Open Educational Resources:
History and Future Potential

by Stian Håklev

University of Manitoba, Open Access Week 2013

...
Open	
  
Educational	
  
Resources

Open	
  Learning	
  
Process
2
RESOURCES

3
Accidental	
  OER
OpenLib	
  frontpage
sanskrit	
  primer

6
sanskrit	
  uoft

7
youtube	
  main

8
soc	
  images

Curation

9
Intentional	
  OER
Dimensions
gratis	
  /	
  libre	
  (or	
  free	
  as	
  in	
  speech,	
  free	
  as	
  in	
  beer)
accidental	
  /	
  inte...
ocwc	
  members

12
saudi	
  arab	
  ocw

13
saudi	
  arabia	
  textbook

14
uwc	
  pub	
  health

15
israel	
  ocw

16
nptel	
  youtube

17
IIT	
  Youtube
egyankosh	
  yt

19
egyan	
  tsp	
  list

20
egyan	
  tsp	
  course

21
egyan	
  book

22
Esst	
  main

23
ind	
  textbook	
  main

24
ind	
  textb	
  content

25
bs-­‐e	
  main

26
47
49
wikieducator

29
wikiversity	
  main

30
So	
  why	
  did	
  it	
  spread	
  to	
  certain	
  
countries,	
  and	
  not	
  to	
  others?
What	
  kind	
  of	
  a	
  “thing”	
  is	
  OCW?
OCW	
  as	
  a	
  norm

CC	
  BY	
  allygirl520	
  @	
  flickr
free	
  software

6
http://fusionanomaly.net/informationwantstobefree.html
PD	
  English	
  Wikipedia
How	
  can	
  we	
  analyze	
  the	
  spread	
  of	
  a	
  norm?

Finnemore	
  &	
  Sikkink:	
  the	
  life-­‐cycle	
  of	...
OCW	
  as	
  an	
  policy	
  innovation

CC	
  BY	
  txd	
  @	
  flickr
Universities working together to advance education and
empower people worldwide through opencourseware.

Connecting with Y...
Universities working together to advance education and
empower people worldwide through opencourseware.

Connecting with Y...
Universities working together to advance education and
empower people worldwide through opencourseware.

Connecting with Y...
Universities working together to advance education and
empower people worldwide through opencourseware.

Connecting with Y...
Universities working together to advance education and
empower people worldwide through opencourseware.

Connecting with Y...
How	
  can	
  we	
  analyze	
  the	
  spread	
  of	
  a	
  policy	
  innovation?

David	
  Phillips:	
  policy	
  attracti...
Purposes of OER
If we don’t know what the purpose of an
OER is, we won’t know what to consider
when designing, we can’t be...
Four Three purposes/uses
Production
Direct use
Reuse/remix
Transparency
生产过程
Production
OCW	
  in	
  East	
  Asia
49
ou	
  chiaotung

50
chiatung	
  course

51
52
ou	
  korea

53
54
keio	
  ocw

55
Features	
  of	
  the	
  Chinese	
  OER	
  project

selective	
  and	
  competitive
three	
  levels	
  (campus,	
  provinc...
Purposes

induce	
  full	
  professors	
  to	
  teach	
  undergraduate	
  courses
encourage	
  professors	
  to	
  use	
  ...
jingpinke	
  main

58
直接用
Direct use
OLI	
  CMU	
  mainpage
重复利用
Remix/reuse
CNX	
  mainpage
a	
  story	
  enabled	
  by	
  openness

65
66
67
68
69
70
Pillar	
  	
  of	
  openness
s

Open	
  license
Open	
  file	
  formats
Semantic	
  file	
  formats
Open	
  APIs
Open	
  met...
参考/透明
Transparency
Open	
  Educational	
  Videos	
  around	
  the	
  world
Multilingual and multicultural
Open Educational Resources
56
“Are we allowed to do that?”
Perspectives on bilingualism
Bilingualism as ...
problem
right
resource
Student as...

user
60
61
n=250
Student as...

user
producer
63
89
65
Two (+1) historic trends in
technology and education

• intelligent/adaptive tutor systems
(behaviouralist?)

• systems su...
Intelligent tutors

http://edutechwiki.unige.ch/en/Intelligent_tutoring_system
• Artificial Intelligence
• Data mining
• Expert/Knowledge systems
OLI	
  CMU	
  mainpage
96
http://www.educationaldatamining.org/
Computers enhancing human work with
ideas, and collaboration

http://focs.wordpress.com/2007/09/05/the-most-important-prob...
• Computer-Supported Collaborative Work
• Computer-Supported Collaborative
Learning

• Human-Computer Interaction
OpenLib	
  frontpage
101

http://www.blogiseverything.com/download/web-­‐20-­‐logo-­‐fonts/
Different	
  meanings	
  of	
  open

102
Site-specific information-centric communities
Long-term distributed topic-based communities
Personal Learning Environment/Network (PLE/PLN)

http://sarah-stewart.blogspot.ca/2011/11/my-ple-2011.html
Open courses
intro	
  open	
  ed	
  I
“Wiley	
  wikis”
Text

