Gordon Holness Handout


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Gordon Holness Handout from Gulf Coast Green Symposium 2009

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Gordon Holness Handout

  1. 1. ASHRAE’s Sustainability Goals The Path to Net Zero Energy Buildings Gordon V. R. Holness, P.E. ASHRAE Society President Elect
  2. 2. ASHRAE’s Sustainability Goals y The Path Towards Net Zero Energy Buildings Resolving the Issues of Increasing Demand, Decreasing Supply and Environmental Impact. Ei t lI t
  3. 3. ASHRAE’s Sustainability y Goals ASHRAE Goal - A Sustainable Built Environment 3
  5. 5. ASHRAE Sustainability Initiatives I iti ti ASHRAE is working hard in a wide range of g g areas to support the goals of sustainability for reduction in energy use and green house gas emissions. • 2006 Strategic Plan • Green Guide 2nd Edition • Sustainability Roadmap • Vision 2020 Report – NZEB goals • Building Performance Metrics Projects • ASHRAE Building Energy Labeling Program • Educational, Educational Certification & Research Programs
  6. 6. ASHRAE’s Path Towards Net Zero Energy Buildings • Ad Advanced Energy Design Guides dE D i G id • Standard 90.1 • Standard 189.1 • Standard 100 • Commissioning and Retro- Retro- Commissioning • Operation and Maintenance Guidance
  7. 7. Sustainability Roadmap Approved Jan 06 Defines an approach to developing a leadership position for ASHRAE in sustainability
  8. 8. Vision 2020 June 2007 J Providing tools by g y 2020 that enable the building community to produce market viable NZEBs by 2030
  9. 9. ASHRAE Green Guide • Second Edition • Step b step manual for the entire Step-by-step man al building lifecycle • Construction operation, Construction, operation maintenance, and eventual demolition • Techniques applicable to related technical disciplines • 29 quot;Green Tipsquot; Green Tips • Case studies, checklists, and other practical information
  10. 10. Total Energy Consumption Buildings Consume C 40% of US 21% 19% Primary Energy 28% 32%
  11. 11. Why the Life Cycle of a Building In Energy Efficiency and Sustainable B ildi S t i bl Buildings Initial Construction Cost is only 2% In the Life Cycle of a Building Operational and Energy Cost is only 6% Initial Construction Cost is only 2% Occupancy Cost Accounts for 92% p y Operational and Energy Cost is only 6% p gy y Occupancy Cost Accounts for 92%
  12. 12. Building Operations Represent • 17% of fresh water consumption • 25% of wood consumption f d ti • 33% of CO2 emissions • 30% of waste generation • 40% of energy use (industry 32% and transportation 28%) • 55% of natural gas use g • 72% of electrical energy use
  13. 13. World Marketed Energy Consumption Quadrillion Btu History Projections Source: Energy Information Administration (EIA), International Energy Annual Report 2004
  14. 14. Why Are We Here? 14
  15. 15. PER CAPITA ENERGY CONSUMPTION Worldwide Average 200 Kwh/capita/year China 1800 Kwh/capita/year py Europe 6000 Kwh/capita/year USA 16,000 Kwh/capita/year
  16. 16. Available Data Bases for Commercial Buildings Energy Information Agency under US D d Department of E t t f Energy www.energystar.gov/benchmarks US DOE Building Energy Data Book g gy http://buildingsdatabook.eren.doe.gov./ High Performance Building Data Base www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/high performance /b ildi /hi h f
  17. 17. Available Data Bases for Commercial Buildings Energy Information Agency under US Department of Energy p gy Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey – g gy p y CBECS www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cbecs www eia doe gov/emeu/cbecs Whole Building Design Guide www.wbdg.org Wwww.wbdg.org Wwww wbdg org
  18. 18. Specific Energy Figures CBECS Data for Commercial Buildings 1979 – 125,000 btu/sq. ft./year (Approx) 1999 – 85,100 btu/sq.ft/year , qy 2003 – 91 000 btu/sq.ft/year 91,000 btu/sq ft/year
  19. 19. Specific Energy Figures
