Global Risk Factors3 - poor diet, physical inactivity, tobacco useFOUR - heart disease, type 2 diabetes, lung disease and some cancers50 - per cent of deaths in the world www.3four50.com
The Future Workforce...• Older• With more long term conditions or „lifestyle‟ conditions• Caring for others• Obese with diabetes and/or heart problems• In the kind of jobs more likely to have an impact on psychological health• Working in knowledge-intensive or service industries Source: „The future health of the workforce: 2009 to 2030“
Top Employer Objectives Driving Wellness Initiatives Africa/ Latin United Mid East Asia Australia Canada Europe America StatesImprove productivity/presenteeism 2 5 4 1 1 1 2Improve morale/engagement 1 2 2 3 2 2 4Reduce employee absence 5 6 3 2 4 7 3 3Improve workplace safety 2 4 1 6 6 3 6Maintain work ability 4 1 7 5 4 5 4 7Further org. values/mission 5 3 4 8 7 3 5 5Attract and retain employees 8 8 7 8 7 8 8Promote corporate image/brand 7 7 6 9 10 10 9Reduce health care/ins. costs 11 11 10 5 11 11 1Social/community responsibility 9 9 9 10 9 6 10Comply with legislation 9 10 11 11 8 9 11Supplement govt health care 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 Preliminary (pre-publication) results from 2010 Global Health Promotion Survey 5
Europe • 11% estimated to have a mental disorder • Stress-related conditions are the second most reported work-related health problem, affecting 22% of workers from EU 27 (2005) • In 2007, productivity-related costs of mental health disorders in the EU-25 was estimated at 136 billion Euros.Sources:European Pact for Mental Health and Well-Being, Eur J of Neurology, 2005,European Agency for Safety and Health at Work
Italian Legislation• Legislative Decree no. 81/08 (106/09)• in accordance with the European Agreement of 8 October 2004• Stress risk evaluation is mandatory as of Dec.31• Dynamic process: should be repeated if e.g., changes during the manufacturing process or the organization of work relevant for health and safety of workers occur• Implications: employers now taking note and implementing assessment systems 10
World Health Organisation• Directs and coordinates authority for health within the United Nations system since 1948• Provides leadership on global health matters• Sets norms and standards• Provides technical support to countries• Shapes the health research agenda• Articulates evidence-based policy options• Monitors and assesses health trends• headquartered in Geneva
Workplace Health Timeline Key Conventions/Declarations: 1950 Joint Committee on Occupational Health (WHO/ILO) 1981 ILO Convention 155 • Required member states to establish national policies on health and safety. 1986 Ottawa Charter 1997 Luxemburg Declaration 2005 Charter for Health Promotion in a Globalized World • Health Promotion „requirement for good corporate practice‟ 2007 Global Plan of Action on Workers Health • Milestone document which provides clear objectives and priority area for action 2009 Healthy Workplace Framework ModelTimeline Of Global Workplace Health EvolutionSource: WHO Healthy Workplace Framework Model, 2010
Basic Occupational Health Services• Application of the primary health care principles in the sector of occupational health• Occupational health services are available to only 10-15% of workers worldwide• Launched by ICOH 14
Priorities of the Global Plan of Action on Workers’ Health• To support workers health policies must be developed and implemented at national and enterprise level;• Health must be protected and promoted in the workplace• Access to BOHS must be improved• Evidence-based effective practices to improve worker health must be communicated• Worker health must be considered in the broader context of education, trade, commerce, and economic development.
AFRO: Regional Office For Africa (Brazzavile, Congo)46 member states2000: Development Occupational Health & Safety in Africa strategy2005: Many African nations in the process of formulating and planning for national strategiesPriorities- Physical work environment- Traditional occupational health and safety issues
PAHO: Regional Office For the Americas (Washington DC, USA)48 member statesRegional Plan on Workers Health :• strengthen capabilities to anticipate, identify, evaluate and control or eliminate risks and dangers in the workplacePriorities:– Promote workers health legislation andregulations– Establish programmes to improve quality ofwork environment– Fostering programmes for health promotionand disease prevention.
EMRO: Regional Office For The Eastern Mediterranean (Cairo, Egypt)21 member states• Primary health care systems provide occupational health servicesPriorities:• physical work environment• elimination and control of physical health and safety hazards• gender issues
EURO: Regional Office For Europe (Copenhagen, Denmark)53 Member states• Comprehensive, resource-rich and sophisticated, yet not unified workplace health network• Various organisations focusing on variety of workplace health aspectsPriorities:• physical, chemical, biological ergonomic and mechanical risks• psychosocial environment• organizational culture
SEARO: Regional Office For South-East Asia (New Delhi, India)11 member states• Region with the highest regional burden of disease attributable to occupational risk factors.Priorities:• informal sector• worker participation• continual improvement process with ongoing measurement and evaluation• need for corporate social investments in the community
WPRO: Regional Office For The Western Pacific (Manila, Philippines)27 Member state• „Regional Guidelines for the Development of Healthy Workplaces‟ (1999)Workplace health models are based on following principles:• Build on local practice• use learning by doing• encourage exchange of experiences
Why Develop a Healthy Workplace Framework?• It‟s the Right Thing to Do: Business Ethics• It‟s the Smart Thing to Do: The Business Case• It‟s the Legal Thing to Do• The Global Perspective 22
The FrameworkSynthesis of best available knowledge and experiences worldwide, as collected and analyzed by occupational health experts in diverse countries.Lead: Occupational Health,Interventions for Healthy Environments, Department of Public Health and Environment 23
What is a Healthy Workplace?based on WHO Health Promotion definition: “A state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease.”