109
connnectivism	
  cour

111
112
113
116
117
118
119
New	
  developments
Coursera	
  -­‐	
  big	
  commercial	
  “elite”	
  provider
EdX	
  -­‐	
  open	
  source	
  platform	
...
Thank you!
shaklev@gmail.com
http://reganmian.net/blog
CC BY
Open Educational Resources: History and Future Potential
Open Educational Resources: History and Future Potential
Open Educational Resources: History and Future Potential
Open Educational Resources: History and Future Potential
Open Educational Resources: History and Future Potential
Open Educational Resources: History and Future Potential
Open Educational Resources: History and Future Potential
Open Educational Resources: History and Future Potential
Open Educational Resources: History and Future Potential
Open Educational Resources: History and Future Potential
Open Educational Resources: History and Future Potential
Open Educational Resources: History and Future Potential
Open Educational Resources: History and Future Potential
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Open Educational Resources: History and Future Potential

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Talk given at University of Manitoba during #oaweek 2013

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Open Educational Resources: History and Future Potential

  1. 1. Open Educational Resources: History and Future Potential by Stian Håklev University of Manitoba, Open Access Week 2013 Creative Commons BY 3.0 CC BY NC ND Smithsonian American Art Museum
  2. 2. Open   Educational   Resources Open  Learning   Process 2
  3. 3. RESOURCES 3
  4. 4. Accidental  OER
  5. 5. OpenLib  frontpage
  6. 6. sanskrit  primer 6
  7. 7. sanskrit  uoft 7
  8. 8. youtube  main 8
  9. 9. soc  images Curation 9
  10. 10. Intentional  OER
  11. 11. Dimensions gratis  /  libre  (or  free  as  in  speech,  free  as  in  beer) accidental  /  intentional defined-­‐author  /  peer-­‐authored purpose:  direct  use,  reuse,  transparency
  12. 12. ocwc  members 12
  13. 13. saudi  arab  ocw 13
  14. 14. saudi  arabia  textbook 14
  15. 15. uwc  pub  health 15
  16. 16. israel  ocw 16
  17. 17. nptel  youtube 17
  18. 18. IIT  Youtube
  19. 19. egyankosh  yt 19
  20. 20. egyan  tsp  list 20
  21. 21. egyan  tsp  course 21
  22. 22. egyan  book 22
  23. 23. Esst  main 23
  24. 24. ind  textbook  main 24
  25. 25. ind  textb  content 25
  26. 26. bs-­‐e  main 26
  27. 27. 47
  28. 28. 49
  29. 29. wikieducator 29
  30. 30. wikiversity  main 30
  31. 31. So  why  did  it  spread  to  certain   countries,  and  not  to  others?
  32. 32. What  kind  of  a  “thing”  is  OCW?
  33. 33. OCW  as  a  norm CC  BY  allygirl520  @  flickr
  34. 34. free  software 6
  35. 35. http://fusionanomaly.net/informationwantstobefree.html
  36. 36. PD  English  Wikipedia
  37. 37. How  can  we  analyze  the  spread  of  a  norm? Finnemore  &  Sikkink:  the  life-­‐cycle  of  norms Women’s  suffrage,  land-­‐mine  ban Realist  vs.  constructivist  view  of  international  system Norm  entrepreneurs Organizational  platform Forming  vocabulary,  change  in  identity  and  motivation Tipping  point:  1/3  of  all  participants  (states)? Institutionalization
  38. 38. OCW  as  an  policy  innovation CC  BY  txd  @  flickr
  39. 39. Universities working together to advance education and empower people worldwide through opencourseware. Connecting with Your University’s Goals —Recruitment • A 2005 Poll showed that 50% of incoming MIT students were aware of MIT OCW. • 35% of those students based their choice of MIT at least in part on their experience of MIT OCW • By mid-October of their first year, 95% of those students had visited the OCW site. OCW Consortium Toolkit http://www.ocwconsortium.org/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&gid=33&Itemid= March 15, 2010 Open Sharing, Global Benefits 39
  40. 40. Universities working together to advance education and empower people worldwide through opencourseware. Connecting with Your University’s Goals —Recruitment • Builds a prior academic relationship with bright, motivated students, their families, their teachers and their advisors • Showcases key departments, faculty and courses March 15, 2010 Open Sharing, Global Benefits 40
  41. 41. Universities working together to advance education and empower people worldwide through opencourseware. Connecting with Your University’s Goals —Reputation An OCW site can showcase areas of excellence in our university, such as name specific programs. Heightened awareness of these programs not only will attract talented students and faculty to our school but also will increase the visibility of our faculty within their disciplines. March 15, 2010 Open Sharing, Global Benefits 41
  42. 42. Universities working together to advance education and empower people worldwide through opencourseware. Connecting with Your University’s Goals —Retention An OCW site provides students with the potential for self-paced review of study materials before, during and after taking a course. Such review greatly increases a student’s chances of success in both that course and subsequent courses which build upon its teachings. March 15, 2010 Open Sharing, Global Benefits 42
