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# Lesson 1 Introductory Lecture

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An Introduction to Energy Efficiency (Lighting) by Team G-Power [4-086]. Copyright Team G-Power (Hwa Chong Institution, Singapore) 2011.

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### Lesson 1 Introductory Lecture

1. 1. Darrel Long Ong Xin Jie Teo Zheng Jie Team G-Power Energy Efficiency (Lighting) Lesson 1 Introductory Lecture
2. 2. Lesson Objectives Lesson 1 Introductory Lecture
3. 3. <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>Returning , or &quot;bouncing&quot; of a wave off of a surface which resists that kind of wave at the same angle </li></ul>Reflection of Light Lesson 1 Introductory Lecture RECAP: Angle at which light ray enters is the angle of incidence Angle at which light ray exits is the angle of reflection Angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection
4. 4. Reflection of Light <ul><li>Reflections off a smooth surface are sharp </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WHY: Waves are allowed to return &quot;intact“ and undisturbed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If the reflective surface is not smooth , diffuse reflection occurs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WHY: Different parts of the light hit the surface in different places at different depths and different times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results in a mostly blurred image </li></ul></ul>Lesson 1 Introductory Lecture
5. 5. Refraction of Light <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>Change in direction of a wave when it passes into a new substance </li></ul><ul><li>WHY: Different substances affect the speed of light within itself differently </li></ul><ul><li>Optical density : How well light passes through the medium [ The higher the density , the ‘harder’ it is for light to travel through it ] </li></ul>Lesson 1 Introductory Lecture
6. 6. Refraction of Light <ul><li>Normal: Line perpendicular to spot where light hits substance </li></ul><ul><li>If new substance has a higher refractive index/ higher optical density than the original substance , the ray of light will be bent towards the normal </li></ul><ul><li>If new substance has a lower refractive index/ lower optical density than the original substance, the ray of light will be bent away from the normal </li></ul>Lesson 1 Introductory Lecture
7. 7. Reflection and Refraction Lesson 1 Introductory Lecture
8. 8. Practical Application Lesson 1 Introductory Lecture
9. 9. Practical Application Lesson 1 Introductory Lecture
10. 10. Reflection and Refraction <ul><li>Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>What type of surface should one use? </li></ul><ul><li>Should one use a material with a high or low refractive index ? </li></ul><ul><li>Which set-ups on the right are suitable to ensure maximum lighting of the room? </li></ul>Lesson 1 Introductory Lecture
11. 11. T5 (Fluorescent Tube) System <ul><li>Components: lamp, ballast and luminaries </li></ul><ul><li>Small in lamp with big lumen output </li></ul><ul><li>Applications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corridor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Void deck </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lift lightings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Energy saving </li></ul><ul><li>Longer lamp life </li></ul><ul><li>Less maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Better lighting design (indirect lighting etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Easy installation </li></ul>Lesson 1 Introductory Lecture
12. 12. Amalgam Lamp <ul><li>Good colour rendering at 4000 Kelvin </li></ul><ul><li>Cool white colour temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Applications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3-4m post-top luminiaries for footpaths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6m street lighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wall security lighting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Longer lamp life: 10K hr </li></ul><ul><li>Longer power: 55W </li></ul><ul><li>Lead free </li></ul><ul><li>Easy installation/retrofit </li></ul>Lesson 1 Introductory Lecture
13. 13. Amalgam Lamp <ul><li>Good colour rendering at 4000 Kelvin </li></ul><ul><li>Cool white colour temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Applications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3-4m post-top luminiaries for footpaths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6m street lighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wall security lighting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Longer lamp life: 10K hr </li></ul><ul><li>Longer power: 55W </li></ul><ul><li>Lead free </li></ul><ul><li>Easy installation/retrofit </li></ul>Lesson 1 Introductory Lecture
14. 14. Ceramic Metal Halide Lamp <ul><li>Consistent colour rendition helps to highlight both texture and colour </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrated brightness and excellent optical control allow maximum design flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Applications : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indoor medium bay down light for industrial areas, public space and shop </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Longer lamp life </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent colour </li></ul>Lesson 1 Introductory Lecture
15. 15. Light Emitting Diodes <ul><li>Minimal energy to achieve high luminance </li></ul><ul><li>Applications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase indicator light on main switchboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exit light, AV obstruction lights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifts, block signs, garden lights, interior hiding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Low power consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Longer lamp life </li></ul><ul><li>Less maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Vibrant colours to enhance visibility </li></ul>Lesson 1 Introductory Lecture
16. 16. Magnetic Ballast <ul><li>Reduces lamp system power in steps by corresponding stepped reduction in load voltage </li></ul><ul><li>Applications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connected at lighting distribution board for lighting load filled with magnetic ballasts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce energy usage by up to 25% </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to install; no extra modification required </li></ul><ul><li>Able to operate at lower temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Extended life </li></ul>Lesson 1 Introductory Lecture
17. 17. DALI Lighting Management <ul><li>Digital Addressable Lighting Interface – controls degree of brightness </li></ul><ul><li>Applications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dim to optimal levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detects and identify failed lamp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generates useful data (Burning hours) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic checking of lights – increased productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Simplify wiring installation </li></ul><ul><li>Lower maintenance cost and energy usage </li></ul><ul><li>Increased occupant comfort </li></ul>Lesson 1 Introductory Lecture
18. 18. Electronic Timer <ul><li>Automatically turns off lights </li></ul><ul><li>Applications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatically turn off lights in public areas at prerequisite times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Programmable timings to offset differentials in sunsets and sunrises in different months </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic on/off – increased productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces energy usage </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced security </li></ul>Lesson 1 Introductory Lecture
19. 19. Electronic Timer <ul><li>Automatically turns off lights </li></ul><ul><li>Applications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatically turn off lights in public areas at prerequisite times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Programmable timings to offset differentials in sunsets and sunrises in different months </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic on/off – increased productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces energy usage </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced security </li></ul>Lesson 1 Introductory Lecture
20. 20. Motion Sensor <ul><li>On-demand lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Applications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatically turn off lights in areas such as enclosed staircases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic on/off – increased productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces energy usage </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced security </li></ul>Lesson 1 Introductory Lecture
21. 21. Photocell Light Sensor <ul><li>Senses condition to determine lighting requirement </li></ul><ul><li>Applications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control of lighting in dark corners which requires lighting in the daytime due to overcast sky/timing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Void decks/ letter boxes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Energy saving </li></ul>Lesson 1 Introductory Lecture
22. 22. The End <ul><li>Any questions? </li></ul>Lesson 1 Introductory Lecture