  20. 20. Specific Energy Figures
  21. 21. The Case for Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Buildings 17% 30% other th HVACR 8% office equipment 5% water heating 39% lighting li h i 1% cooking Average Energy Consumption in Commercial Buildings
  23. 23. ASHRAE Sustainability Initiatives I iti ti • Advanced Energy Design Guides (AEDG) Retail 30%, Office 30% K 12 S h l 30% R t il 30% Offi 30%, K-12 Schools 30%, Warehouses 30%, - Already Published Highway L d i Hi h Lodgings, H lth C Health Care F iliti Facilities
  24. 24. ASHRAE s ASHRAE’s Advanced Energy Design Guides • Targeting Small Buildings Typically under 20,000 to 50,000 square feet. , q • B d upon CBECS D t Based Data 89% of Commercial Buildings are under 25,000 sq. ft. 25 000 sq ft 53% of Commercial Buildings are under 5,000 sq. ft. 5 000 sq ft
  25. 25. ASHRAE AEDGs If Every One of the 150 000 Downloads of the 150,000 AEDGs Resulted in Just One Project Being Designed at 30% S i Di dt Saving We Would S Save: 78 Trillion Btu/Year 13.25 Million Tons CO2/Year $900 Million Per Year
  26. 26. Development of the Guides p Collaboration of Partner Organizations Management via Steering Group Volunteer team effort 8-15 Member Project Committees 3500+ to 5000+ person-hrs to develop each person hrs Reviewed multiple times during writing process
  27. 27. Goal •Present a way but not the only way to way, build energy efficient buildings that use significantly less energy than those built to the minimum code requirements •At least 30% energy savings when compared to ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Std p 90.1-1999 •30% progress toward a net zero energy building
  28. 28. What s What’s In the Guides? •Section 1 – Introduction – Essentials of Section Achieving the Savings • Section 2 - Integrated design process to achieve energy savings (how to integrate energy into the design f th b ildi ) d i of the building) •Sections 3 & 4 - Recommendations by climate Sections zone including example building designs (the specifics) and case studies •Section 5 - How-to guidance for implementing recommendations (helpful hints and cautions) )
  29. 29. Section 3. Recommendations Tables • Given by climate zone ( (Canada, Mexico added) ) • Combined energy savings based on “systems systems approach” where all recommendations are used • Recommendations based on many EnergyPlus y gy simulations
  30. 30. Recommendation Tables •Prescriptive Prescriptive recommendations identify energy savings without costly calculations or tl l l ti analysis •Energy-saving •E i recommendations for each c ate o e contained on climate zone co ta ed o single small table (K-12 is 2 pages, others on one page) •Tables color-coded to maps •Recommendations must be used with underlying code or standard
  31. 31. Section 4. Case Studies K-12 Example D i K 12 E l Designs b by Climate Zone • Features real examples of advanced building energy designs • Demonstrates flexibility offered i achieving ff d in hi i advanced energy savings levels • Text describes energy features used • In K-12 tables are given for energy savings features implemented and measured energy usage in each case study
  32. 32. Now Wh t? N What? Additional Advanced Energy Design Guides Planned or In Process Energy Efficiency Gu des for Existing e gy c e cy Guides o st g Buildings •Business C •B i Case •Technical Guide Technical •Owning and Operating Guide g p g
  33. 33. 50% and NZEB Design Guides • 50% and NZEB guides are being planned •K-12 School Buildings hope to start soon • Strategic planning has been done to provide structure and identification of research needed • Anticipated these will have more emphasis on integrated design process • Target completion of 50% series is 2009-2011 • Target completion of NZEB series is 2013 2015 year 2013-2015
  34. 34. Net-Zero-Energy Net Zero Energy Buildings Buildings which, on an annual basis, use no more energy than is provided by on- site renewable energy sources.
