Tourism Employment During Economic                Transition in AlbaniaDrita KRUJA, MA - Lecturer of TourismShkodra Univer...
Tourism Employment during Economic Transition in AlbaniaAbstractSince 90 Albania is in transition. Many studies have tried...
being entrepreneur, high level of interpersonal contacts and flexibility in employment,low skilled job, diversity of jobs,...
brought First and Second World War and the Hoxha dictatorship, the most wild, long liferegime in the communist campus, for...
Albanias Ministry of Tourism, it is a top priority for the national economic development.He described Albanias tourism as ...
Lake, and the inland forests at Lura are slated to receive protected designation. On theindustry side, a PHARE program for...
In the international tourism research literature, the most commonly used definition is thefollowing: "Tourism is the tempo...
tourism development vary according to the type of tourist activity, some types of tourismbeing more labor-intensive than o...
the existing and new entrepreneur. Their initiative both with their capitals is stronglysupported by some non-economic fac...
Fifth, Albania is one of things the tourist may very well fail to find, however, itis an easy way to get there. While dire...
countryside, as well as on family farms, where guests stay either with the farmer family,or in a guest house, but visiting...
"development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability offuture generations to meet their own n...
by tourism developments. In fact is too hard to evaluate its indirect impact, but it existsand can not be neglected. For e...
market labor and to measure the motivation of the workforce, which found itself asdevalued human capital, for getting empl...
It is to be emphasized that some businesses, such as restaurants in tourist areas, areselling principally to tourists, so ...
Fig. 1: Gender content of the sample                                                         Female                       ...
1. The study was primarily interested in mobility patterns after the collapse of the   communist system.2. 1991 was the fi...
The cross - table 3 summarizes these measures. The first column shows the number ofrespondents coming from each industry. ...
-“I saw the tourism as the most profitable industry for a business",         -“I saw good business opportunities in touris...
1. Tourism is more than a simple economic sector; it encompasses a variety of           different activities in which the ...
job whichdid notrequire anyparticularqualificationI earned too      -.1829.714E-02           .830        -.127-9.618E-02  ...
attracted byimage oftourismI wanted to 1.928E-02 -1.338E-02         .126-8.142E-03 -7.434E-03 2.065E-02 -2.993E-02    .871...
even though the total variance explained is the same. Also, each factor is named inaccordance with the meaning of the corr...
the only opportunity to get a future job?” Generally respondents see tourism as a goodopportunity to increase their income...
of development it is necessary to adapt with specifics of our country before implementingthem.A better cooperation between...
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Tourism employment during economic transition in albania

  1. 1. Tourism Employment During Economic Transition in AlbaniaDrita KRUJA, MA - Lecturer of TourismShkodra University, Economics Faculty,Address: L. “Ahmet Haxhia”, Rr. “Musa Luli”, No. 48, Shkodër, AlbaniaPhone (home): ++3552243450Mobile: ++355692148272Edlira GJURAJ, MBA – Lecturer of Organizational BehaviorShkodra University, Economics Faculty,Address: L. “Qemal Stafa”, Rr. “Zogu i I-rë”, No.25, Shkodër, AlbaniaPhone (home): ++3552241378Mobile: ++355692255151 1
  2. 2. Tourism Employment during Economic Transition in AlbaniaAbstractSince 90 Albania is in transition. Many studies have tried to evaluate the duration of thisperiod, but, to in some extent, it is going to be unpredictable. Many new phenomenapresented during this period have made it so difficult. According to that, there are manynew industries growing up rapidly, while some of the old ones failed. Tourism industryis a new one.This paper consists of the description of tourism employment and labor market behaviorin the special conditions of Albania, passing from communism to capitalism. Newmarket economy brought many changes in the Albania Economy profile. The study isconcerned with the role of new developments in tourism industry, tourism employmentand the nature of its occupations in these special circumstances. Considering tourism asrefuge industry1 gives the opportunity to identify mobility patterns from other (notefficient) economic sectors, to asses the impact of the change in labor market and tomeasure the motivation of the workforce, which found itself as devalued human capital,for getting employed into tourism.Also, as in all East-European countries in transition, the migration phenomenon is presentin Albania. Its social-economic advantages and disadvantages has been object of manystudies.The aim of our paper is to give response to the question: Is there any correlation betweentourism developments and its employment with migration rate? The attractiveness oftourism employment for many is due to a number of factors, such as: individual desire for1 Szivas E, & Riley M, “Tourism employment during economic transition”, 1999. 2
