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Decision Making by Ani Hovhannisyan


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Decision Making by Ani Hovhannisyan

  1. 1. Making Decisions<br />By : Ani Hovhannisyan<br />
  2. 2. Decision Making<br />As a decision maker, we need to be aware of <br /><ul><li>how we make decisions
  3. 3. what external factors influence our decision making process
  4. 4. how we go about evaluating how effective our decisions are </li></li></ul><li>Ways of Decision Making<br /><ul><li>By habitual nature
  5. 5. Immediate respond</li></ul>Involuntary Decision Making<br />Voluntary Decision Making<br /><ul><li>All of the decision alternatives are known
  6. 6. A person examines all the information available</li></li></ul><li>Involuntary Decision Making<br /><ul><li>Decision making made out of habit, reflex, or repetition.
  7. 7. Example: The reaction of swerving over the car when a driver in the next lane begins to move into your lane.</li></li></ul><li>Methods of “Hidden Persuasion”<br /><ul><li>The use of visual stimuli</li></ul>Example: Imposing an image into a movie by flashing a message so that a person is unaware of it.<br /><ul><li>The use of accelerated speech</li></ul>Example: The Muzak system.<br /><ul><li>The use of embedded images</li></ul>Example: Hiding of images in larger images.<br /><ul><li>A suggestiveness that would not be seen at first</li></ul>Example: A picture of the use of language.<br />
  8. 8. Voluntary Decision Making<br /><ul><li>The decision maker examines criteria such as decision-making situation, desired end-goals, people involved, occasion and applies his/her skills to these criteria.
  9. 9. It is generally more difficult, takes long, and is more difficult.</li></li></ul><li>Credible Source<br /><ul><li>People we trust and look for help, guidance, or direction influence us in making a decision
  10. 10. Example: Good friends, members of our family, or other trustworthy people.</li></li></ul><li>Peer Influence<br /><ul><li>The influence of those a person wants to be identified with and be accepted by motivates him/her to make a decision.
  11. 11. Example: The initial decision for using drugs, having sex for the first time, smoking is made as a result of peer pressure.</li></li></ul><li>Groupthink<br /><ul><li>When individuals within a group desire cohesiveness and harmony above the critical evaluation of the group’s decisions.
  12. 12. Example: A spouse chooses to offer no resistance to a decision made by the other spouse in order to maintain the harmony of the family.</li></li></ul><li>Decision Making and Probability<br /><ul><li>The degree of probability can change depending on the subject, time, place, occasion, and people involved in the decision-making situation.
  13. 13. Example: If it is determined that there is 5% chance of getting caught for driving at 70mph, 30% at 80mph, 85% at 90mph, the driver’s speed will reflect the degree of risk he is willing to take.</li></li></ul><li>Conclusion<br /><ul><li>Critical thinkers need to examine only the outcome of a decision but the process used to make that decision.
  14. 14. By looking at both we can determine why the decision succeeded or failed in obtaining its desired outcome.</li>