  35. 35. Cash flow Lease Costs (or Finance Costs) $/year) Utility bills Tot Annua Costs ($ 1 al 2 tal 0 0% 100% Source Energy Savings (%)
  36. 36. Standards Development 90.1 - Design of Commercial Buildings, Except g g, p Low-Rise Residential Goal: 30% increase in stringency between 2004 and 2010 versions 90.1 2004 90 1-2004 increased 11% over 90 1-1999 90.1 1999 New scalar ratio being applied 189.1P 189 1P – Design of High-Performance Green Buildings Minimum criteria for a green/sustainable building Initial target is 30% over 90.1-2004 90 1 2004
  37. 37. Specific Energy Figures ASHRAE Standard 90.1 1975 – 65 000 bt / ft/ 65,000 btu/sq.ft/year (Approx) (A ) 1999 – 53,300 btu/sq.ft/year 2004 – 47,000 btu/sq.ft/year 2010 – 36 000 btu/sq.ft/year (Goal) 36,000 btu/sq ft/year 2020 – 18,000 btu/sq.ft/year (Goal) ASHRAE St d d 189 1 Standard 189.1 2007 – 33,000 btu/sq.ft/year (Goal) 2010 – 25,000 btu/sq.ft/year (Goal) 2020 – 12 500 btu/sq.ft/year (Goal) 12,500 btu/sq ft/year 2030 – Net Zero btu/sq.ft/year (Goal)
  38. 38. Energy Reduction Proposal 6000 kBtu/yr) Energy (k Standard 90.1 n AEDG ASHRAE BOD G l Goal Standard 189 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 Year
  39. 39. ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90 1 90.1 Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings
  40. 40. ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1 Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings i 1 – Purpose 2–– Scope p 3 – Definitions 4 – Compliance 5 – Envelope 6 – HVAC 7–S Service Water i Wt 8 – Elect. Power 9 – Lighting 10 – Other Equipment 11 – Energy Cost 12 – References Appendices & Addenda
  41. 41. Current State Adoptions of Standard 90.1 90 1
  42. 42. ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 189.1 P 189 1 ASHRAE/USGBC/IESNA Standard 189.1, Standard for High-Performance Green Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings g
  43. 43. What is Standard 189.1P? A model code that provides standards for high-performance, green buildings 189.1 applies to all buildings except low-rise residential buildings g (same as ASHRAE/IESNA Std 90.1) not a design guide, not a rating system
  44. 44. Triggers to Accelerate Green Buildings
  45. 45. Goals for Standard 189.1 • Establish mandatory criteria in all topic areas: - one “problem” with existing rating systems is that they contain few mandatory provisions - consequently a designer can achieve “points” consequently, & claim that they have a “green building”, but still make no improvements in some areas • Provide simple compliance options: - another critique of existing rating systems is the th iti f i ti ti t i th need for extensive calculations (e.g. energy) • Complement green building rating programs: - Std 189.1 is not intended to compete with green building rating programs
  46. 46. Potential Users for Standard 189.1 • Organizations with Green Building Rating Systems (USGBC GBI etc ): (USGBC, GBI, etc.): incorporated as the baseline (prerequisite) in a green building rating system • Developers: individual project • Corporations: corporation buildings • Universities: campus buildings • States/municipalities: their own buildings • States/municipalities: basis for incentives, such as zoning bonus for greater height • States/municipalities: all private construction; may need to cite in multiple codes such as zoning, plumbing, energy, building
  47. 47. Standard 189 Topic Areas • Sustainable Sites ( (3 mandatory, 1 prescriptive/performance) y, p p p ) • Water Use Efficiency (3 mandatory, 2 prescriptive/performance) • Energy Efficiency (3 mandatory, 1 prescriptive/performance) • Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) (7 mandatory, 2 prescriptive/performance) • The Building’s Impact on the Atmosphere, Materials and Resources (4 mandatory, 1 prescriptive/performance) • Construction and Operation Plans (9 mandatory, 0 prescriptive/performance)
  48. 48. Energy Efficiency Mandatory Provisions • Metering: meters, meter data collection, and , data storage and retrieval • O it renewable energy power systems On-site bl t with a peak electrical generating capacity of not less than 1.0% of the electrical service load
  49. 49. Energy Efficiency Prescriptive Option (Building Envelope) CZ-5 CZ 5 Boston • Roof insulation: R-4.4 (R-25) continuous, R-8.6 (R-49) i R 8 6 (R 49) attic • Wall: R-2.3 (R-13) cavity + R-1.8 (R-10) cont. ( ) y ( ) R-2.3 (R-13.3) mass wall • Fenestration assembly: U-1.4 (U-0.25) wood, vinyl, fiberglass frame g U-2.0 (U-0.35) curtain wall U-2.6 (U-0.45) other metal SHGC-0.35 SHGC 0 35