  3. 3. being entrepreneur, high level of interpersonal contacts and flexibility in employment,low skilled job, diversity of jobs, etc..The study is based on primary and secondary research. National statistics, previouscontributions in this field, internet sources, etc., served as secondary data. Surveymethods served as the source of the primary data, which have been processed by SPSS.This is a behavioral study in which economics forms the background. Essentially, it isabout the personal experience of economic change in exceptional social circumstances.I. A few words about Albania?Albania is a small nation located east across the Adriatic Sea from Italy, bordered withMontenegro and Kosovo on the north, Macedonia on the east, and Greece on the south. Albania has a population of 3.3 million, about half of which live in the countryside and are engaged primarily in agriculture. The country is blessed with natural beauty and resources - high majestic mountains, beautiful lakes and streams, over 200 miles of pristine white sand beaches, and significant deposits of various minerals (oil, copper, nickel, chromium, coal, etc.). (Luthans & Lee, 1996). Its geographical position and so many naturalbeauties are not the only things Albania has to be proud of. Having a look at the oldlanguages map, we see Albanian language as old as the Greek one. So our history startstoo many years B.C... Our castles in the main old centers tell about Albania andAlbanians, many times ago. Passing through many different invasions, destroying battles,borders’ changes and conversions, Albanians arrived in the years of 20th century, which 3
  4. 4. brought First and Second World War and the Hoxha dictatorship, the most wild, long liferegime in the communist campus, for more than 45 years.At the 21st century, within much developed Europe, we still have lots of problems.Unemployment and underemployment have been critical problems. In addition Albaniafaces the problem of low levels of industrial production …., lack of modern productionfacilities (most of the heavy manufacturing facilities are now shut down and containscast-off Chinese technology installed in the late 1960s), a chronic negative trade balance,and mounting foreign debt. (ibid)Inherited problems both with new unknown phenomena of trade economy put Albaniainto a long transition period. It has chosen a liberal economic policy, considering as thepremise for its economic development. Also, in order to attract investments, the principalcondition is to construct the infrastructure, an investment that continues at fast rates andis a priority also in the midterm program of the Albanian Government. It is a necessity ofdeveloping tourism as well.Tourism is a major world industry whose importance will grow even more in the comingyears. Albania is one of Central and Eastern European Countries “which has largelyclosed to international tourism during the cold-war era and where tourism as aconsequence has suffered somewhat compared to Western Europe. … the countries ofcentral and eastern Europe – with their rich architectural heritage, natural treasures, pastsand traditions – are already becoming significant tourism destinations and are doing theirutmost to tackle the new challenges. (Stepova V, 1997).While Albania would be at the top of the alphabetical tourism "yellow pages," it is notlikely to be the first place to come to mind when planning an eco-get-a-way. The countryis still a virtual unknown on the vacation circuit, but according to the Director for 4
  5. 5. Albanias Ministry of Tourism, it is a top priority for the national economic development.He described Albanias tourism as being in an "embryonic stage," but emphasized that ithas been identified as an area where the country has an international competitiveadvantage. "Albania has been isolated in the past and not many people have had thechance to visit there, so our nature is untouched and our coast is unspoiled." (TheBulletin 6-1 Ecotourism.htm)II. New developments in the Albanian economy.According to Charles Goldfinger, "both general policy and employment regulations havean impact on tourism services and their costs. Its highly seasonal nature and the greatdemand for available, varied supply mean that the tourism industry requires considerableflexibility and fluidity as regards work. The growth of tourism therefore has to besupported by sound macro-economic policies, directed at growth and promoting workflexibility".The main focus of tourism developments strategy was seeing Albania as destinations forinternational out-of-region tourism, rather than an internal or domestic tourism, especiallyfrom the two main reasons: first, population in Albania is poor2, and second, data relatedto that is still sparse and inconsistent.With funding from the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, thisMinistry outlined a detailed set of guidelines for the tourism industry which includeslong-term plans for environmental protection. Part of the development efforts include thecreation of national parks and protected areas. Some of Albanias most pristine andecologically valuable areas, such as the lagoon at Diviaka, the marsh areas of Butrint2 According to the data from the 2002 Living Standards Measurement Survey, one quarter of the Albanianpopulation lives in poverty. 5
  6. 6. Lake, and the inland forests at Lura are slated to receive protected designation. On theindustry side, a PHARE program for tourism in Albania is providing grants and loans toentrepreneurs who want to develop basic services and lodgings. And potential foreigninvestors have been quick to investigate development opportunities, particularly in thehotel industry in coastal areas. But so far Albania has not lost sight of the need tosafeguard the environment. The ministry is committed to developing tourism in anenvironmentally friendly way and avoiding the over development that plagues otherdestinations. "We will try to develop a tourism that is different from our Mediterraneancompetitors. We want tourists to find in Albania what they have failed to find in otherplaces," he says. (The Bulletin 6-1 Ecotourism.htm)III. What is Tourism Industry?Exploring into the recently research and the different contribution of the tourism field,there are too many different definitions considering different points of view in favor oftourism.“Tourism is neither a phenomenon nor a simple set of industries. It is human activity,which encompasses human behavior, use of resources, and interaction with other people,economies and environments.” (Bull, 1995:1)First of all, we need to recognize that tourism is not a uniform industry or sector. From amacro-economic point of view, tourism is simply something that is consumed, whetherconsumption is final or intermediate. “In the travel and tourism marketplace it followsthat the tourism industry, or industries, consists of any organizations supplying goodsand services to those people now defined as tourists and excursionists, as part of theirtourist requirements.” (Bull, 1995:3) 6
