Pta albania castle_kruja_app

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Pta albania castle_kruja_app

  1. 1. THE CASTLE OF KRUJA Kruja Albania
  2. 2. INTEGRATED REHABILITATION PROJECT PLAN /SURVEY OF THE ARCHITECTURAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL HERITAGE (IRPP/SAAH) Regional Programme for Cultural and Natural Heritage in South East Europe 2003 - 2006 PRELIMINARY TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE ARCHITECTURAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL HERITAGE IN SOUTH EAST EUROPE Document adopted by The Ministry of Tourism, Culture, Youth and Sports of the Republic of Albania, on 12 September 2006 THE CASTLE OF KRUJA Kruja Albania
  3. 3. FOREWORDIn the framework of the European Commission/Council ofEurope Joint Programme on the Integrated RehabilitationProject Plan /Survey on the Architectural and ArchaeologicalHeritage (IRPP/SAAH), the present Preliminary TechnicalAssessment (PTA) was prepared by local expert of the Instituteof Monuments of Culture: Valter Shtylla headed by Mr. ApollonBaçe, IRPP/SAAH Project Coordinator, in cooperation with thePTA expert group: Leader Dr. John Bold (United Kingdom);Experts: Ms. Emma Carmichael (United Kingdom),Mr. Giorgio Gianighian (Italy), Mr. Andreas Heymowski(Sweden), Mr. David Johnson (United Kingdom),Mr. Pedro Ponce de Leon (Spain), Mr. Alkis Prepis (Greece).The Preliminary Technical Assessment (PTA) was adopted bythe Ministry of Tourism, Culture, Youth and Sports of theRepublic of Albania, on 12 September 2006.
  4. 4. Preliminary Technical Assessment of the Architectural and Archaeological Heritage in South East Europe 1______________________________________________________________________1. Introductory Page Site map The Castle of Kruja 1.1 Country or Territory: Albania 1.2 Name of organisation The Institute of Monuments of Culture, compiling the information: Tirana 1.3 Contact name: Prof. Dr. Valter Shtylla, architect-restorer 1.4 Email address: imkult@abcom_al.com 1.5 Name and address of building or site: The Castle of Kruja – on the top of the hill, to the east of the town of Kruja, Albania 1.6 Inventory reference number(s): 1026 (Archive of the Institute of the Monuments of Culture Tirana) 1.7 Building/Monument/Site type: Fortress 1.8 Main dates: fifteenth to nineteenth centuries 1.9 Current use(s): Architectural museum ensemble - Living community within the KALA quarter of the castle.2. Executive Summary: the site and its management In the collective memory of the Albanian people the Castle of Kruja represents the Albanian national hero of the fifteenth century – Gjergj Kastriot Skenderbeg and therefore it is a symbol for all Albanians. The Castle of Kruja is evaluated as one of the most significant medieval constructions in Albania, being for the specialists an architectural museum ensemble that displays a wide range of values of medieval military, popular and religious monuments. The mountainous setting bedind and the dominant location towards the town of Kruja are testimony of a great historical-natural unity, making the castle an integral part of a highly attractive historical-cultural-natural landscape. From the social point of view the Castle of Kruja is the most frequently visited site belonging to the cultural tourism in Albania. The fortification walls are well preserved, but their rocky substructure needs to be reinforced. There is also need for conservation works on the other monuments located within the castle area. A sustainable development to the direction of the conservation and rehabilitation of the cultural values could increase the adaptation of the site for the cultural tourism and the quality of the living conditions of the inhabitants, giving to the local people new opportunities for financial profits. Responsible authorities for interventions are the Ministry of Tourism, Culture, Youth and Sports; the Municipality of Kruja; and the Institute of Monuments of Culture, Tirana._________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________The Castle of Kruja – Kruja – Albania 12 September 2006
  5. 5. Preliminary Technical Assessment of the Architectural and Archaeological Heritage in South East Europe 2______________________________________________________________________3. Administrative information 3.1 Responsible Authorities - Ministry of Tourism, Culture, Youth and Sports - Municipality of Kruja - Institute of Cultural Monuments, Tirana 3.2 Building/Site, Name and Address The Castle of Kruja. It is located on the top of the eastern hill of the town, close to the Old Bazaar, on the foot of Kruja Mountain. 3.3 Map reference Taking reference to the local coordinates, the castle is located from 535.25° West - to 592.96° East, and from 653.52° South - to 576.25° North. 3.4 Type of monument Architectural ensemble – fortress. 3.5 Ownership The fortification and the religious monuments are of state ownership, while the buildings of popular architecture are of private ownership. 