Generic improvements in communication technology to enhance socio-cognitive gains Maria Chuy, Bodong Chen, Monica Resendes...
Generic improvements in communication technology  <ul><li>“ Generic”  = improvements that are not tied to any particular t...
<ul><li>One discourse, multiple access points  </li></ul><ul><li>Any media object treatable as an object of inquiry and kn...
<ul><li>Present situation : Separate discourses with some ability to link-- </li></ul><ul><li>Facebook, Twitter, text mess...
<ul><li>Any media object should be treatable as an object of inquiry and knowledge building.  </li></ul><ul><li>To a very ...
<ul><li>Improved technology : </li></ul><ul><li>Discourse contributions originate in various sources --Facebook, Twitter, ...
<ul><li>Media objects may be forum notes, documents, diagrams, animations, screen shots of outputs, etc.  </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Open Educational Resources (OERs) are rich in knowledge-building possibilities.  </li></ul><ul><li>However, users ...
A Workspace Dedicated to Ideas <ul><li>Current situation: Knowledge Forum views are workspaces for building on, linking, s...
A Workspace Dedicated to Ideas <ul><li>Note space may become crowded  </li></ul><ul><li>Different notes embody same idea <...
A Workspace Dedicated to Ideas <ul><li>Single note projected on to multiple ideas that it contains </li></ul>Visual from  ...
A Workspace Dedicated to Ideas <ul><li>Single idea abstracted from multiple notes </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas linked to ideas,...
Operations in the idea space <ul><li>Identifying  “big” and/or “promising” ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Metacognitive layer: id...
Student-generated meta-data <ul><li>Pre-Google: Educational resources stored in  repositories ; catalogued and tagged by h...
Ubiquitous theory-building <ul><li>Theories are explanations. Therefore, they are essential in  teaching for understanding...
Ubiquitous theory-building <ul><li>Theory-building is important not only in STEM but also in history, social studies, lite...
Ubiquitous theory-building <ul><li>Even young children can build theories </li></ul><ul><li>They produce explanations to a...
Ubiquitous theory-building <ul><li>To support theory-building, support knowledge-building dialogue--for instance, with sen...
<ul><li>One discourse, multiple access points  </li></ul><ul><li>Any media object treatable as an object of inquiry and kn...
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Generic improvements in communication technology to enhance socio-cognitive gains

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  • Rich and abundant feedback and visualization mechanisms that enable a variety of “metacognitive views” (Brown &amp; Campione, 1996) on an unfolding discourse
  • Rich and abundant feedback and visualization mechanisms that enable a variety of “metacognitive views” (Brown &amp; Campione, 1996) on an unfolding discourse
  • Rich and abundant feedback and visualization mechanisms that enable a variety of “metacognitive views” (Brown &amp; Campione, 1996) on an unfolding discourse
  • Rich and abundant feedback and visualization mechanisms that enable a variety of “metacognitive views” (Brown &amp; Campione, 1996) on an unfolding discourse
  • Rich and abundant feedback and visualization mechanisms that enable a variety of “metacognitive views” (Brown &amp; Campione, 1996) on an unfolding discourse
  • Generic improvements in communication technology to enhance socio-cognitive gains