  7. 7. In the international tourism research literature, the most commonly used definition is thefollowing: "Tourism is the temporary movement of persons to destinations outside theirnormal home and workplace for leisure, business and other purposes, the activitiesundertaken during the stay and the facilities created to cater for the needs of tourists."(WTO, 1989). For the purpose of investigating the economic impacts of tourism, thedefinition of the WTTC seems to be more appropriate, though, in our case, too wide toapply (due to temporal and financial constraints): "The Travel and Tourism industry isdefined by the economic activities (personal, investment, government, business and netexport) associated with travel as measured by the wide variety of current and capitalexpenditures made by or for the benefit of a traveler before, during and after a trip"(WTTC, 1995).Though expenditures before and after tourist trips may arise as a consequence oftraveling, most services provided to the tourists have to be delivered at the time and placeat which they are produced (Hansen & Jensen, 1996). Tourisms economic impacts,according to that, have to be seen as economic benefits and costs which accrue todestination areas as a consequence of tourism development. Also, tourist expendituresshould be considered from the perspectives of the local, regional and national economiesof tourist destinations. Because of the lack of the appropriate information on it, it isdifficult to go in the stratified classification, so the focus remains on the nationaleconomy as a whole.Tourism is a field of investment as well as an attractive industry for being employed onit. Tourism is generally known as one of the sectors where the costs of a new job aresignificantly less than in other industries, though some researches have come to acontrasting conclusion. Obviously, the characteristics of employment and the effects of 7
  8. 8. tourism development vary according to the type of tourist activity, some types of tourismbeing more labor-intensive than others. Accommodation facilities and the hospitalitysector in general employ a substantial proportion of the tourism labor force, but they alsorequire relatively large capital investments. The financial resources required to generateemployment also vary with the size of companies, the types of skills needed, theeconomic development of the destination area, etc.IV. Tourism Industry in Albania.Why studying tourism industry developments?Let us have a look at the main considerations related to that: First, tourism economic significance can easily be assessed in terms of: the contribution it makes, both directly and indirectly, to the total value of goods and services produced in the economy, the export dollars it earns through the sale of goods and services to overseas visitors, and the jobs it creates.So by addressing some of aspects of tourism in the economy, its macroeconomic role, itsconsequences, and most related topics to our study, we will address its involvement inpolicies related to employment levels. Second, Albania is one of the less-developed countries. "Many less-developedcountries have regarded tourism as an easy industry to develop, because it demandsrelatively low technology compared with many other industries, and skills which can beeasily mastered." (Bull, 1995:126). Also compared with heavy industry sectors, whichrequires substantial investments of fixed capital formation, tourism traditionally ischaracterized by low investments in starting up businesses. It makes it very favorable to 8
  9. 9. the existing and new entrepreneur. Their initiative both with their capitals is stronglysupported by some non-economic factors, which ".. particularly cultural and politicalones, have been recognized by economists as vital in determining the capability andgrowth of sectors in an economy" (Bull, 1995:126). Added to that, Albania inherited notmodern heavy industry sectors, independently from the strategies during the Hoxharegime to transform our country from agricultural to an industrial one. Third, tourism incentives are linked to cultural and traditional values, attitudes,quality of climate and physical surroundings, except the curiosity of exploring one of themost isolated socialist countries for more than 45 years. “Indeed the bright Albanian sunshines on nearly 450 kilometers of relatively pristine coastline. The Albanian Alps,numerous lakes, vast forests and the rich cultural heritage of one of the oldestcivilizations in Europe, round out the offerings which the Ministry of Tourism hopes willdraw visitors and their much-needed hard currency to the country.” (The Bulletin 6-1Ecotourism). Fourth, the tourism is a significant source of employment both in Europe andthroughout the world. With 9 million jobs actually in the tourism industry (excludingtransport), i.e. 6% of employment and 5.5% of the Unions GDP, tourism is already oneof the main sources of employment in the European Union. (Presidency of the council ofthe European Union). Albania, as geographically part of Europe, in order to be part of itin all required standards, must follow up its main streams of the later developments. InAlbania there is an increase in the number of people employed in tourism from 1994 to2000, except the 1997. For example in 2000, it is approximately twice of the number ofpeople employed in the extracting industry. (19 thousand compared in tourism to 9thousand in extracting industry). 9
