Chapter 5 key terms 1. Tything( tithing ) pg. 170 – in medieval England a collective group of ten families that pledge to help one another and provide mutual aid. 2. Hue and cry pg. 170 – in medieval England a call for mutual aid against trouble or danger. 3. Hundred pg. 170 – in medieval England a group of 100 families ( ten tythings ) responsible for maintaining order and trying minor offenses. 4. Constable pg. 170 – in early English towns an appointed peacekeeper who organized citizens for protection and supervised the night watch. 5. Shire reeve pg. 170 – in early England the chief law enforcement official in a county forerunner of today’s sheriff. 6. Watch system pg. 170 – in medieval England groups of men who organized in church parishes to guard at night against disturbances and breaches of the peace under the direction of the local constable. 7. Justice of the peace pg. 171 – official to act as the judicial officer in a county. 8. Metropolitan police act pg. 171 – SIR ROBERT PEEL’S legislation that established the first organized police force in London. 9. Sheriff pg. 173 – the chief law enforcement officer in a county. 10. Vigilantes pg. 173 – in the old west members of a vigilance committee or posse called upon to capture cattle thieves or other felons. 11. Wickersham commission pg. 175 – formally known as the national commission on law observance and enforcement a commission created in 1929 by president Herbert hoover to study the U.S criminal justice system including the police. 12. Community policing pg. 178 – a law enforcement program that seeks to integrate officers into the local community to reduce crime and achieve good community relations. It typically involves personalized service and decentralized policing citizen empowerment and an effort to reduce community fear of crime disorder and decay. 13. FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION ( F.B.I ) pg. 179 – the arm of the justice department that investigates violations of federal law gathers crime statistics runs a comprehensive crime laboratory and helps train local law enforcement officers. 14. Private policing pg. 187 – crime prevention detection and the apprehension of criminals carried out by private organizations or individuals for commercial purposes. 15. Data mining pg. 191 – the use of sophisticated computer software to conduct analysis of behavior patterns in an effort to identify crime patterns and link them to suspects. 16. Thermal imager pg. 192 – a device that detects radiation in the infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum and is used in law enforcement to detect variations in temperature ( warm images stand out against cool backgrounds ). 17. Biometrics pg. 194 – automated methods of recognizing a person on the basis of a physiological or behavioral characteristic. 18. DNA profiling pg. 195 – the identification of criminal suspects by matching DNA samples taken from their person with specimens found at the crime scene.