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Advocacy, Technology, and Safety Online Course


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Advocacy, Technology, and Safety Online Course

  1. 1. Advocacy, Technology, and Safety Online Course: Part 1 of 4 Benefits and Risks of Technology Phone Technology
  2. 2. <ul><li>Adapted from curriculum by: </li></ul><ul><li>The Safety Net Technology Project at the </li></ul><ul><li>National Network to End Domestic Violence </li></ul><ul><li>Email: [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Website: </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why do we need to know about technology? <ul><li>Survivors use technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Abusers and perpetrators misuse technology. </li></ul><ul><li>We use technology within our agencies and partnerships in ways that can impact confidentiality. </li></ul><ul><li>Public as well as private data can be accessed by abusers and perpetrators. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Technology is not evil! <ul><li>Technology doesn’t create abuse. Rather, misuse of technology as a tactic is old behavior with new tools. </li></ul><ul><li>Technology provides many benefits to programs and can enhance services. </li></ul><ul><li>Survivors can use technology strategically to enhance and maintain their safety. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Risks <ul><li>Many risks exist when using technology. Stalkers can </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Spoof” Caller ID, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intercept calls and call logs, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Track survivors with social location applications or GPS tracking devices, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impersonate survivors on social networking sites, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor computer and mobile device usage. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Learning is Essential <ul><li>Thus, it is essential to learn about technology even if the advocate does not have a social networking profile or a smart phone. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn more by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visiting social networking sites “About Us” and “Safety” pages, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading news stories about new features and legal cases, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talking to people who use the most up to date technology a co-worker with the newest smart phone or the IT Manager. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Phone Technology <ul><li>TTY Machines </li></ul>Answering Machines Caller ID Faxes Cordless Phones Cell Phones Wiretap & Bugs S C A N N E R S
  8. 8. Caller ID Risks <ul><li>Reverse directories give the physical address of a person/place based on the phone number – </li></ul><ul><li>Numbers are always available when calling toll free numbers (800, 888). </li></ul><ul><li>Can be manipulated with Spoof Cards & VoIP. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Safety Planning for Caller ID <ul><li>Use pay-as-you-go phones purchased with cash or a VoIP number ( i.e., Skype) that is not location specific. </li></ul><ul><li>Optional phone services available: distinctive ring, call trace (*57), per call # blocking (*67), call block of certain #’s (*60), and virtual voicemail. </li></ul><ul><li>Best Practices </li></ul><ul><li>When calling survivors, safety plan around the use of Caller ID and Blocking. </li></ul><ul><li>Service providers working from home may want to have their numbers blocked. </li></ul><ul><li>Test lines frequently to make sure numbers are still blocked. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Fax Machines & eFax <ul><li>Transmission shows the number it’s faxed from. </li></ul><ul><li>eFax uses Internet and is susceptible to interception just like email. </li></ul><ul><li>Most machines now store data copies of faxes. </li></ul><ul><li>Best Practices: </li></ul><ul><li>Clear memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Use Passwords. </li></ul><ul><li>Never send confidential information via eFax. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Cell Phone Safety & Best Practices <ul><li>Encourage survivors to become familiar with all features of phone – including Bluetooth. </li></ul><ul><li>If using cell phones to respond to hotline calls in an area where you still have analog coverage, use sparingly & avoid identifying details. </li></ul><ul><li>Look into account/plan for any services that are included and enabled. </li></ul><ul><li>Be careful of “gifts” – consider getting new phone. </li></ul><ul><li>Always give location information to 911 in emergencies. </li></ul><ul><li>Set Bluetooth to “hidden” and GPS to “911 only”. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Text Messaging <ul><li>Messages can be falsified, spoofed, or sent anonymously from the carrier’s website or services. </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly all 50 states explicitly include electronic communication in stalking or harassment laws. </li></ul><ul><li>With a valid court order, the carrier MIGHT be able to retrieve messages that were &quot;deleted&quot; from the device or can document that a message was sent from one user to another. </li></ul><ul><li>Law enforcement often takes photographs or video of the phone & text message content. </li></ul>Evidence:
  13. 13. Evidence & Text Messages <ul><li>Text messages are stored in an intermediate message server at the phone company at some point during the transmission. </li></ul><ul><li>However, a message may disappear off the server immediately after the recipient receives it, so it may only be retrievable for a very short time period. </li></ul><ul><li>Servers overwrite older messages and messages marked for deletion. Some carriers offer services to restore archived messages if the customer's phone is lost or stolen, and they may retain messages for an extended period of time to facilitate this service. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Benefits of Bluetooth <ul><li>It's wireless. </li></ul><ul><li>It's inexpensive. </li></ul><ul><li>You don't have to think about it. </li></ul><ul><li>Bluetooth attacks </li></ul><ul><li>Call interception </li></ul>Risks of Bluetooth
  15. 15. 3 Important Phone Settings <ul><li>To protect data and calls: </li></ul><ul><li>Bluetooth OFF </li></ul><ul><li>2. To protect evidence: </li></ul><ul><li>3. To keep location private: </li></ul>Text Questions to (904) 624-1807
  16. 16. Evidence Gathering Suggestions <ul><li>Report crimes to law enforcement and follow their instructions for evidence preservation </li></ul><ul><li>While waiting for law enforcement, </li></ul><ul><li>Do not turn off phone </li></ul><ul><li>Do not place any calls or send any text messages. </li></ul><ul><li>Disconnect wireless connection by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using an RF Phone Bag </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Setting the phone to “airplane mode” </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. 3 Important Settings <ul><li>To protect data and calls: </li></ul><ul><li>Bluetooth OFF </li></ul><ul><li>2. To protect evidence: </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Mode ON </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless OFF </li></ul><ul><li>3. To keep location private: </li></ul>Text Questions to (904) 624-1807
  18. 18. Airplane Mode <ul><li>Turning on “Airplane Mode” on a mobile phone can protect text messages and call logs from alteration, but it will not protect voicemail messages. </li></ul>
  19. 19. 3 Important Phone Settings <ul><li>To protect data and calls: </li></ul><ul><li>Bluetooth OFF </li></ul><ul><li>2. To protect evidence: </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Mode ON </li></ul><ul><li>3. To keep location private: </li></ul><ul><li>Location OFF/ GPS OFF </li></ul>Text Questions to (904) 624-1807
  20. 20. Advocacy, Technology, and Safety Online Course: Part 2 of 4 Location Technology
  21. 21. Location, Location, Location
  22. 22. Global Positioning Systems (GPS) <ul><li>Track person/object using satellite technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Active vs. Passive </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly found in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell phones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vehicle Navigation Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Small and easily hidden. </li></ul><ul><li>Affordable and readily available. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Phone Location Services
  24. 24. Social Location Tracking Double opt-in: Choose to see a friend’s location without agreeing to share your location. Notification: Text messages or “notification” sent to notify you of your “friends’” locations Turn location sharing on & off/set to false location: can set as invisible to all or to just one person. Perpetrator could set location at grocery store & go to victim’s home or monitor victim’s “check-ins.”