  10. 10. Fifth, Albania is one of things the tourist may very well fail to find, however, itis an easy way to get there. While directly accessible by ferries from Italy and Corfu,overland transportation is another story. From the Tirana airport and through main roads,now no more in the terrible conditions and the rail system (in fact still poor), you can getinto the country.V. Other Aspects of Tourism in AlbaniaRural TourismRural tourism is both an old and a new phenomenon at the same time. Interest incountryside recreation started to grew already in the 19 Century as a reaction to the stressof the increasing urbanization and industrialization. Based on the concept of ruraltourism given by Tamara Rátz – László Puczkó, though it seems to be simple to definerural tourism as "tourism that takes place in the countryside", this definition does notinclude the complexity of the activity and the different forms and meanings developed indifferent countries. It was Gannon (1988 in the Kloeze, 1994) passing to a broaderdefinition, "rural tourism includes a range of activities, services and amenities providedby farmers and rural people to attract tourists to their area in order to generate extraincome for their businesses". And if it is accepted, rural tourism covers not only farmtourism or agro tourism (which is generally what rural tourism means for most people),but also special interest nature holidays, touring in rural areas and residential tourism, andthe services include - besides accommodation - events, festivals, outdoor recreation,production and sale of handicrafts and agricultural products, etc. rural tourism meansdifferent things in different countries. But, in Albania it is something between all ofthese, so it is renting out cottages to visitors or providing catering services in the 10
  11. 11. countryside, as well as on family farms, where guests stay either with the farmer family,or in a guest house, but visiting farms to have a meal and explore the farmyard is alsopopular (Verbole, 1995 in Tamara Rátz – László Puczkó, 1998).As long as we know, rural tourism is a segment of the total tourist industry which can beparticularly important in Albania, in a country that are combined spectacular naturalattractions, seaside, high mountains, rainforest or herds of exotic animals, with itsattractive cultural landscapes with small villages, thermal springs, rivers and lakes,combined with the traditional hospitality, are able to offer pleasant experiences to thekind of tourist who is looking for relaxation and recreation in a calm setting. On onehand, rural tourism development can play an important role in the diversification of theAlbanian tourist supply and in the creation of a more complex and colorful countryimage. On the other hand, rural tourism is not only the end, but the means to stimulateeconomic growth, to increase the viability of underdeveloped regions, and to improve theliving standards of local populations. So, rural tourism developments means:“…increased number of opportunities for social interaction for local people who oftenlive relatively isolated lives in agricultural communities” (Swarbrooke, 1996 in TamaraRátz – László Puczkó, 1998), more developed infrastructure, safer life, higher number ofvisitors, higher income, higher living standards for the population which in turn willdirectly reduce the migration rate characterizing these areas, and will attract the refugescoming and investing in their country.Sustainable Tourism DevelopmentTamara Rátz & László Puczkó (1998) include in their study, the concept of sustainabledevelopment which was introduced by the World Commission on Environment andDevelopment in the Brundtland Report in 1987, defining sustainable development as 11
  12. 12. "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability offuture generations to meet their own needs". In respect of sustainability the wholetourism sector must be developed and managed in a way that it does not damage thenatural and socio-cultural environment and this is the responsibility of the world-widetourism industry. In the continuation of their work Tamara Rátz & László Puczkó(1998), have given some types of sustainability, such as: Ecological sustainability, Socialsustainability, Cultural sustainability (Jafari, 1987) and Economic sustainability. Economic sustainability refers to a level of economic gain from tourism that issufficient to provide an appropriate income for the local community (compared to the anyspecial measure taken to satisfy the tourists (thus a precondition of economicsustainability is the attractiveness of an area and the perceived high quality of its touristsupply: without being in a competitive position in the world market, no destination can beeconomically sustainable).Harmonization of all these aspects is the duty of tourism strategy developments, but it isnot in fact the focus of our study. It is just to remind that the study of the economicimpact of tourism is in course with the sustainability of its developments in order torealize a long-term prospective.Academic Field of TourismTourism today is no longer an economic activity based solely on the employment of hoteland catering staff. It is a major employer which needs to be taken seriously by thoseresponsible for employment policy. Tourism plays a greater role in bringing people andcountries together. It undoubtedly motivates them to learn foreign languages andpromotes mutual understanding of one another’s situation and thereby contributes topeace. So, there are many other activities, included in different economy sectors, induced 12