3.6 Statutory Protection/Constraints - The Castle of Kruja is put under State Protection by the Law No. 609, on 24 May 1948. - The Tekke of Dollma was proclaimed Monument of Culture in 1973. - The Hammam was proclaimed Monument of Culture in 1963. - The House of Hamit Kalaja (now Ethnographic Museum) was proclaimed Monument of Culture in 1963.4. Summary of condition 4.1 Summary of Physical Condition – very bad to good The present technical situation of the Castle of Kruja is mainly connected to the geological stability of the rocky hill on the top of which the Castle is located. The fortress walls were constructed over a large number of blocks of rock that had fallen off the mountain. They have settled on the top of the hill and now constitute the substructure of the Castle. Thus the wall of the castle links the blocks to each other in a certain manner and surrounds the top of the hill as a crown. The substructure made by blocks of rock can easily be noticed by the sub-galleries formed between the massive rocks at the side of the mountain. It is this particular substructure that generates the problems connected to the stability of the Castle walls. The rocky substructure located under the clock tower, on the side of the Bazaar, is in dangerous condition because it displays fissures and cavities. The same structural problems can be noticed on the substructure located under the south-western wall, close to the Tekke of Dollma. The holes opened on the foundations of walls for the supply of solid materials are the main cause of these problems. On the other hand, the walls near the main entrance of the Castle, as well as the north-eastern walls, are conserved in a slightly better condition._________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________The Castle of Kruja – Kruja – Albania 12 September 2006
  6. 6. Preliminary Technical Assessment of the Architectural and Archaeological Heritage in South East Europe 3______________________________________________________________________ 4.2 Condition Risk Assessment – graded A-H Grade A – The massive rocky substructure located under the clock tower in front of the bazaar. Grade B – The ground under the foundations of the fortress walls close to the Tekke of Dollma. Grade C – The closure of the galleries located under the walls on the side of the mountain. Grade D – The fortification walls, starting from the main entrance up to Taslloja fountain. Grade E – The walls on the left of the Taslloja fountain. Grade F – The fissures displayed on the wall of the clock tower need to be repaired. 4.3 Priority for intervention - The interventions on the parts that display a risk of Grade A and B have high (H) priority. - The interventions on the parts that display a risk of Grade C and D have medium (M) priority. - The interventions on the parts that display a risk of Grade E and F have low (L) priority.5. Existing information 5.1 Documentary sources: The documentation for this Castle is conserved in the dossier No. 1026 of the Archives of the Institute of Monuments of Culture, Tirana. It consists of descriptive and graphic documentation, as well as photographic material: • Descriptive and graphical documentation: Reports prepared during many years, on the technical situation of the Castle, sketches and surveys prepared with the scope of enriching the documentation, as well as the preparation of restoration projects. • The documentation of this monument is enriched with photographs. The quality of these documentary materials is rather good taking in consideration the time when they are prepared. 5.2 Bibliography: 1. Adhami, S.: The Castle of Kruja, Monumentet 1(1971), p.87 (in Albanian). 2. Karajskaj, Gj.: 5000 years of fortifications in Albania, Tirana 1980 (in Albanian). 3. Adhami, S. and Zheku, K.: Kruja and its monuments, Tirana 1981 (in Albanian). 5.3. Fieldwork already conducted: Structural Interventions: 1. The consolidation project for intervention on the damaged rocky substructure of the clock tower was prepared immediately after the earthquake of the year 1988. The consolidation works that followed assured the stability of this problematic part of the Castle. 2. After the detachment of a massive rock located under the fortress wall and the Museum of Skenderbeg on October 1996, the project for filling up the formed hole was prepared. The funds given by the Albanian State for this purpose facilitated filling this hole and the secure of the Castle walls and the museum building._________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________The Castle of Kruja – Kruja – Albania 12 September 2006
  7. 7. Preliminary Technical Assessment of the Architectural and Archaeological Heritage in South East Europe 4______________________________________________________________________ 5.4. Projects in progress: Beside the above-mentioned major projects there are a large number of reports, and other conservation projects prepared by the Institute of Monuments of Culture during the years 1970-2006. These projects aim to the maintenance and conservation of the Castle, which is of great historical and cultural value. 5.5. Projects already planned: In addition to the projects planned for 2006 there is the project that takes the ruins of the church located close to the clock tower on the acropolis into consideration. It aims to the conservation and rehabilitation of the ruined church. In order to get the best decision for the works to be carried a consultation including experts on the field of restoration will be organised in Kruja. 5.6. Financial estimates already made: None.6. Scope of the PTA 6.1. Extent/Nature of the assessment: Prof. Valter Shtylla: architect-conservator, Albania. Giorgio Gianighian, architect-conservator, Italy, Council of Europe expert. Prof. Alkiviades Prepis, architect, Greece, Council of Europe expert. 