  25. 25. Risks of GPS <ul><li>Family or shared plans allow abuser to access account and GPS, either without consent or coerced. </li></ul><ul><li>If abuser has access to the phone, GPS can still be activated without victim’s knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>GPS transmitters can be hidden in vehicles or objects. </li></ul><ul><li>Tracking programs can be set to regularly deliver alerts via text message or email to the abuser. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Monitor Teen Drivers <ul><li>Know what time they left, what time they arrived, and see a map of the exact location where the car was / is parked. </li></ul><ul><li>Alerts can notify you when your teen leaves school early, is speeding, or visits a friend who has been declared off limits. </li></ul><ul><li>With a click of the mouse, you can disable the car’s starter, turn on the dome light or flash the headlights. </li></ul>
  27. 27. GPS Stalking Cases <ul><li>Colorado, 2000 – Stalker placed GPS in ex-wife’s car. Convicted: stalking “electronic surveillance.” </li></ul><ul><li>Ohio, 2004 – Put GPS in ex-wife’s car. Convicted: felony menacing by stalking. Ordered to wear GPS device for 1 year! </li></ul><ul><li>New York, 2009 – Former Giants football player put GPS in girlfriend’s car. Found to be second tracking device he had used. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Safety Planning for Location Technology <ul><li>Trust instincts. </li></ul><ul><li>Help to narrow down possible location, times, places. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn about phone – Can it be tracked by GPS? Has someone loaded a new program onto the phone? Ask carrier about tracking plans on account. </li></ul><ul><li>Survivor, police, or mechanic can search the car. Look under the hood/seats/bumpers, in the trunk, dashboard, glove box, etc. Consider leaving the car temporarily if still worried. </li></ul><ul><li>Does the car have OnStar or a Navigation System? </li></ul><ul><li>Strategize about discovery of device, as well as removal as it could alert abuser to discovery. </li></ul>
  29. 29. 3 Important Geolocation Strategies <ul><li>Phone Settings: </li></ul><ul><li>Location OFF/ Customize </li></ul><ul><li>2. Online Profile Settings: </li></ul><ul><li>Location OFF </li></ul><ul><li>3. Visit cell phone provider to assist with settings </li></ul>
  30. 30. 3 Important Geolocation Strategies <ul><li>Phone Settings: </li></ul><ul><li>OFF/ Customize </li></ul><ul><li>2. Online Profile Settings: </li></ul><ul><li>Location OFF </li></ul><ul><li>3. Visit cell phone provider to assist with settings </li></ul>
  31. 31. 3 Important Geolocation Strategies <ul><li>Phone Settings: </li></ul><ul><li>OFF/ Customize </li></ul><ul><li>2. Online Profile Settings: </li></ul><ul><li>OFF </li></ul><ul><li>3. Visit cell phone provider to assist with settings. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Advocacy, Technology, and Safety Online Course: Part 3 of 4 Securing Online Activities
  33. 33. Survivors are online! <ul><li>Survivors… </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate over email & instant messaging. </li></ul><ul><li>Use searches to find information and support. </li></ul><ul><li>Visit our websites for information about local and national services, legal rights, options, safety planning. </li></ul><ul><li>Connect with others through social networking sites. </li></ul><ul><li>Create and contribute to blogs and online forums to share stories, resources, and support. </li></ul><ul><li>Access online counseling services. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Emails & Computers <ul><li>Emails are not private or confidential. </li></ul><ul><li>Impossible to erase history. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Window Washers” have severe limitations. </li></ul><ul><li>Firewalls, anti-virus programs, Spyware detectors offer very limited identification of Spyware. </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless networks are not always secure. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Safety Planning for Emails & Computers <ul><li>Avoid easy passwords that the abuser could guess. </li></ul><ul><li>Caution family/friends from sharing addresses when sending or forwarding e-mails – use Bcc. </li></ul><ul><li>Never delete emails from computer that may be used as evidence. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a “safer computer” when possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Never open attachments from unknown sources and be skeptical of requests for information. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep virus protections up-to-date & install firewalls. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Spyware <ul><li>Records all: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keystrokes typed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Websites visited </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emails & instant messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Details of applications and windows opened </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take snapshots of screen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restart, shutdown, & logoff computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control the desktop and mouse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make computer talk </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Spyware <ul><li>Sends info to monitor via email in the form of a detailed “Activity Report” and/or screenshots. </li></ul><ul><li>Operates in “stealth mode”, so difficult to detect. </li></ul><ul><li>Inexpensive ($30 and  ) and easy to purchase. </li></ul><ul><li>Spyware can be installed by someone who has physical access to the computer/phone OR by sending an email or Instant Message. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Safety Planning for Computer Monitoring <ul><li>Try to use a “safer” computer to avoid spy software and keystroke logging hardware. </li></ul><ul><li>Consult computer professional; run computer program to detect spy ware (i.e. SpyBot). </li></ul><ul><li>Strategize if spy ware is detected - involve police, don’t want to alert abuser. </li></ul><ul><li>Create new account on “safer” computer and only access that account from that computer. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Online Social Networking <ul><li>Hundreds of sites. Each collect and share different types of information. </li></ul><ul><li>Not just for teens! Used by people of all ages. </li></ul><ul><li>Information from social networks are used in legal cases, hiring determinations, and education applications. </li></ul><ul><li>Abusers misuse to impersonate and cause harm. </li></ul>
  40. 40. What are the Risks? <ul><li>Your friends’ friends’ friends will be able to see your info and become part of your social circle </li></ul><ul><li>Personal info posted online is not private —like a billboard on a highway </li></ul><ul><li>Predators troll online communities to find victims </li></ul><ul><li>Family, teachers, coworkers, coaches, employers can all access your info </li></ul><ul><li>Other people can post information about you on their own pages – even if your page is private </li></ul>
  41. 41. Cyberstalking Considerations <ul><li>Social Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Impersonation and Authentication </li></ul><ul><li>Threats and Invasion of Privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Deletion of Evidence </li></ul>Text Questions to (904) 624-1807
  42. 42. Sites and problematic behavior <ul><li>Public threats on Facebook wall; private threat in instant and private messaging </li></ul><ul><li>Impersonation on all sites </li></ul><ul><li>Retweets on Twitter </li></ul><ul><li>Anonymous harassment on </li></ul><ul><li>Harassment of trafficking victim on </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd party contact: Social Engineering </li></ul>Text Questions to (904) 624-1807
  43. 43. 3 Important SN Strategies <ul><li>To document Social Networking posts </li></ul><ul><li>PRINT SCREEN </li></ul><ul><li>2. To protect your page: </li></ul><ul><li>3. To keep location private: </li></ul>Text Questions to (904) 624-1807
  44. 44. 3 Important SN Strategies <ul><li>To document Social Networking posts </li></ul><ul><li>PRINT SCREEN </li></ul><ul><li>2. To protect your page: Super Deactivate Account </li></ul><ul><li>3. To keep location private: </li></ul>
  45. 45. Privacy Settings <ul><li>Privacy settings vary on social networking sites. </li></ul><ul><li>Limit access to your posts to friends/ followers/ circles that you know personally and can trust with this information. </li></ul><ul><li>Survivors experiencing stalking via social networking sites should limit profile access to friends only and limit profile information shared. </li></ul>
  46. 46. 3 Important SN Strategies <ul><li>To document Social Networking posts </li></ul><ul><li>PRINT SCREEN </li></ul><ul><li>2. To protect your page: </li></ul><ul><li>Deactivate Account </li></ul><ul><li>3. To keep location private: </li></ul><ul><li>Location: </li></ul><ul><li>OFF </li></ul>Text Questions to (904) 624-1807
  47. 47. Safety Considerations for Social Networks <ul><li>Is the survivor or her children active on any of these sites including alumni, job search, or online dating sites? </li></ul><ul><li>Has an abuser posted a profile of a survivor without the survivor’s knowledge? </li></ul>
  48. 48. Advocacy, Technology, and Safety Online Course: Part 4 of 4 Using and Stalking Log How Survivors Can Benefit from Technology