  13. 13. by tourism developments. In fact is too hard to evaluate its indirect impact, but it existsand can not be neglected. For example, there are actually new branches of undergraduateuniversity studies set up in some of Albanian universities. The educational institutionsare excellent candidates for providing leadership. Their influences are an importantcontributory factor in determining the managerial and the policy decision makingframework.Human resources are important elements in the strengths and weaknesses of tourismactivity. Improvement of the supply conditions for human resources is an effectivemeasure for strengthening the competitive position of a destination/country. The (labor)supply conditions are given through factor endowments, prices and characteristics offactors of production and production efficiency. The human resources endowment of acountry is defined by the skill level of its workforce which, in turn, determines thecountrys international competitive position. So, the training is needed not only inmanagerial levels, but also in others levels. This is extremely important, since tourismindustry is labor intensive and the tourism experience is a high-contact service. Thatmeans more qualification and specialization of labor forces available for tourism services.On the other side, it brings the opening of the new work places by reducing a little bitunemployment of different regions.VI. MethodologyThe study hypothesis is:Considering tourism as refuge industry3 gives the opportunity to identify mobilitypatterns from other (not efficient) economic sectors, to asses the impact of the change in3 Szivas E, & Riley M, “Tourism employment during economic transition”, 1999. 13
  14. 14. market labor and to measure the motivation of the workforce, which found itself asdevalued human capital, for getting employed into tourism.The main objectives performed during the study are: representing the role of new developments in tourism industry analyzing tourism employment and the nature of its occupations in these special circumstances viewing tourism as refuge industry giving tourism role in the economic developmentsMethodology consists of the use of the combined primary and secondary researchmethods. Exploring the right literature, such as: books, previous studies in the tourismfield; selecting related data to the purpose of the study; arranging them in the mostrepresentative manner; comparing data, from different sources in order to increase theiraccuracy were the main jobs performed during the secondary research process. In order toprove the hypotheses, the study followed up the model of the similar study done bySzivas & Riley (1999). It served as a guide to all our work for two main reasons: first,the similar objective of the study, and the second the similar country under focus.The reason for not having an exact figure for the number of people employed in tourismin Albania is twofold: first, the accuracy of statistical data collection falls behind theexpectations, but, secondly, it is very difficult to define what proportion of the total finaldemand in the economy is due to tourism, i.e. what is the contribution of tourist spendingdirectly and indirectly to employment creation and what is the effect of the tourismmultiplier. Besides, in Albania is a lack of any tourist job catalogue, which will facilitatedata gathering process for the further analyses. 14
  15. 15. It is to be emphasized that some businesses, such as restaurants in tourist areas, areselling principally to tourists, so are a direct part of the tourism industry, there are someothers supplying a similar physical product, such as restaurant in the center of the capitalcity that are not really a part of tourism industry. This immediately creates a problem inany economic analysis of the field, in that the products felt to be supplied by members ofthe industry are not necessarily the same as those products perceived to be a demand byconsumers. (Bull, 1995:4).All these facts reinforce the existence of any possible errors raised as a result ofunreliability and inaccuracy of the data gathered. The primary data were collectedthrough a self-completed questionnaire. The sample consists of individuals working intourism industry. The research was concentrated on the four main districts of thecountry, such as: Tirana, Vlora, Shkodra and Koplik. Tirana is the Capital of Albania andthe most important economic center of the country. Vlora, Shkodra and Koplik werechosen as different tourism areas. The sample share is represented in the following table: Table 1. The areas and their share from sample ( n=154) Main Areas Valid Percent Cumulative Frequency Percent Percent Vlora 36 23.4 23.4 23.4 Tirana 71 46.1 46.1 69.5 Shkodra 30 19.5 19.5 89.0 Koplik 17 11.0 11.0 100.0 Total 154 100.0 100.0The definition of tourism workers was pitched fairly wide and included workers inrestaurants, hotels, travel agents, taxi drivers, etc. 250 questionnaires were randomlydistributed to workers within the sample areas, and the response rate was 62%. Theresulted content of the sample was 72 females (46.8%) and 82 males (53.2%). (As infig.1) 15
