg. age ...
I>E>S CASE STUDYFrom the Mouths of Employees…• “The program is fabulous…the coaching is EVERYTHING!”• “I’m continuing to l...
CONTACT INFORMATIONRosie Ward, Ph.D., MPH, MCHES, BCCCertified Intrinsic Coach®, Certified Valuations SpecialistHealth Man...
© Copyright 2013. RJF, a Marsh & McLennan Agency LLC company. All Rights Reserved.The content provided in this presentatio...
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Moving Beyond the Behavior Change Trap with Rosie Ward, PhD.

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Moving Beyond the Behavior Change Trap with Rosie Ward, PhD.

  1. 1. MOVING BEYOND THE BEHAVIOR-CHANGETRAPHP LiveApril 12, 2013Rosie Ward, Ph.D., MPH, MCHES, BCC, Certified Intrinsic Coach®Health Management Services ManagerRJF, a Marsh & McLennan Agency LLC companyMinneapolis, MN
  2. 2. ORGANIZATIONAL CULTUREMARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC
  3. 3. THE CRISIS OF CAPACITY• Humans are NOT Computers! – Continuously, at high speeds, for long periods of time, running multiple programs at the same time. Source: Tony Schwartz (The Energy Project, www.theenergyproject.com)MARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC
  4. 4. A CULTURE OF BELIEF: Exponential Engagement Attachment to Engagedthe company & willingness togive extra effort A work Enabled environment that supports productivity & performance Individual Energized physical, social & emotional well-being at work MARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC Source: Adrian Gostick & Chester Elton, All In: How the Best 3 Managers Create a Culture of Belief and Drive Big Results (2012)
  5. 5. THE IMPORTANCE OF ENERGYThe New Values ExchangeValues How to Renew Each Value:• Physical: Quantity of energy; • Physical: food, exercise, renewal for sustainability sleep, rest• Emotional: Quality of energy; • Emotional: managing triggers, how you feel influences how you cultivating positive emotions perform • Mental: Flexible focus, quieting – Core emotional need = to feel the mind valued • Spiritual: connecting to a• Mental: Capacity for focus purpose (leaders inspiring (myth of multi-tasking) others)• Spiritual: Serving a mission/purpose bigger than yourself Source: Tony Schwartz (The Energy Project, www.theenergyproject.com)MARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC
  6. 6. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OF E + E + E 27.4% 3x HigherOperating Margin 14.3% 9.9% Companies Companies Companies with Low with High with High Engagement Engagement Levels of E+E+E MARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC Source: Adrian Gostick & Chester Elton, All In: How the Best 5 Managers Create a Culture of Belief and Drive Big Results (2012)
  7. 7. SHIFTING FROM BEHAVIOR CHANGETO CULTURE“Behavior change is really the mantra ofwellness, but if a person achieves a lifestylebehavior change, only to return to the sameunhealthy environment, what can we expect willhappen? We set up wellness for failure if we don’twork on improving the environment and culturebefore we work on individual behavior change.”(Dee Edington, Ph.D., The Art of Health Promotion, Sept./Oct. 2012)MARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC 6
  8. 8. Section 1THE REALITIES OF MOTIVATIONThe Limitations of “Behavior Modification”
  9. 9. TRAITS OF HUMAN NATURE • To be curious • To be active • To initiate thought and behavior • To make meaning from experience • To be effective at what we value Sources: Brandt (1999) & Chance (1992)MARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC
  10. 10. WHY WE DO WHAT WE DO Autonomy & Control & Alienation: Authenticity: • Actions come from being pressured • Actions come from true • Acting without sense of sense of self personal endorsement • Behavior isn’t expression of selfMARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC Source: Deci, E. (1995). Why We Do What We Do: Understanding Self-Motivation
  11. 11. INCREASING COST OF INCENTIVES • 73% of companies used incentives in 2011 in health-improvement programs • Average Incentive Values Increasing: - 2011: $460 - 2010: $430 - 2009: $260 Heavy Use of Extrinsic Incentives → It costs more over time to get the same result.MARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC Source: National Business Group on Health (2012)
  12. 12. MOTIVATION IS NOT ENOUGH! Behaviors that change quickly also change back quickly! Source: Paul Marciano, Ph.D., Carrots and Sticks Don’t Work, (2010)MARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC 11