  49. 49. Using an Evidence Log <ul><li>Use a journal or a log to document incidents of stalking behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Using this tool provides helpers such as advocates and law enforcement with a timeline of events and a list of existing evidence. </li></ul><ul><li>Even partial information about the event can be useful as it can help to narrow down the types of technologies being used by the stalker. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Using a Stalking Log <ul><li>Include all information relevant to the event: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Date and time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Witness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of technology used (if known) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saved Evidence (printed email, text message stored on phone, call log, photo) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Police report number and officer’s name and badge number </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Using an Stalking Log <ul><li>Safety plan with survivors around safe storage of this evidence. </li></ul><ul><li>Important questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will the survivor store hard copies or electronic copies? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where will the evidence log and saved evidence be stored? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who has access to that storage location? </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. 7 Ways Survivors Can Benefit From Technology <ul><li>1. If a survivor “friends” with stalker on social location applications, she or he can check-in at a false location like the library or grocery store when meeting with an advocate. </li></ul>
  53. 53. 7 Ways Survivors Can Benefit From Technology <ul><li>2. With Gmail and Facebook, a user can discover when her or his account has been accessed. This is useful in discovering if the account has been accessed in another location or by another person. </li></ul><ul><li>Facebook: Account Settings >Security>Active Sessions>Login Approvals, Recoginized Devices, and Active Sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Gmail: (Bottom right of screen) Details </li></ul>
  54. 54. 7 Ways Survivors Can Benefit From Technology <ul><li>3. Take control of your webcam. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the landline or mobile phone has been compromised, use Skype or other VoIP services. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When not using, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cover laptop web camera with tape. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uninstall cameras if never used. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If possible, disconnect webcam from computer and store when not using. </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. 7 Ways Survivors Can Benefit From Technology <ul><li>4. Incorporate contact restrictions specifically in Injunction for Protection (IFP). Include in the IFP: no social networking contact, no text messaging, or voicemail contact. </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate with the perp ONLY via text message or email so that threats, visitation order violations, or IFP violations are documented. </li></ul>
  56. 56. 7 Ways Survivors Can Benefit From Technology <ul><li>5. When communicating via text message or email, use a code word, code phrase, or a set exchange of code words or phrases to confirm the sender’s identity. </li></ul><ul><li>Example text exchange, </li></ul><ul><li>Sender (Caller ID says Mom): </li></ul><ul><li>Survivor: </li></ul><ul><li>Sender: </li></ul>
  57. 57. 7 Ways Survivors Can Benefit From Technology <ul><li>6. Create an anonymous social networking profile. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use an anonymous profile image such as nature scene or cartoon picture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a name other than your own. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use false profile data such as home town and employer or leave profile data blank. </li></ul></ul>
  58. 58. 7 Ways Survivors Can Benefit From Technology <ul><li>7. Use Google Voice to place phone calls and text message for free without using your own personal cell or home phone number. Visit to learn more. </li></ul>
  59. 59. Next Steps for Advocates <ul><li>Safety Plan with Survivors about their tech use. Share safety & privacy tips. </li></ul><ul><li>Work with law enforcement, community members, & policy makers to hold abusers accountable. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep learning about technology benefits & risks. </li></ul><ul><li>Visit for more information and handouts </li></ul>
  60. 60. Before Sharing Online <ul><li>Although it is vital to get tech safety information to victims, we need to do it in ways that do not give ideas or explicit instructions to abusers. </li></ul><ul><li>Please do NOT post explicit tech information on the web or publish in newsletters that will be posted on websites. </li></ul><ul><li>Visit the NNEDV website: to see what materials and information we have provided online. Or contact Safety Net Team at [email_address] to discuss further. </li></ul>
  61. 61. The Safety Net Technology Project at the National Network to End Domestic Violence 2001 S Street, NW Suite 400 Washington, DC 20009 Phone: 202-543-5566 Website: Email: This contact information is intended for advocates and allies. The project does not have staffing and coverage to take calls directly from victims/survivors. Advocates are encouraged to contact the Safety Net Tech Team for assistance by phone or email about individual victims (identifying details about the victim are not needed).