  16. 16. Fig. 1: Gender content of the sample Female MaleIn the sample, 25-35 year old respondents make 31.8% of the total, which is the dominantpart, and until 25 year old represent 26.6%. The main reason is that the younger tend tobe more mobile than older people. The age of sample is represented in fig.2. Fig. 2: Age classification of the respondents 50 40 30 Frequency 20 Percent 10 0 -25 25-35 35-45 45-55As part of the assessment of human capital, the study used education classification basedon four levels. The educational background of the sample is shown in table 4.Table 2. Educational Background of sample (n=154) Frequency Percent Valid Cumulative Percent Percent Primary School 4 2.6 2.6 2.6 Secondary school 47 30.5 30.5 33.1 Higher Education 89 57.8 57.8 90.9 Post-University 14 9.1 9.1 100.0 Total 154 100.0 100.0It shows that the majority of respondents (57.8%) have higher educational level. This is acharacteristic that comes by high rate of unemployment in Albania, and it is good for thequality of the tourism development.The Pattern of MobilityIn the questionnaire subjects are asked to give their employment pattern over the 1991-2004 periods. The choice of 1991 as a cut-off point is justified by some factors, such as: 16
  17. 17. 1. The study was primarily interested in mobility patterns after the collapse of the communist system.2. 1991 was the first year when unemployment appeared in the official statistics. Of the total sample, 92.2% (142 respondents) moved into tourism during last 13 years.Furthermore, in line with the hypothesis, the role of tourism as a refuge industry for thevictims of transition, it was anticipated that a number of respondents would haveexchanged their unemployed position with a job in this industry. Fig. 4 shows sectors ofthe economy the tourism workers came from. Fig. 4. Industry Prior to Tourism 40 30 20 10 Count 0 m M ag uri co e tr pu ed mi ot un an n in an he ric ns bl uc nis em in sp u ic rs tr ul at g, fa pl uc or tu ad io oy ct qu t r tio n m ar en ng ry t in tr at g io in place employmentThe mobility into tourism occurred from each sector of the economy. The highestcategory is “manufacturing industry” which provides 22.7% of the sample. The decline inmanufacturing industry, with the resulting redundancies, is likely inducement of thismobility. The education sector, 16.2%, is the second sector indicating that deterioratingsocial status and low pay in education make tourism an attractive employment option.The job status mobility measure used three categories: (1) Entrepreneur, (2) Manager, and (3) Employee. 17
  18. 18. The cross - table 3 summarizes these measures. The first column shows the number ofrespondents coming from each industry. The following three columns are concernedwith job status change and show the numbers of those, whose status is improved,declined, and remained the same, respectively. This table gives out a clear view of theextent and the character of change. Only a small minority of respondents declined in jobstatus, and a high proportion of it have an increase in their job status. (For moreinformation refer to the information of table 3).Table 3. Place employment and Status change Status change Total Status Improved No Change Status Declined Heavy Industry 4 4 Manufacturing 20 13 2 35 Agriculture 1 2 3 Place Employment Construction 5 14 19 Transport 12 1 13 Public Administration 16 6 22 Education 22 3 25 Others 10 6 5 21 Unemployment 6 4 10 Total 92 49 11 152* Note: the difference between 154 and 152 are missing values not included in the tableMotivations to Move into TourismIn the questionnaire there is a table including 24 statements related to the possiblemotives for taking up a job in tourism. The respondents were asked to rate, on a 5-pointLikert scale (1–strongly disagree, 2-disagree, 3-neither agree nor disagree, 4-agree, 5-strongly agree), the degree of their agreement or disagreement for 24 statements. Wheninterpreting the results, higher means imply agreement whereas lower values indicatedisagreement. The means and standard deviations for 24 statements are shown in Table4, where it is represented a strong positive attitude towards tourism employment. Thestatements with strongest support were the following: -"I wanted better working conditions", - “I wanted an interesting job", -“I wanted to work in a pleasant surrounding", 18
  19. 19. -“I saw the tourism as the most profitable industry for a business", -“I saw good business opportunities in tourism". -"I was attracted by image of tourism" -“I wanted a job in which I could deal with people"The first statement with the lowest mean value was "My family had a business intourism", because of the lack of private ownership in the Albanian economy before ’90.Table 4. Means and Standard for 24 Statements (n=154) Std. Std. Error Statement N Mean Deviation MeanI earned too little in my previous industry 148 3.1284 1.62581 .13364It was easy to start a business in tourism 154 2.5519 1.50399 .12120I needed extra income in order to improve my living 154 4.0844 1.31830 .10623standardI saw the tourism as the most profitable industry for a 154 4.36364 1.059154 .085349businessMy family had a business in tourism 154 1.8312 1.56266 .12592I wanted to accumulate capital for establishing my own 154 3.8506 1.66385 .13408businessI was unemployed and needed a job 154 2.1688 1.68347 .13566I saw tourism as a profitable industry 154 4.0909 1.28013 .10316I was attracted by image of tourism 154 4.1169 1.22580 .09878I wanted to use my language skills 154 3.5000 1.41074 .11368I saw good business opportunities in tourism 154 4.2857 .93385 .07525I needed extra money quickly 154 2.9091 1.35937 .10954The industry I was working in before was declining 144 2.5417 1.53684 .12807I wanted a job that suited my education 151 3.3709 1.43581 .11684I did not see prospects in my previous industry 143 3.3776 1.51427 .12663I wanted to leave my previous job 141 3.2340 1.60641 .13528I could not get a job elsewhere 149 2.3221 1.53899 .12608I wanted a job in which I could deal with people 151 4.0132 1.21648 .09900I needed a job which did not require any particular 151 2.6291 1.70339 .13862qualificationI wanted to work in a pleasant surrounding 151 4.4702 1.01855 .08289I like to try different jobs 151 3.2185 1.59120 .12949I wanted to establish my own business 151 3.9536 1.63029 .13267I wanted better working conditions 151 4.7616 .72763 .05921I wanted an interesting job 151 4.6093 .79978 .06509The data provide an interesting insight into the motives for the mobility into tourism.It is necessary to have a look at the structure of the motives. Factor analysis was appliedto the data. The approach to factor analysis according to the main study objectives wasbased on five hypotheses. 19