  13. 13. INCENTIVES & RISK REDUCTION • Higher behavior change program completion rates – No changes in risk – No increases in health improvement • Progress-based incentives??? Source: Gingerich, Anderson & Koland (2012); American Journal of Health PromotionMARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC 12
  14. 14. THE FLAWED PATH TOWARDSOUTCOMES-BASED INCENTIVESMARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC 13
  15. 15. WORDS OF WISDOM… “After 35 years studying wellness as an economic strategy, I …challenge and engage organizations and populations to move wellness to a more mature field and to a higher level of purpose, values, mission and vision. Wellness is too important for all populations to reside at the level of economic gain and the use of incentives, which are built on the belief that "health can be bought." ~Dee Edington, Ph.D. (Jan. 24, 2013)MARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC 14
  16. 16. CHANGING THE QUESTION… How can we motivate others to…? How can we create • Take their medications CONDITIONS within which • Exercise • Do their chores/homework others will motivate • Eat healthy • Etc. themselves?MARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC Source: Deci, E. (1995). Why We Do What We Do: Understanding Self-Motivation
  17. 17. FOSTERING INTRINSIC MOTIVATION FOSTERING INTRINSIC MOTIVATION • Occurs when learning activity & learning environment elicit motivation in a person. • Key to organizational effectiveness = empowered & intrinsically motivated employees. • Individual thoughts central to intrinsic motivation & self- leadership – Organizations need to create an environment that fosters developing and maintaining constructive thinking.MARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC Sources: Brandt (1999); Chance (1992); Lahiry (1994); Neck & Manz (1992)
  18. 18. Section 2 MOVING BEYOND BEHAVIORS The Critical Role of THINKINGMARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC
  19. 19. REALITY OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENTWhy Behavior Modification Isn’t SustainableMARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC
  20. 20. THE ROLE OF THE BRAIN IN CHANGE BRAIN: FRIEND OR FOE? Prefrontal Cortex Basal GangliaMARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC
  21. 21. BRAINS ARE LIKE RW CDS “Scientists estimate that the average person has 50,000 to 60,000 thoughts a day. 90% of those are repetitive. 85% of the repetitive thoughts are negative. If leaders have approximately 45,900 negative thoughts a day, and, their followers are doing the same, the most important skill that leaders can develop is training the mind to lead.” –~Suzanne Kryder, Ph.D. (www.themindtolead.com)MARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC
  22. 22. WHY DON’T WE ACT IN OUR OWNBEST INTEREST? “Leaders don’t have time for the future because they’re too busy with the present.” ~ Muhammad Yunus “To transform the world, we must first transform ourselves.” Source: Tony Schwartz, “Why Don’t We Act in Our Own Best Interest?”, Harvard BusinessMARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC Review (Jan. 2012)
  23. 23. CHANGING WHEN CHANGE IS HARD CHANGING WHEN CHANGE IS HARD…MARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC Source: Chip Heath & Dan Heath, Switch: How to Change Things When Change is Hard
  24. 24. THE HABIT LOOPMARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC 23 Source: Charles Duhigg (2012), The Power of Habit
  25. 25. LESSONS FROM CLAUDE C. HOPKINSMARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC 24 Source: Charles Duhigg (2012), The Power of Habit
  26. 26. MARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC 25
  27. 27. REPLACING HABITSMARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC 26 Source: Charles Duhigg (2012), The Power of Habit
  28. 28. IT ALL COMES DOWN TOLEADERSHIP… Organizational Effectiveness & Health Determined by: • Who leaders are BEING, not what they’re doing. • Cohesive leadership teams • Leaders recognizing when their thinking isn’t serving them • Leaders being intentional vs. habitual in their thinking and actions • Leaders recognizing the importance for their ongoing development.MARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC 27 Sources: The Arbinger Institute, Leadership and Self Deception (2010); Patrick Lencioni, The Advantage (2012
  29. 29. Section 3 THE ROLE OF INTRINSIC THINKING A Road Map for SustainabilityMARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC
  30. 30. DEFINING & ASSESSING EFFECTIVETHINKING PATTERNS ROBERT S. HARTMAN, PH.D. Life Purpose:Life Question: “I dedicate“Why is evil so myself to finding easy to out how toorganize, while organize good.” good is not?” Good Defined: A thing is good when it has all its propertiesMARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC
  31. 31. VALUES THINKING / VALUINGHartman’s Hierarchy of Values:• Intrinsic (I) – valuing individual uniqueness• Extrinsic (E) – valuing function• Systemic (S) – valuing concepts/ideas; ought/should• I > E > S – people are more valued than things; things are more valued than mere ideas of things or people. Sources: Hartman (1967) & Pomeroy (2005)MARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC
  32. 32. I, E & S IN ORGANIZATIONS Intrinsic Extrinsic SystemicRoles/Job Functions I Want to be Policies & fully alive at Procedures Operational work Tasks I have unique Mission, Vision, gifts & talents ValuesMARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC
  33. 33. SYSTEMIC (S) vs. INTRINSIC (I)THINKING / VALUING •S > E > I: •I > E > S: • Values OUR thinking • Values OTHER person’s thinking • Conclusive / Evaluative • Expansive, NEW thinking • Only sees content • Takes a little longer • Habitual (i.e., basal ganglia) • Recognizes there’s more than what’s merely apparent to us. • Narrowing, analyzing • Quick, no pause, no new thinkingMARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC Source: WELCOA, “Changing the Game of Health Coaching” (2010)
  34. 34. APPEARANCE OF VALUE Why so much of the good we want to do doesn’t happen: • Intrinsic Valuing of People • Extrinsic Valuing of People - People as Things (predictable, replicable, and comparable – Why can’t you be like your cousin?) • Systemic Valuing of People - People as Ideas (Imagined – You should sit and be quiet, do what I think, etc.) Source: Christina Marshall, Marshall-Hartman Synthesis (Intrinsic Solutions GroupMARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC 33 International, 2012)
  35. 35. PROGRAMS FAIL BECAUSE THEYARE PROGRAMS • Programs are nearly always designed to accomplish a specific goal in a relatively short time period. • Programs fail because people view them as something to be done for a period of time and not as something that needs to be incorporated into their lifestyle. • What organizations want are employees who work hard all the time and not just when they are chasing carrots. • “Programs don’t fundamentally change employees’ beliefs or commitment to their job; they just change their behavior during the course of the program.”MARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC 34 Source: Paul Marciano, Ph.D., Carrots and Sticks Don’t Work, (2010)
  36. 36. PROGRAMS ARE TOO NARROWLYFOCUSEDAvoiding the Reductionist Trap…MARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC Source: Christina35 Marshall, Marshall-Hartman Synthesis (Intrinsic Solutions Group International, 2012)
  37. 37. WHEN WE ONLY WORK WITH WHAT IS APPARENT TO US… •Jumping to conclusions •Judgment •Impatience •Frustration Without the Capacity and Ability to work with more than what is merely apparent, you can never be anything other than my ideas about you…MARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC
  38. 38. MARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC
  39. 39. “I wish my parents would see mefor all that I AM instead of all the things that I haven’t become!” MARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC
  40. 40. “We cannot solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them.” ~Albert EinsteinMARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC
  41. 41. SHIFTING THINKING PATTERNS “Cracking Open the Intrinsic” CHRISTINA MARSHALLMARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC
  42. 42. INTRINSIC COACHING®Strengthening Intrinsic& Overall Thinking “A paradigm changing approach to better results for, with, and through people” by “increasing people’s capacity to think better about choices, especially by increasing intrinsic thinking” (Intrinsic Solutions International) • Shifts thinking to I>E>S: – Improves Resiliency and Work/Self Balance – Improves Communication – Improves Relationships – Teams: Get more done in less timeMARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC
  43. 43. IC® = IMPROVED COMMUNICATIONSKILLSTHOUGHT FROM… TO…PATTERN /BEHAVIORListening • Talk more than • Listen more than listen. talk. • Interrupt people to • Let people finish provide own their thoughts. thoughts & ideas.Engaging Others • Give advice/tell • Ask questions toin Conversation people what I think elicit their best they should do. thinking so they can decide for themselves what they want to do.MARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC Source: Rosalind Ward, Ph.D. (2008)