  50. 50. Energy Efficiency Prescriptive Option (Mechanical) • Economizer cycle for units > 9.7 kW 97 (33,000 Btuh)
  51. 51. Energy Efficiency Prescriptive Option (Other Equipment) • Energy Star equipment and appliances
  52. 52. Energy Efficiency Performance Option Two criteria: • Annual energy cost: proposed < mandatory plus p yp prescriptive p • A l carbon di id equivalentt (CO e): Annual b dioxide il ) 2 proposed < mandatory plus prescriptive
  53. 53. Indoor Environmental Quality Indoor Environmental Quality Mandatory Provisions M dt P ii • Outdoor air monitoring g • CO2 monitoring in densely occupied mechanically ventilated spaces, spaces and naturally ventilated spaces • Outdoor air flow rate monitoring in non-densely occupied, mechanically ventilated spaces
  54. 54. Indoor Environmental Quality Indoor Environmental Quality Mandatory Provisions • Thermal Comfort • Comply with ASHRAE Std 55 • Mat Systems at Building Entrances
  55. 55. Indoor Environmental Quality Indoor Environmental Quality Mandatory Provisions • Acoustical Control • Defined STC values for t i f exterior andd interior assemblies • Daylighting by toplighting (skylights) • Targeted for big box retail applications
  56. 56. Indoor Environmental Quality Indoor Environmental Quality Performance Option p • Day lighting • Physical or computer model • All regularly occupied spaces • Minimum illuminance target: 300 lux (30 fc) on work surfaces surfaces, 4.5 m (15 ft) from façade, noon equinox • Direct sunlight on work plane < 20% of occupied hours on equinox day
  57. 57. Construction and Operation Mandatory Provisions • Building Commissioning • Fundamental building commissioning > 500 m2 (5000 ft2), or • Acceptance testing of HVAC and lighting, similar to CEC Nonresidential Co p a ce a ua Compliance Manual • Measurement and Verification Plan • Completed prior to 100% DD • Owner responsible for implementation
  58. 58. ASHRAE Sustainability Initiatives • ASHRAE Guideline 0 The Building Commissioning Process • Integrated Building Design Guide • Carbon Equivalent Based Evaluation of Building Construction and Operation • ASHRAE support of the Clinton Climate Change Initiative • C40 L Large Citi Cli t L d hi G Cities Climate Leadership Group (Energy Efficiency Building Retrofit Program) (Account for almost 80% of greenhouse gases) ( f %f ) • Encouraging Renewable Power
  59. 59. Renewable Energy Use 2006 7 % 2005
  60. 60. Our Greatest Opportunities New Buildings? 75% to 80% of All Buildings That will Exist in 2030 Exist Today! y
  61. 61. Our Greatest Opportunities Existing B ildi E i ti Buildings New Buildings Represent g p Only 2% of Construction Projects Existing Buildings Represent 86% of Construction Costs 150 Billi sq.ft. of E i ti B ildi Billion ft f Existing Buildings in i the USA will need to be Renovated in the Next 30 years
  62. 62. Existing Buildings in the USA Consume $140 billion/year in Energy Costs And the USA Spends $500 billion/year in Building R B ildi Renovation ti Clearly our Greatest Opportunity for Reducing Energy Use and Improving Sustainability Lays with Increasing Energy Efficiency in Existing Buildings c e cy st g u d gs
  63. 63. ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 100-2006 63
  64. 64. Identify Potential Energy Saving Measures for Existing Buildings • Routine Maintenance and Repairs • Retro – Commissioning • Utility Tariffs/Negotiations • Tenant Fit Out and Improvements • Equipment Replacement • Major Renovations
  65. 65. Identify Potential Energy Saving Measures for Existing Buildings g g Building Envelope Lighting Systems Window Replacement T8 Versus T12 Lamps Solar Films Compact Fluorescent Bulbs Caulking/Sealing C lki /S li Electronic Ballasts El t i B ll t Enhanced Insulation Day Lighting Controls Motion Sensors HVAC Systems Controls/Other Higher Equip. Efficiencies Management Systems Heat Recovery Maintenance Systems Displacement Ventilation Monitoring/Auditing DOAS Applied Photo Voltaics GSHP Variable Speed Drives
  66. 66. Our Greatest Opportunities On E i ti B ildi O Existing Buildings High Penetration Energy Efficiency Program Could Save 1000’s of MW in Generating Capacity and 10,000’s of GWH in Power Generation Industrial Commercial Residential