  20. 20. 1. Tourism is more than a simple economic sector; it encompasses a variety of different activities in which the number of jobs created in spin-off activities is at least as great as the number directly created in tourism. 2. Tourism offers many job opportunities requiring few qualifications and is therefore a good source of work for young people and women, with only high school education level, except others. 3. Tourism is favored for incentive value of the jobs it offers (as, image, the pleasant surrounding etc..). 4. Tourism for the most part generates jobs which provide a new entry into economic environment, often in private businesses as entrepreneurship etc. 5. Tourism offers an escape route from declining industry, an unpleasant job or unemployment.We make factor analysis using the correlation matrix to try to determine which sets ofvariables cluster together in a reasonable manner.Rotated Component Matrix Component 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10I saw .765 .198 -.2472.540E-02 -9.263E-02 -.111 .188 -.1214.301E-02 9.120E-02tourism as aprofitableindustryI wanted to .7203.819E-02 .206 .124-2.649E-02 8.302E-02 .102 4.152E-02 -.284-7.431E-02accumulatecapital forestablishingmy ownbusinessI wanted .694 .174 .135 -.2283.330E-02 -7.660E-02 -.185 .156 .279 -.197betterworkingconditionsI did not see .190 .7918.972E-02 8.289E-02 3.547E-02 .2157.713E-02 -.149-9.822E-02 2.215E-04prospects inmypreviousindustryI wanted to -.123 .709-7.417E-02 -.197 .160 -.104 .242 .254 .172 -.101leave mypreviousjobI needed a .226 .7044.447E-02 .233 -.128 -.154 -.167 -1.551E-03 -4.515E-02 8.655E-02 20
  21. 21. job whichdid notrequire anyparticularqualificationI earned too -.1829.714E-02 .830 -.127-9.618E-02 .109 .134 -4.529E-02 .129-2.738E-02little in mypreviousindustryI needed .269-2.508E-02 .769 .3306.012E-02 -3.653E-02 -9.610E-02 .200 -.1098.924E-03extraincome inorder toimprove mylivingstandardI needed .146 .192 4.872E-02 .815 .174 -.136 -.209 -7.873E-02 -6.292E-023.783E-02extramoneyquicklyI was -.130 1.699E-02 -2.343E-02 .766 -.184 .128 .245 -3.435E-03 3.280E-02-9.705E-02unemployedand neededa jobI wanted to -4.409E-02 -9.190E-02 -1.363E-02 -2.926E-02 .852 9.166E-02 4.791E-02 1.884E-02 8.877E-02 .203use mylanguageskillsI wanted a -.224 .255 -2.156E-02 .345 .575 5.510E-02 -4.723E-02 .341 .227-6.199E-02job inwhich Icould dealwith peopleI could not 4.710E-02 -.124 .157 .446 -.536 .133 .165 2.014E-02 .272 .174get a jobelsewhereI saw the .372 -1.714E-02 .443 -4.247E-02 .510 -2.562E-02 .230 -.314 -7.439E-02 -.121tourism asthe mostprofitableindustry fora businessI like to try -.290 -.134 .212 -9.221E-02 .296 .721 -2.111E-02 6.523E-02 2.552E-02 .126differentjobsIt was easy 9.305E-02 -6.161E-02 .392 -.194 9.349E-02 -.679 .153 .114 -.1886.270E-03to start abusiness intourismI wanted to .303 1.505E-03 .313 -9.385E-02 -1.268E-02 .599 .422 .255 -2.349E-02 -.153establishmy ownbusinessThe .283 .395 .387 9.090E-02 -.215 .507 -.109 .104 5.695E-02 .109industry Iwasworking inbefore wasdecliningI saw good .169 8.881E-02 .102 -4.569E-02 -8.711E-02 -.158 .797 -.113 .245 .114businessopportunities in tourismMy family -.264 -.174 4.040E-02 .320 .196 .103 .544 .188 -.182 -.337had abusiness intourismI was .179 .347 -.132 .162 .294 .266 .497 6.351E-02 -3.488E-02 .388 21
  22. 22. attracted byimage oftourismI wanted to 1.928E-02 -1.338E-02 .126-8.142E-03 -7.434E-03 2.065E-02 -2.993E-02 .871 .157 .234work in apleasantsurroundingFuture of .1089.384E-02 -.134 -.219 .264 .304 .135 .415 -.276 -.214employmentI wanted a -1.673E-02 -1.305E-02 8.826E-03 8.189E-03 7.398E-02 .117 .133 .119 .8846.016E-02job thatsuited myeducationI wanted an -.122-5.054E-03 -1.644E-02 -4.028E-02 8.704E-02 2.680E-02 4.025E-02 .1696.147E-02 .887interestingjobExtraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.a Rotation converged in 22 iterations.Of the bold factor loadings, all except two of them are positive. The variable “I could notget a job elsewhere” and variable “I saw tourism as the most profitable industry for abusiness” are motives, which work in opposite directions. The same phenomenon is forvariables “It was easy to start a business in tourism” and” I wanted to establish my ownbusiness”, which looks unrealistic and one of the reasons may be the sample errorsmentioned before.The "Total Variance Explained" following table shows the eigenvalues, which are theproportion of total variance in all the variables, which is accounted for by that factor.Only ten are extracted for analysis because, under the Extraction options, SPSS was toldto extract only factors with eigenvalues of 1.0 or higher.The "Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings" give the eigenvalues after rotation improvesthe interpretability of the factors (we used Varimax rotation, which minimizes thenumber of variables which have high loadings on each given factor). The ten factorssolution satisfies both Kaiser’s criterion of selection. Note that the total percent ofvariance explained is 76.328% (see the cumulative value for factor 10). That is, afterrotation each extracted factor counts for a different percentage of variance explained, 22