6.2. Limitations of the study: The major limitations of the study of the Castle of Kruja: 1. The difficulty and dangerous access to several degraded parts of the castle walls, due to aging and the lack of maintenance and reinforcement. 2. The problems of non-identification of the private ownership within the Castle area.7. The PTA 7.1. Background: Form, Function and Evolution - Geological and engineering works for the reinforcement of the rocky substructure that supports the walls of the Castle. - Reinforcement of the fortification walls that display fissures. - Conservation of the ruins of the walls in the acropolis. - Infrastructural works that consist in: reparation of the causeway, walls surrounding the houses, gates, sanitation, etc. 7.1.1 Summary description of the building/site, with comments on its urban or rural context if appropriate The Castle of Kruja has an elliptical shape with a perimeter of 804 metres and covers an area of 2.25 hectares. The fortification walls are reinforced by 9 towers. The main entrance to northern side consists of three gates and a 22 metre-long corridor having on both sides holes within the wall for the placement of the guards. There is a small entrance on the south-western side. It goes out of the castle walls by piercing a narrow tunnel, and gets to the Taslloja fountains, on the fortified courtyard encircled by walls. The area confined by the castle walls is inhabited and it is known as the KALA (Castle) quarter. This district represents the original features of the eighteenth-nineteenth century architecture. It includes_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________The Castle of Kruja – Kruja – Albania 12 September 2006
  8. 8. Preliminary Technical Assessment of the Architectural and Archaeological Heritage in South East Europe 5______________________________________________________________________ characteristic medieval buildings, with original gates and courtyards linked by narrow causeways. The Tekke of Dollma (1789) and the old hammam (fifteenth century) are located on the western edge of the Castle. On the north-eastern side there is the clock tower together with an old church in a ruined state of conservation. In conclusion, it can be stated that the Castle of Kruja is a historical centre which displays a wide range of architectural values. As far as the construction technique is concerned, the basic material is stone taken from the mountain alloyed with lime mortar. The vaults, arches, wooden columns, etc., are the dominant architectural elements that compose the design of every monument within this historical centre. 7.1.2 Summary historic development and evolution of the building or site, from the earliest times until the present day. According to archaeological excavations carried out during 1978-1981, as an inhabited centre, Kruja dates back to the third century B.C. The fortress was constructed during the fifth-sixth centuries, apparently after the decline of the importance of the ancient Illyrian fortress of Zgërdhesh, located nearby. Being close to Dyrrachium, the fortress was part of the fortification network that surrounded and protected this famous port of the Adriatic Sea. Therefore, the system of the fortification was reconstructed several times during the medieval period. An important necropolis area that dates back to the period of Arbër’s (sixth-eighth centuries) is discovered in the city close to the castle area. The centre is known by the present name of Kruja since the ninth century, when it was mentioned as an Episcopal see. By the end of the thirteenth century, the period during which Charles I of Anjou carried out some reconstruction works, it was mentioned as a fortified centre. During the thirteenth-fourteenth centuries Kruja was the centre of the Arbër State and Karl Topia proclaimed it as the centre of his domain. During the period of Skenderbeg it became the head-fortress of the heroic Albanian resistance against the Ottoman attacks, and survived three historically known sieges. Upon the first siege in 1455 the Ottoman attack destroyed the main entrance walls and damaged other fortification walls. Skenderbeg reconstructed the tower of the main entrance, as well as some towers and walls on the south-western side. This reconstruction was made by using some new construction techniques that had just begun to be applied in the fortification art of the time. The Turkish army managed to take possession of the castle of Kruja about 10 years after the death of Skenderbeg. After the occupation it was named Akçahisar (White Fort) by the Turks. The earthquake of 1617, as well as the Ottoman attack of 1832, after the uprising of the local inhabitants, caused many damages to the castle. The last phase of intervention works on the Castle of Kruja dates back to the nineteenth century, for limited defensive purposes. The Museum of Gjergj Kastrioti Skenderbeg located today within the castle area is a testimony of his glorious period. 7.2 Significance 7.2.1 Summary statement of significance/historical and heritage importance From the typological point of view this castle is one of the few in the Balkans which is still inhabited, together with: Berati, Tepelena and Elbasan in Albania, Budva, Sveti Stefan and Ulqini in Montenegro, Dubrovnik in Croatia, Ohrid in ”the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia”, etc. Besides, the Castle of Kruja is a monumental ensemble consisting of the fortress walls and towers, and other monuments like: the mosque located to the entrance,_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________The Castle of Kruja – Kruja – Albania 12 September 2006