  68. 68. NZEB for Federal Facilities Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 ( gy p y (EISA) requires )q federal buildings to reduce their fossil fuel based energy use to zero by 2030. Co- Co-Sponsors: ASHRAE, AIA, ACCA, GBI, ICC, IFMA, NFPA, NIBS, USGBC and others
  69. 69. ASHRAE Sustainability Initiatives Integrated Building Design ASHRAE IBD Manual of Practice Building Information Modeling ASHRAE BIM Guide ASHRAE “SMART” Documents
  70. 70. BIM : Overview BIM – A central “database” of building information from which data is extracted to generate construction documents and ultimately facilitate operation p Facility Mgmt Construction Documents Construction S C t ti Sequencing i Schedules Visualization Quantities/BOM Interference Detection
  71. 71. Building Information Modeling Energy Simulation and Modeling 4/21/2009 71
  72. 72. ASHRAE Sustainability Initiatives SMART Building Materials Building E B ildi Envelope l Glass Technology Day Lighting d S l D Li hti and Solar Innovative and Responsive Insulation
  73. 73. Identify Potential Energy Saving Measures f Existing Buildings for E i ti B ildi Role of Commissioning and Retro Commissioning
  74. 74. ASHRAE Headquarters Renovation Project – A Living Laboratory Lighting Requirements NC and Target LEED Gold Ultimately LEED Gold EB
  75. 75. ASHRAE Headquarters Renovation Project – A Living Laboratory 30% Higher g Ventilation Rate than 62.1 62 1 30% LLower E Energy Use than 90.1 2004
  76. 76. Why is Cx or RCx so Critical? •Buildings are very complex prototypical g y y machines •Unique Unique •Built on-site •Built by hand B ilt b h d •Thousands of independent p components •Most buildings do not operate as Most intended
  77. 77. ASHRAE Guidelines ASHRAE Guideline 0-2005, The Commissioning Process Describes the commissioning process capable of verifying a facility and its systems meet the owner’s project requirements ASHRAE Guideline 1-2007, The HVAC Commissioning Process Describes the technical requirements for the application of the commissioning process that will verify HVAC systems achieve the owner’s project requirements
  78. 78. Project Costs & Savings Cost to  Potential  Fix   Fi    Savings   Concept              Design Construction     O &M Project Timeline  
  79. 79. Satellite Broadcast This Year • Integrated Building Design: Bringing the Pieces Together to Unleash the Power of Teamwork f • Broadcast April 16, 2008 p • Working with DOE to re-broadcast for Federal Agencies Next Year • High Performance Indoor Air Quality •B d Broadcast April 16 2009 t A il 16,
  80. 80. ASHRAE Research Programs g •Research Strategic Plan identifies g many energy efficiency topics •$2.5 million per year in new projects $2.5 •ASHRAE Strategic Plan elements target energy efficiency –given given priority in Research Strategic Plan •Working with Research Advisory Panel and USGBC Research Committee to identify high priority building energy research
  81. 81. ASHRAE Educational and Certification I iti ti C tifi ti Initiatives • ASHRAE Educational Programs - eLearning • Complying with Standard 90.1 py g • Building Commissioning • Engineering for Sustainability • ASHRAE Certification Programs - Engineering for Sustainability Professional - Building Ownership and Operation - Commissioning
  82. 82. Other Information •Federal Energy Savings Performance Contracting document •Professional Engineers Guide to the Energy Star Label for Buildings, EPA •ADA Guide, BOMA •Building Upgrade Manual EPA Manual, •Energy Management Course developed by Misuriello for CSI •ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004 and 2007 + Users Manual •ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2004 and 2007 + Users Manual •ASHRAE Standard 100-2006: Energy Conservation in Existing Buildings B ildi •ASHRAE Standard 105-1984 (RA99): Standard Method of Measuring Building Energy Performance •ASHRAE Guideline 0: Commissioning Process •ASHRAE Guideline 1: HVAC Commissioning g •ASHRAE Guideline 14-2002: Measurement of Energy and Demand Savings
  83. 83. High Performing g g Buildings Magazine g g Launched November 2007 Case St di C Studies Lessons Learned
  84. 84. The Path to Global Sustainability And Energy Efficiency John Ruskin 1875 – When we build let it not be for present use alone. Let it be such work as ourRuskin 1875 – When we John descendants thank us build let it not be for present use alone. Let it be such work as our descendants thank us
  85. 85. Thank You Any Questions?