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  1. 1. If clause
  2. 2. There are four types of conditional sentence. It is sometimes called the "if" clause. It is formed by two clauses.The former clause expresses the condition while the latter indicates the result of that condition or vice versa.
  3. 3. Type 0 If clause Main clause We use this type of condition to express a universal truth. The present simple tense is used in both the main clause and the subordinate clause. e.g. If you heat water to 100℃, it boils.
  4. 4. Exercise 1.If it _________ (rain) heavily, our house _________ (leak). 2.If we ________ (put) ice in the sun,it _________ (melt) quickly. 3.If we _____________(feel) well, we ________(see) a doctor. 4.If a dog ________ (see) stranger,it ________(bark). rains leaks put melts do not feel see sees barks
  5. 5. Type 1 e.g. If you work hard, you will succeed. v Present Future This type of condition is used for present or future activities which are likely to happen. We use the present simple tense in the if clause and the shall/will/can/may+infinitive construction in the main clause.
  6. 6. Exercise 1.If you ____________ (work) hard,you_______ _______(fail). 2.If it ________(rain),I ___________(come) and meet you in the car. 3.If it ___________ (rain) tomorrow,I _______ ___________ (stay) at home. don't work will fail rains will come will rains stay
  7. 7. Type 2 e.g. If you asked me, I would help you. n Past tense / past subjunctive would+infinitive The condition is used for present or future activities which are unlikely or impossible to happen. We use the past simple tense in the if clause and the should/would+infinitive contruction in the main clause.
  8. 8. Exercise 1.If I _________ (be) a bird, I _____________ (fly) everywhere. 2.If you _________ (tell) me the truth,I ______ _____________________ (give) you some constructive advice. 3.If there _________ (be) a typhoon tomorrow, I _______________ (be) very happy. were would fly told would/ could/might give was could be
  9. 9. Type 3 h If I had had time last year, I would have joined the Student Union. Past Perfect would + have + past participle This is the only type of condition which deals with past situations.The action mentioned did not really happen. We use the past perfect tense in the if clause and the should/would+have+past participle construction in the main clause.
  10. 10. Exercise 1.If it ____________(rain) yesterday, I ___________ _____________(stay) at home. 2.If the principal __________________(allow) us to supervise the tuck shop, food poisoning ____________ ____________(occur) last Friday. 3.If the chairman _______________(ask) me to help, I_______________(join) to fight for better hygienic conditions. had rained should/would have stayed had allowed would not have occured had asked would have joined
  11. 11. Conclusion Would+ have+ Past perfect Past Perfect Type 3 Impossible situation in past Would+ infinitive tense Past simple Type 2 Unlikely to happen Future Present simple Type 1 Probable situation Present simple Present simple Type 0 General Truth Main clause If clause
  12. 12. We are affected!! Economic recession affects all local employees. My father (1)____________fired if his company does not have sufficient orders next year.Luckily, my mother is a junior civil servant who is working in the Regional Council.She might be dismissed only if she (2)________ a crime or made serious mistakes. Yet with the combination of the Urban Council and Regional Council, many posts are redundant. She (3)_______________ her job if her department shrinks. She is rather anxious about losing her job. “If I (4)__________a university degree, I would not have been a janitor,” my mother said. “Don’t worry!The SAR government is a good boss. If I were you, I Exercises will/may be committed will/might/may lose had got
  13. 13. (5)_________as hard as I could,” my father tried to comfort her. Frankly, if my parents lost their jobs, I (6)_____________ my studies, too. If I (7)_________part of the HKSAR government, I would create more job opportunities for all local workers.Measures like diversification of trade and markets may compensate the unemployment rate. Hong Kong is highly competitive. You will be dismissed by your boss if you (8)_____ _____hard. Uncle Tom is a typical example.If he had worked hard, he (9)______________________ by his manager. Even students must try their utmost or they (10)__________ expelled from school. would work would give up were don't work would not have been fired/dismissed will be