  9. 9. Preliminary Technical Assessment of the Architectural and Archaeological Heritage in South East Europe 6______________________________________________________________________ the hammam of the fifteenth century, the Tekke of Dollma of the eighteenth century, two churches constructed before the Ottoman occupation, the house of Hamit Kalaja of the eighteenth century, other houses of the eighteenth–nineteenth centuries, the causeways, the clock tower, the sanitary network etc. Checklist of categories which may be considered in the evaluation 7.2.2 Summary of Architectural History Each of the above mentioned monuments display architectural characteristics of the period of its construction. - The castle represents elements of military architecture. - The hammam is a medieval bath for the garrison of the castle. - The two chapels display the architectural elements of the religious constructions in the pre-Ottoman occupation period. - The houses represent the characteristics of the urban vernacular architecture of eighteenth-nineteenth centuries Connection to Historical and Cultural Events The Castle of Kruja is evaluated as one of the most significant medieval constructions in Albania. Its name is closely connected to the Albanian national hero of the fifteenth century, Gjergj Kastriot Skenderbeg, and to one of the main Albanian princes of the sixteenth century of Latin origin, Karl Topia. Historical Significance In addition to its architectural value, the Castle of Kruja represents the most important centre of the Albanian Population Resistance during the medieval times against the attacks of the Ottoman Empire. 7.2.3 Artistic Significance The Castle of Kruja fits in a splendid way with the surrounding natural landscape. The mountainous setting on the back and the dominant location towards the city are testimony of a great historical-natural unity. The traces of frescoes that can be seen on the walls of the two ruined chapels of the castle, as well as the numerous decorative wood-works on the ceilings, fireplaces and mural paintings of the houses, make the castle a centre of great artistic value. 7.2.5 Religious and spiritual values The construction of the Tekke of Dollma (of Bektesh sect), located within the castle area, dates back to the eighteenth century. It is a monument of great spiritual value for the local faithful people and it is conserved in good condition. The mosque located near the main entrance, although ruined, displays great religious and spiritual values. 7.2.6 Symbolic Values – Identity In the collective memory of the Albanian people the Castle of Kruja represents Skenderbeg and therefore it is a symbol for all Albanians. A very important fact of the symbolic values of this area is the close location of the Illyrian city of Zgërdhesh widely known by the antique scholars as Albanopolis. It was known as the centre of the tribe of Albans, the name which represents the present Albanian people in the whole world. Kruja was the setting for Ismail Kadare’s novel The Castle._________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________The Castle of Kruja – Kruja – Albania 12 September 2006
  10. 10. Preliminary Technical Assessment of the Architectural and Archaeological Heritage in South East Europe 7______________________________________________________________________ 7.2.7 Scientific/Research values The castle of Kruja and the monuments included in it, have been and still remain the subject of research, analysis and study for a great number of Albanian and foreign scholars. Articles, monographs and albums that display its values have been published over many years. Being an important historical and museum ensemble, it is present in the Cultural Itineraries within Albania and is included in the Cultural Programmes of Mediterranean Historical Centres. 7.2.8 Social/Urban Values From the social point of view the Castle of Kruja is the most frequently visited cultural touristic site in Albania. Besides the architectural, historical and artistic values displayed in its overall area, the visits to the Museum of Skenderbeg are noteworthy. 7.2.9 Natural Values Having in its setting the Skenderbeg Mountain, the Castle of Kruja is an integral part of a highly attractive historical/cultural/natural landscape. 