  43. 43. Universities working together to advance education and empower people worldwide through opencourseware. Connecting with Your University’s Goals —Advising The ability to view OCW materials prior to enrollment allows students to make more informed choices about which courses and majors are right for them. Likewise, advisors will be able to base their recommendations on concrete information about courses, their requirements and their benefits. March 15, 2010 Open Sharing, Global Benefits 43
  44. 44. How  can  we  analyze  the  spread  of  a  policy  innovation? David  Phillips:  policy  attraction more  likely  to  borrow  in  time  of  upheaval,  change  or  great  crisis Mintrom  &  Vergari:  policy  networks investigating  policy  on  school  choice  in  US  states  -­‐  what  causes   similarity?  closeness  of  states,  or  similar  attributes?  no,   attending  the  same  conferences! The  role  of  MIT,  and  MIT’s  faculty,  international  conferences, organizations  (OCW  Consortium,  CCLearn/CC,  UNESCO  IIEP)
  45. 45. Purposes of OER If we don’t know what the purpose of an OER is, we won’t know what to consider when designing, we can’t begin to evaluate the quality, or measure the success
  46. 46. Four Three purposes/uses Production Direct use Reuse/remix Transparency
  47. 47. 生产过程 Production
  48. 48. OCW  in  East  Asia
  49. 49. 49
  50. 50. ou  chiaotung 50
  51. 51. chiatung  course 51
  52. 52. 52
  53. 53. ou  korea 53
  54. 54. 54
  55. 55. keio  ocw 55
  56. 56. Features  of  the  Chinese  OER  project selective  and  competitive three  levels  (campus,  province,  national) teaching  teams both  content  and  method financial  support,  requirement  to  make  course  available  online  for   five  years three  kinds:  undergraduate,  vocational,  and  online  courses
  57. 57. Purposes induce  full  professors  to  teach  undergraduate  courses encourage  professors  to  use  more  technology  in  their  teaching   encourage  formation  of  teaching  teams,  rethinking  of  course  material and  teaching  methods courses  function  as  “models”  for  other  professors (course  material  used  directly  by  students?)
  58. 58. jingpinke  main 58
  59. 59. 直接用 Direct use
  60. 60. OLI  CMU  mainpage
  61. 61. 重复利用 Remix/reuse
  62. 62. CNX  mainpage
  63. 63. a  story  enabled  by  openness 65
  64. 64. 66
  65. 65. 67
  66. 66. 68
  67. 67. 69
  68. 68. 70
  69. 69. Pillar    of  openness s Open  license Open  file  formats Semantic  file  formats Open  APIs Open  metadata Ability  to  bulk-­‐download
  70. 70. 参考/透明 Transparency
  71. 71. Open  Educational  Videos  around  the  world
  72. 72. Multilingual and multicultural Open Educational Resources
  73. 73. 56
  74. 74. “Are we allowed to do that?”
  75. 75. Perspectives on bilingualism Bilingualism as ... problem right resource
  76. 76. Student as... user
  77. 77. 60
  78. 78. 61
  79. 79. n=250
  80. 80. Student as... user producer
  81. 81. 63
  82. 82. 89
  83. 83. 65
  84. 84. Two (+1) historic trends in technology and education • intelligent/adaptive tutor systems (behaviouralist?) • systems supporting collaborative work (constructivist?) • content and communications
  85. 85. Intelligent tutors http://edutechwiki.unige.ch/en/Intelligent_tutoring_system
  86. 86. • Artificial Intelligence • Data mining • Expert/Knowledge systems
  87. 87. OLI  CMU  mainpage
  88. 88. 96
  89. 89. http://www.educationaldatamining.org/
  90. 90. Computers enhancing human work with ideas, and collaboration http://focs.wordpress.com/2007/09/05/the-most-important-problem-in-computer-science/
  91. 91. • Computer-Supported Collaborative Work • Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning • Human-Computer Interaction
  92. 92. OpenLib  frontpage
  93. 93. 101 http://www.blogiseverything.com/download/web-­‐20-­‐logo-­‐fonts/
  94. 94. Different  meanings  of  open 102
  95. 95. Site-specific information-centric communities
  96. 96. Long-term distributed topic-based communities
  97. 97. Personal Learning Environment/Network (PLE/PLN) http://sarah-stewart.blogspot.ca/2011/11/my-ple-2011.html
  98. 98. Open courses
  99. 99. intro  open  ed  I “Wiley  wikis” Text 109
  100. 100. connnectivism  cour 111
  101. 101. 112
  102. 102. 113
  103. 103. 116
  104. 104. 117
  105. 105. 118
  106. 106. 119
  107. 107. New  developments Coursera  -­‐  big  commercial  “elite”  provider EdX  -­‐  open  source  platform  (China,  France,   Google,  Stanford) many  others *OOCs Accreditation? Flipped  classrooms Analytics,  Gates  funding  research,  pretty  graphs In  many  ways  a  step  back,  hopefully  strategic   retreat  -­‐  massive  exposure thenewinquiry.com
  108. 108. Thank you! shaklev@gmail.com http://reganmian.net/blog CC BY

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