    1. 1. Generic improvements in communication technology to enhance socio-cognitive gains Maria Chuy, Bodong Chen, Monica Resendes, Jan van Aalst, Carol Chan, Marlene Scardamalia, & Carl Bereiter CSCL 2011, July 4-8, Hong Kong, China
    2. 2. Generic improvements in communication technology <ul><li>“ Generic” = improvements that are not tied to any particular technology and that are potentially applicable in a variety of media environments—ranging from learning management systems to social networking sites and from wikis to video sharing sites </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>One discourse, multiple access points </li></ul><ul><li>Any media object treatable as an object of inquiry and knowledge building </li></ul><ul><li>Idea spaces, in addition to people spaces, document, or message spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Learner-created metadata </li></ul><ul><li>Support for ubiquitous theory-building </li></ul>Outline of main ideas
    4. 4. <ul><li>Present situation : Separate discourses with some ability to link-- </li></ul><ul><li>Facebook, Twitter, text messages, online forum, email, smart board, Moodle, etc., etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Little sustained discourse in any medium </li></ul>One discourse, multiple access points
    5. 5. <ul><li>Any media object should be treatable as an object of inquiry and knowledge building. </li></ul><ul><li>To a very limited extent this is done now by attaching discussion boards to such diverse objects as blog posts, news articles, and online videos. </li></ul><ul><li>At worst these become platforms for venting opinions; at best they are platforms for sharing knowledge and giving advice. </li></ul><ul><li>Rarely, if at all, are they platforms for sustained knowledge-building discourse. </li></ul>Media objects as objects of inquiry
    6. 6. <ul><li>Improved technology : </li></ul><ul><li>Discourse contributions originate in various sources --Facebook, Twitter, text messages, online forum, email, wikies, smart board, Moodle, videoconference, etc., etc. </li></ul><ul><li>They are transmitted to a cloud-based knowledge building environment where more complex knowledge operations are carried out. </li></ul><ul><li>Results of these operations can be retrieved and responded to in the various media but sustained collaborative work gets its main support in the knowledge building environment. </li></ul>One discourse, multiple access points
    7. 7. <ul><li>Media objects may be forum notes, documents, diagrams, animations, screen shots of outputs, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus of the inquiry: What does this object mean in the context of some larger inquiry? </li></ul><ul><li>E.g, larger inquiry: What caused dinosaur extinction? </li></ul><ul><li>Media object: Timeline showing when different dinosaur species became extinct. </li></ul><ul><li>Object-focused inquiry: What does this timeline mean with respect to different explanations of dinosaur extinction? </li></ul>Media objects as objects of inquiry
    8. 8. <ul><li>Open Educational Resources (OERs) are rich in knowledge-building possibilities. </li></ul><ul><li>However, users of OERs tend to be isolated from each other and from collaborative knowledge building. </li></ul><ul><li>Carnegie-Mellon University develops a new Knowledge Forum client to bring students into collaborative knowledge building in Open Learning Initiative courses. </li></ul><ul><li>Early results show students feel it helps them learn. </li></ul><ul><li>Students welcome chance to share problems, ideas, and understandings with each other. </li></ul>OERs as objects of inquiry
    9. 9. A Workspace Dedicated to Ideas <ul><li>Current situation: Knowledge Forum views are workspaces for building on, linking, synthesizing, and adding to notes. </li></ul>
    10. 10. A Workspace Dedicated to Ideas <ul><li>Note space may become crowded </li></ul><ul><li>Different notes embody same idea </li></ul><ul><li>Single note may contain multiple ideas </li></ul>Visual from “The Birth of a Word” by Deb Roy
    11. 11. A Workspace Dedicated to Ideas <ul><li>Single note projected on to multiple ideas that it contains </li></ul>Visual from “The Birth of a Word” by Deb Roy
    12. 12. A Workspace Dedicated to Ideas <ul><li>Single idea abstracted from multiple notes </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas linked to ideas, independent of note linkages </li></ul>Visual from “The Birth of a Word” by Deb Roy
    13. 13. Operations in the idea space <ul><li>Identifying “big” and/or “promising” ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Metacognitive layer: ideas about ideas </li></ul><ul><li>“ Rising above”: Synthesizing, creating a higher-order layer of ideas </li></ul>Visual from “The Birth of a Word” by Deb Roy
    14. 14. Student-generated meta-data <ul><li>Pre-Google: Educational resources stored in repositories ; catalogued and tagged by hand </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic web: Distributed resources; meta-data automatically generated by semantic analysis tools </li></ul><ul><li>Technology-assisted Knowledge Building: Semantic tools help learners assign high-level tags to ideas (not media objects) </li></ul><ul><li>E.g, tagging ideas as important, promising, puzzling, difficult, impossible </li></ul><ul><li>Generating searchable tags requires a flexible database, e.g., tuplespace </li></ul>
    15. 15. Ubiquitous theory-building <ul><li>Theories are explanations. Therefore, they are essential in teaching for understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>Theories drive inquiry. Therefore they are essential in inquiry-based learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Theories are proposed solutions to problems. Therefore they are important in invention and policy. </li></ul><ul><li>But… theories are not opinions or articles of faith. </li></ul><ul><li>Theories are not calls to action. Reduce energy consumption is not a theory. </li></ul><ul><li>Theories are vulnerable to evidence and improvable on the basis of it. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Ubiquitous theory-building <ul><li>Theory-building is important not only in STEM but also in history, social studies, literature </li></ul><ul><li>Theory-building produces explanations of historical events, social conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Theory-building produces interpretations of literary and artistic works. </li></ul><ul><li>Theory-building aims at explanatory coherence (Thagard). </li></ul><ul><li>Explanatory coherence includes emotional coherence. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Ubiquitous theory-building <ul><li>Even young children can build theories </li></ul><ul><li>They produce explanations to account for facts. </li></ul><ul><li>They abandon theories in the face of evidence. </li></ul><ul><li>They can recognize one theory as doing a better job of explaining than another. </li></ul><ul><li>Young children demonstrate an epistemology superior to that of the average adult--to whom theories are beliefs that lack conclusive proof. </li></ul><ul><li>But… working to improve a theory does not come naturally and requires external support. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Ubiquitous theory-building <ul><li>To support theory-building, support knowledge-building dialogue--for instance, with sentence-openers: </li></ul><ul><li>Looking more deeply into this problem … </li></ul><ul><li>This idea can be improved by … </li></ul><ul><li>This concept (distinction, analogy, hypothesis) helps to … </li></ul><ul><li>This idea is worth working on because … </li></ul><ul><li>Something else this idea might explain is … </li></ul><ul><li>Another way to look at this is... </li></ul><ul><li>Putting these ideas together … </li></ul>
    19. 19. <ul><li>One discourse, multiple access points </li></ul><ul><li>Any media object treatable as an object of inquiry and knowledge building </li></ul><ul><li>Idea spaces, in addition to people spaces, document, or message spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Learner-created metadata </li></ul><ul><li>Support for ubiquitous theory-building </li></ul>Researchers, educators, and programmers are invited to join in building an open-source next-generation knowledge building environment embodying principles discussed here:

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