7.2.10 Economical Values Since it is one of the most visited touristic sites in Albania, the Castle of Kruja is a source of profit for the Albanian state in general and also for the local inhabitants which do individual selling of souvenirs etc., within its area. 7.3 Vulnerability/Risk assessment - Throughout history the main risks derive from natural causes such as earthquakes, and the problems of detachment of the massive rocks from the substructure of the castle. - Degradation due to aging of the Castle constructions and the other individual buildings. - The tendency that the inhabitants have to use contemporary material in conserving the medieval houses, such as concrete, iron, glass, plastic materials, etc. 7.4 Technical condition In general, the fortification walls are well preserved, but their rocky substructure needs to be reinforced. There is also need for conservation works on the other monuments located within the Castle area. 7.5 Outline summary of required repairs - The Castle: Reinforcement of the rocks under the castle, reparation of the fissures of the walls, restoration of the embrasures and the loop holes by referring to the traces found in the walls. - The clock tower: reparation of the fissures of the walls, reparation of the roof. - The church located close to the clock tower: conservation works for the covering of the ruins of the church - The ruins close to the clock tower: conservation of the top part of the walls. - The hammam: restoration of the interior, works for the reveal of the furnace on the backward._________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________The Castle of Kruja – Kruja – Albania 12 September 2006
  11. 11. Preliminary Technical Assessment of the Architectural and Archaeological Heritage in South East Europe 8______________________________________________________________________ - The Tekke of Dollma: continuous maintenance works needed. 7.6. Conservation/rehabilitation policy and proposals 7.6.1 Broad summary of the vision for the site, and its sustainability, at this preliminary stage The Castle of Kruja is one of the most significant sites of Albanian cultural heritage. It represents a symbol for the Albanian people, and for the specialists it is an architectural museum ensemble that displays a wide range of values and needs. The castle is the most frequent visited site belonging to the cultural tourism in Albania, and therefore, is a source of profit for the Albanian State in general and also for the local inhabitants. 7.6.2 Conservation philosophy The conservation of the monumental ensemble at the state that it is inherited is primary. The types of interventions will be: • Interventions in the structure, with the aim of preventing further degradation. • Interventions of architectural character with the aim of conserving the original architectural values and not truncating the unity of the monument. • The historical-touristic character of the Castle will be conserved, aiming to the emphasising of this site by different European Cultural Organisations. • With the exception of the modern museum building, the original spirit of the castle is preserved in its overall area. 7.6.3 Level of intervention This is not the case of reconstruction interventions. This project aims to be a rigorous preservation of the original structure and site in order to consign it intact to the future generations. 7.6.4 Reconstruction Full reconstruction is not going to happen. Even the ruins of the church in the acropolis and the mosque at the entrance of the castle will be conserved as they are – in the state of architectural ruins – in accordance with the international restoration criteria. The interventions will not aim to the massive reconstruction of the structures or the recomposing of the monuments. They will aim to the conservation of the traces of the different elements or the monument. 7.6.5 Opportunities for social uses and sustainable development - Adaptation of the site for the cultural tourism - The use by the Community of Kruja as an inhabited district of the town. 7.6.6 Broad assessment of priorities - The possibility of employment of the community by tourism organisations. - The possibility of employment of the community by the restoration institutions in the restoration work process within the castle and the other different monuments._________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________The Castle of Kruja – Kruja – Albania 12 September 2006
  12. 12. Preliminary Technical Assessment of the Architectural and Archaeological Heritage in South East Europe 9______________________________________________________________________ - The organised functioning of the commercial network during the touristic season. Priority for consolidation works - Consolidation of the fortification walls and the rocky substructure. - Conservation of the monuments in ruined state. - Restoration of the individual monuments such as: the hammam, the clock tower, the Tekke of Dollma, etc. 7.6.7 Public access The community living within the KALA quarter is highly interested in the general rehabilitation of the cultural values of the castle because this will bring numerous profits mainly of financial nature. 7.6.8 Other benefits If the Castle of Kruja would gain the status of World Heritage, or would be part of 100 Historical Mediterranean Centres, or would cooperate with some other European historical centres, then additional, specific benefits could be considered. 7.7. Finance 7.7.1 Broad assessment of budgetary needs and phasing Taking into account the various interventions needed to be undertaken on the structures of the castle and that of other monuments, an approximate prediction of financial funding can be made: • Year 2007 - 100,000 Euros • Year 2008 - 120,000 Euros • Year 2009 - 150,000 Euros • Year 2010 - 150,000 Euros 7.7.2 Assessment of possibilities for attracting investments There exists the possibility for minimal funding by local business associations. However, there is the possibility for getting funding from the World Monuments Fund, the Paul Getty Foundation, etc. Recommendations - The conversion of the Castle of Kruja to a recreation centre for the inner and the foreign tourism is the most likely future development of this site. - The general estimate of costs for the period 2007 – 2010 is predicted to be 520,000 Euros. Requests for further analysis - Close observation of the situation. - Consultation with specialists of geology and construction fields. - The completion of the documentary materials. - The processing of the documentary materials gathered in situ. - Preparation of long-term projects. - Attraction of the Albanian and foreign donors. - The undertaking of ecological and natural surveys._________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________The Castle of Kruja – Kruja – Albania 12 September 2006