Proposed DefinitionA healthy workplace is one in which workers and managers collaborate to use a continual improvement process to protect and promote the helth, safetty and well- being of the workers and the sustainability of the workpalce by considering identified needs’.
Work influences Physical Safety and Health• Occupational diseases under reported and under recognised• 1.7 million people die per year from occupational diseases (WHO)• 160 million new cases of occupational disease occur (WHO)• MSDs: repetitive strain injuries + cumulative trauma
Work Affects Mental Health and Well-Being• Causation– Work place factors may contribute to existing mental disorders• Demand/Control and Effort/reward• Work-family conflict– E.g. role overload, caregiver strain, work-family interference– Different type of conflict affect the two genders differently• Job Insecurity• Inclusive Work Culture– Moral and job satisfaction leads to increased productivity• Workplace Risk Factors for Mental disorders
The Positive Impact of Work on HealthWork is good for physical and mental health (in general):• self-esteem• companionship• status 28
Worker Health affects the EnterpriseDoes ill health among employees affect the health, effectiveness, productivity or competiveness of an enterprise?YES: difficult to recognize and quantify costs and other effects on the enterprise
How Worker Health and The Community Are InterrelatedClean waterPrimary healthcareLiteracy rateNatural disasters 30
WHO Healthy Workplace ModelComprehensive model emphasisesfour “Avenues of Influence” World Health Organization, Healthy Workplace Framework and Model, February 2010 31
Avenues of Influence for a Healthy WorkplacePhysical Work Environment• hazards: chemical, ergonomic, biological, driving, etc.Psychosocial Work Environment• hazards: poor work organization, organizational culture, shift work issues, fear of job loss, etc.Personal Health Resources• hazards: physcial activity, poor diet, alcohol/drug abuseEnterprise Community Environment• hazards: poor air quality, polluted water, lack of literacy, lack of access to primary health care, etc.
Evaluating Interventions• Cochrane Collaboration “The Cochrane Collaboration is an enterprise that rivals the Human Genome Project in its potential implications for modern medicine.” (The Lancet)• Non-Cochrane Criteria• Grey Literature• Precautionary Principle• Evaluating the Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions
Evidence for Interventions That Make Workplaces HealthierEvidence for Effectiveness of:• Occupational health and Safety Interventions• Psychosocial/Organizational Culture Interventions• Health Promotion in the Workplace• Community Participation
Keys to Success• Leadership engagement• Workers involvement• Gap analysis• Learn from others• Sustainability• Integration
The Process: How to Create a Healthy WorkplaceContinual improvement process:= cycle based upon the premise that in order to always meet customer needs you must continuously improve.
Challenges“For a small enterprise, determining local good practice is important. Talking to local experts or visiting enterprises that have addressed similar situations is a good way to find out what can be done and get ideas on how to do it.” 37
ChallengesDeveloping healthy work- places in the informal economic sector is a global challenge that needs to be faced. 38
Questions on theWHO Healthy Workplace Framework?? 39
International WHP Initiatives• Inaugural URAC/GKEN International Health Promotion Awards• World Economic Forum Workplace Wellness Initiative• European Network for Workplace Health Promotion (ENWHP)• International Association for Worksite Health Promotion (IAWHP)• IDWellness 40
The Luxembourg Declaration on WHP in the EU„WHP is the combined efforts of employers,employees and society to improve the healthand well-being of people at work.“This can be achieved by a combination of thefollowing:•improving the work organisation and theworking environment•promoting active participation•encouraging personal development Source: BKK
Inaugural URAC/GKEN International Health Promotion Awards1. International Community Health Awards2. International Workplace Health Awards www.aihpa.org
International Committee• advises the IAWHP on relevant programmatic and cultural issues that extend beyond or outside of the United States• seeks to define the value for and role of worksite health promotion globally• lead the way as a facilitator of communication relative to the integration of worksite health promotion efforts among global and local in- country companies
IAWHP International Plans• Global Roundtable 2012• International column in „Worksite Health“• Global representation in membership and committees
Your ThoughtsHow can the WHO Global Guidance be useful for employers, employees and program providers? - contents - format - distribution 45