  44. 44. IC® = IMPROVED WORK RELATIONSHIPSTHOUGHT FROM… TO…PATTERN /BEHAVIOR • Get employees to • Allow employees toColleagues / do their jobs and create own way ofEmployees tell them what to being effective in do. their roles. • Impatient; jump in • More patient; allow to fix problems for people to figure others. things out for themselves.Customers • Lecture clients/ • Let them talk; ask customers on what ?s about what they they should do want and what is based on my important and thinking about their providing guidance situation. from there.MARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC Source: Rosalind Ward, Ph.D. (2008)
  45. 45. IC® = IMPROVED RESILIENCY / COPINGWITH STRESSTHOUGHT FROM… TO…PATTERN /BEHAVIORPerception of • Overwhelmed by • Focus on what is stressful situations most important;Stress & trying to figure gain clarity about out what to do. situations before moving into action steps, resulting in less stress and not feeling overwhelmed.Handling Personal • Acting based on • Act based on what habits. is most important.Challenges • Recognizing I can • Feeling like a victim make a difference of circumstances. in my life.MARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC Source: Rosalind Ward, Ph.D. (2008)
  46. 46. Section 4 LEADERS’ ROLE IN ORGANIZATIONAL HEALTHMARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC
  47. 47. LEADERS’ ROLE IN WELL-BEING • Leaders shouldn’t ignore well-being as if it’s beyond the scope of their jobs. • People who agree their manager cares about them as a person: – Are more likely to be top performers – Produce higher quality work – Are less likely to be sick – Are less likely to change jobs – Are less likely to get injured on the jobMARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC Source: Rath & Harter (2010), Wellbeing: The Five Essential Elements
  48. 48. A “REBIRTH OF PERCEPTION”MARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC
  49. 49. SEEING MORE THAN OUR IDEASABOUT PEOPLEMARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC
  50. 50. Section 5 PUTTING CONCEPTS INTO ACTION The Journey Towards Sustainable Well-BeingMARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC
  51. 51. SHIFTING OUR APPROACH Yesterday’s Today: Organizational Well-Being Approach Work HA Environment Cognitive Total Well- Stimulation Being Ind. & Org. Biometric Screenings Assessment Strengthen Increase Incent Leaders I>E>S Behaviors Biometrics OptionalLimited in scope; lacking in sustainability Engagement & MARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC Sustainability
  52. 52. CHANGING ORGANIZATIONAL HABITS PAUL O’NEILLMARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC 51 Source: Charles Duhigg (2012), The Power of Habit
  53. 53. I>E>S IN ACTION“Correcting” for Incentives• “Now That” vs. “If/Then”MARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC
  54. 54. I>E>S CASE STUDYCity of Ames, IA• Profile: – 560 employees, 1350 total insured members – 75% M: 25% F – Avg. age = 44 – 5 unions environment• Highlights: – 95% Retention Rate over 7 years – Started w/ 60% low risk, now 80% (maintained for 5 years) – Required IC® sessions – It’s about the message & approach, not the money!MARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC
  55. 55. I>E>S CASE STUDYFrom the Mouths of Employees…• “The program is fabulous…the coaching is EVERYTHING!”• “I’m continuing to learn more about myself…it’s not just about weight loss and exercise.”• “Glad the City has this…it shows they care about me as a person and just as an employee.”• “This creates such a great environment…I have pride in the organization.”• “This would be one of the hardest things to let go of if I were ever to leave the City. It is a huge benefit that we have! My doctor finds that this is amazing that we have this!”MARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC
  56. 56. CONTACT INFORMATIONRosie Ward, Ph.D., MPH, MCHES, BCCCertified Intrinsic Coach®, Certified Valuations SpecialistHealth Management Services ManagerRJF, a Marsh & McLennan Agency LLC companywardr@rjfagencies.com, (763) 548-8861www.rjfagencies.comwww.DrRosieWard.com MARSH & McLENNAN AGENCY LLC
  57. 57. © Copyright 2013. RJF, a Marsh & McLennan Agency LLC company. All Rights Reserved.The content provided in this presentation is proprietary and confidential and not for distribution without written consent from MMA.

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