  13. 13. Preliminary Technical Assessment of the Architectural and Archaeological Heritage in South East Europe 10______________________________________________________________________ 7.8. Management - Responsible authority on national level: Ministry of Tourism, Culture, Youth and Sports. - Responsible authority on local level: Municipality of Kruja. - Responsible authority and supervisor: Institute of Monuments of Culture, Tirana. - The project working group is to be decided but it would include representatives of the Ministry, the Municipality, the Institute of Monuments of Culture and private donors.8. Documentation The documentary material for the Castle of Kruja is kept in the dossier No. 1026 of the Archives of the Institute of Monuments of Culture in Tirana. It includes: • 12 pieces of free-hand sketches • 8 pieces of elaborated drawings on transparent paper • 26 pieces of elaborated drawings on heliographic paper • 35 projects of restoration on transparent paper • 36 projects of restoration on heliographic paper • 45 technical reports • 30 cost estimations of the different projects of restoration • 3 maps with the location of the castle on the hillPTA carried out by:Prof. Valter Shtylla, architect-conservator, Albania.Prof. Alkiviades Prepis, architect, Greece, Council of Europe expert.Sign and date: August 2006_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________The Castle of Kruja – Kruja – Albania 12 September 2006
  14. 14. Preliminary Technical Assessment of the Architectural and Archaeological Heritage in South East Europe 11______________________________________________________________________ APPENDIX A: TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION 1. The Foundations 1.a. The description and weaknesses The stability of the castle walls is closely connected to the situation of the rocky stratum of the hill over which the castle is situated. The problem of the reinforcement of the two massive rocks on the western side was solved with the interventions made in 1988 and 1996. However, there is still need for minor intervention for the reparation of fissures on the southern side, under the clock tower that is subject of abusive excavations for the supply of solid materials. 1.b. Damages The damages of the substructure are due to the abusive excavations for the supply of solid materials. 1.c. Level of Aggravation The substructure of the castle, being an aggregation of rocks, is traversed by underground water courses the direction of which is connected to the slope of the hill. The issue of the possibility of damaging of the substructure is closely connected to the water regime of the gap areas within the geological structure of the hill of the castle. The underground water sources weaken the massive rocks and come out at the Taslloja Fountain. 1.d. Type of Intervention - Reparation of the fissures on the rocky structure of the western side. - Enclosure of the northern gallery and filling the holes excavated on the southern side walls. 1.e. Priority for Intervention - Fissures of the western rocks. - Filling up the holes in the southern substructure. - Rocky galleries to the north. 1.f. The Cost - The interventions for the reinforcement of the rocks are estimated to 100,000 Euros. 2. The Walls 2.a. The Description - The walls and especially the walls of the clock tower display several fissures. The intervention will take into account their reparation and alloy. 2.b. The damages These damages are mainly due to the natural hazards such as earthquakes. 2.c. Aggravation The non-intervention for the reparation of the fissures is likely to aggravate the situation; therefore the damaged walls require immediate repair. 2.d. Type of Intervention Reparation and filling of the fissures and holes and consolidation of the walls with the aim of securing the damaged parts. 2.e. Priority for intervention To the walls of the western side, as well as to the walls of the left side of the entrance. 2.f. The cost The cost for the reinforcement of walls is estimated to 80,000 Euros._________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________The Castle of Kruja – Kruja – Albania 12 September 2006
  15. 15. Preliminary Technical Assessment of the Architectural and Archaeological Heritage in South East Europe 12______________________________________________________________________ APPENDIX B PHOTOS General view of the interior of the Castle Tekke of Dollma (of Bektashi sect), of 1789_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________The Castle of Kruja – Kruja – Albania 12 September 2006

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