  23. 23. even though the total variance explained is the same. Also, each factor is named inaccordance with the meaning of the correlated variables as well as in line with the fivehypotheses.Total Variance Explained Factor Factor Name Initial Eigenvalues % of Variance Cumulative % 1 Refugee 3.472 13.887 13.887 2 Desire for Change 2.781 11.125 25.012 3 Total Income 2.215 8.859 33.872 4 Change emergencies 2.136 8.545 42.417 5 Self-actualization 1.823 7.294 49.711 6 Entrepreneurship 1.646 6.582 56.293 7 Attractiveness 1 1.549 6.197 62.490 8 Satisfaction 1.249 4.995 67.484 9 Fulfillment 1.180 4.721 72.206 10 Attractiveness 2 1.031 4.123 76.328Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.The major contribution of the factor analysis to the research is that it supports theexistence of five hypotheses. So, the five hypothesis of the research are true. V. Conclusions and Recommendations.It is time now to (re)present the arguments and issues covered in the previewsparagraphs, and advance some conclusions and recommendations related to the topic.Tourism has become an integral and increasingly important part of the economies of thecountries of central and Eastern Europe, generating employment, revenue and newbusinesses. The move from state to private management, from centralization andmonopoly to decentralization and competition, has been as painful and costly as it wasnecessary.Albania is an unexplored very interesting and beautiful country with great potential indeveloping different types of tourism.The tourism industry is considered as refugee industry for employment of employeesfrom the other closed down or declining industries. Here naturally a question is rising up:“Are all these employees coming into tourism because of its positive attractiveness or as 23
  24. 24. the only opportunity to get a future job?” Generally respondents see tourism as a goodopportunity to increase their income, to be more satisfied, as well as a good opportunityto invest their capitals. But, there is a question mark over accuracy of facts gathered fromthe questionnaire. It is related to seriousness of the respondents in filling out aquestionnaire.Except being target of the investments shifting from the other declining industry, tourismis an attractive industry for the new investments, especially in hotels and restaurants.Compared to other countries experience, when, even in case of ownership or control notseparated, entrepreneurs are seeking for prestige tourism developments more than bigprofits in short term, in Albania they are looking for big profits in shortest time. Also, ithas to be considered that some of these businesses are operating as part of informaleconomy.Tourism has an impact, not significant in absolute value but at increase rate throughyears, in the employment phenomena. It is important to emphasize, that, there is not yetincluded in the main national statistical sources, the impact of tourism in the GDP, whichis the most representative indicator of the tourism contribution. From the respondentstourism in Albania is not considered a low-wage industry, and statistically for year 2000average monthly salary and wage per employee for the service sector (considered onlytourism) are 130124 higher than trade and construction sector.Sustainable Tourism development has to be taken under consideration from strategydesign to its implementation.From the facts, in general, tourism in Albania looks like in the other country described indifferent studies. But, it is important to say that in case of following up the other models4 INSTAT –statistical yearbook 1993-2001:119 24
  25. 25. of development it is necessary to adapt with specifics of our country before implementingthem.A better cooperation between the tourism industry and the universities in order to letthem know what we offer, and for us to know better what the industry really needs. Thiswould help, firstly, in developing better curricula and syllabus, in a better marketing ofthe knowledge’s of our graduates, and secondly, in the quality of the service of thisindustry. In line with that our research could be more valuable to the local and nationaldevelopment of tourism.The last but not the least is the importance of political stability in Albania as preliminarycondition for a country to be developed and integrated.Literature1. Baum, Tom “Human Issues in International Tourism”. Butterworth- Heinemann: Oxford, 1993.2. Blanton, David “Tourism Education in developing Countries”. Practicing Anthropology. Vol. 14, Nr 2, 1992.3. Chambers, Erve “Social and Cultural Aspects of Tourism in Thailand”, Kasetsart University: Bangkok, 1997.4. Chambers, Erve. ( 1997). “Tourism and Culture, an applied perspective”, Kasetsart University : Bangkok5. Edith Szivas & Michael Riley “Tourism Employment during Economic Transition”, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 26, No. 4, pp 747-771, Elsevier Science Ltd., 1999.6. Goeldner, C and Ritchie, J. ‘Tourism. Principles, Practices, Philosophies”, New Jersey, 2003.7. Kryger, Tony (Statistics Group), “The economic significance of Tourism” research Note 18 1999-2000, 30 November 1999. Taken in http://www.aph.gov.au/library/pubs/rn/1999- 2000/200rn18.htm8. Lee, Sang M. & Luthans, Fredd “Management in Albania”, University of Nebraska.9. Rátz, Tamara & Puczkó, László “Rural Tourism And Sustainable Development”, Kodolányi János College - Budapest University of Economic Sciences, Paper presented in the "Rural Tourism Management: Sustainable Options" International Conference, September 1998, SAC, Auchincruive, Scotland Part 1.10. Rátz, Tamara “Transformation of Hungarian Tourism Education Budapest University of Economic Sciences”, Paper presented in the 2. International Conference on Education and Training in Tourism and Hospitality Studies, Dahab, Egypt, 1997 April.11. “Ecotourism: Threat or Opportunity?”, The Bulletin Spring 1996, taken in http://www.rec.org/REC/Bulletin/Bull61/interview.html12. Stepová, Vlasta, “Report of Committee on Economic Affairs and Development”, Czech Republic, Socialist Group, Doc. 7976, 23 December 199713. INSTAT –statistical yearbook 1993-2001 25

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