“PEEPING ” TOURIST: A CASE STUDY OF THE STATE TOURIST AGENCY-ALBTURIST                                  Brunilda Liçaj, Ca...
Introduction                                             Albanian tourism has been ever specified                         ...
Albania in 1929 counted about 13 holiday                 1945, a 15 villas complex with a capacitycenters and 27 hotels in...
6. The Tourism of Events - experienced                   socialist countries such as Czech and   a growth in particular du...
the King Zogs summer residence built in                          At the only International Airport in192611.              ...
fascinate the foreigners, to use them was            foreign languages. Later these ranges wereforbidden. The train schedu...
materials or other materials against the                      the foreigners was under the surveillanceideology of the sta...
CONCLUSION  The state interest for development of             Its role grew mainly in the late 80 whentourism in Albania i...
18. Salmon, S.( 2006) Marketing socialism: Inturist in the late 1950s and early 1960s in    Gorsuch A E and Koenker D P ed...
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Peeping tourist, a case study of the state tourist albturist

  1. 1. “PEEPING ” TOURIST: A CASE STUDY OF THE STATE TOURIST AGENCY-ALBTURIST Brunilda Liçaj, Candidate PhD1 Lecturer - Faculty of Business ―Aleksander Moisiu‖ University - Durres, Albania E-mail: brunildalicaj@uamd.edu.al; brunilda.licaj@yahoo.it Armada Molla, MSc2 President- ADCT (Association for Development of Cultural Tourism), Albania E-mail: adctinfo@gmail.com; a.molla@adct.al The Historians described Albania as one of the countries belonging to the formersocialist coalition that couldn‘t escaped the general symptom of developing a controlled and astate-run economy. Tourism which was considered as one of the most crucial industry for themajority of world economies during the communist regime in Albania it was considered as aninsignificant industry. The lack of attention of tourism development justified under theideology of Karl Marx theory under which "services do not influence the creation of the grossdomestic product of a country." As a member of a specific group, the Albanian borders wereopened for a limited number of tourists, whose origin was mainly from the former communistcountries. This article aims to analyze the development of the Albanian tourism under thefunctioning of the only State Agency called ALBTURIST during the communist regime,from the time of its creation until the advent of changes of 1990. The role of ALBTURISTfor the promotion of the Albanian tourism to countries of eastern former block, intensifiedwith a secondary function (hidden), to keep under survey the actions of the tourists, functionthat turned it ―into the shelter of the Albanian intelligence surveillance.‖Key words: tourism, communism period, promotion, tourist survey, intelligence surveillance1 Brunilda Licaj (PhD candidate) is a lecturer in ―Aleksander Moisiu‖ University of Durres and from 2010she was hired as Consultant/Assester for the Quality Mark ―Authentic Albania‖ program to support businessesin the tourism industry. She is following up her PHD Studies in Marketing and mostly is devoted to tourismconcerns in Albania. Graduated in Economics in profile "Business Administration" at the University of Tirana(1996) and later at University of Verona (2008) Brunilda has a distingushable experience dealing primarily withthe financial sector of tourism in Albania and Italy (Verona Provincia Turismo S.r.l, La Vikinga Lines CompanyAlbania etc).2 Armada Molla (MSc) is the Chairwoman of ADCT- (Association for the Development of Cultural Tourism).Graduated in History & Geography (1991-1995) she hold a Master Degree on Cultural Heritage with Thesis"Cultural Tourism-Globalization and prospective of Albania". Its commitment on tourism and cultural heritagehas begun since 2003 when she worked as a lecturer at the National History Museum - Tirana. Based on herlong experience as a lecturer and guide for foreign visitors she is co-author of National History Museum - Guide2008, a joint project of UNDP-Albania and National History Museum. 2010-Onwards she is consultant at theAlbanian Tourism Association on cultural tourism and cultural heritage issues. Since 2009 onwards she is thePresident of ADCT, an association which is focused on development of tourism in the country through thecultural and professional education. She has attended a lot of conferences and seminars organized in Europe andBalkan for the development of tourism, specifically on cultural tourism, preservation and promotion of culturalheritage. 1
  2. 2. Introduction Albanian tourism has been ever specified as an important economic sector, but as an This paper presents the ways how ideological and propaganda sector limitedtourism was developed in Albania during it both quantitative and qualitative plane.the totalitarian regime of 1945-1990, aswell the role of the only of its kind state Methodologiesagency ALBTURIST to the development In this paper you will find out factsand propaganda of tourism of the country. about the creation of the unique tourism state agency known as ―Albturist‖ its role The tourism sector in Albania in ―promoting‖ and "facilitating foreignexperienced a late development by having tourists" with a very sophisticatedthus a marginal role in the Albanian technique of surveillance. The study waseconomy. The earliest investments in the based on the original records of theAlbanian tourism sector were done Albanian State Archives, articles publishedthrough the Italian invasion, while as a both in Albanian and foreign press of that―specific sector‖ the tourism was period, and also on the memories of formerdeveloped during the communist period employees of this agency.even with an evident handicap incomparison with other countries. Important parts of this paper are as The ending of World War II and well studies done over the years,establishment of a new economy in the particularly those of foreign academicscountry were very great premises for that focused their studies to the countriesdevelopment of tourism. However the of former social camp.socialist system of that time based itspolicy on the ideology of Karl Marxs 1 Albanian tourism during thetheory according to which ―the services communist erahave influence in the distribution ofprosperity, but they do not have influence The first development traces ofin GDP configuration"3 Tourism in Albania seemed to be at the beginning of 20th century. An interview of As in every planned economy, the 1928 stated that King Zog speak about thecentral government was the authority that improvements that he wanted to do inshould care of everything. However a quite order to attract tourists, on the way of thelimited incoming of foreign tourists could transformation of Albania into a Europeanbe seen in Albania of that period, mainly state5. The figures of that time showed thattourists from Eastern European countriesthat Albania had good diplomatic relationsuntil 60 years of 20th century, while for nous le développons, certes, mais pas dans lathe Western European travelers Albania mesure, sous les formes ni dans les buts de profit ethave been open with great reluctance à la fois de dégénérescence qui sont ceux des Etats capitalistes et révisionnistes. Nous ne pratiquons leduring the entire 1960-1990 period. tourisme quavec les amis et les sympathisants deAlthough at the other Mediterranean lAlbanie socialiste, avec des gens honnêtes venantcountries, tourism was an important branch de pays et dEtats qui observent une attitudeof the economy, in Albania it can not be amicale et correcte à légard de notre pays. 5treated as such.The government was the In 1938, the total length of public roads in Albania was 2,540km, mostly un asphalted andonly authority of tourism monopoly4. The situated in the western part of the country. About 4,400 passengers were transported over an average3 See: Biagini A.,(2005) Storia dell’Albania distance of 80km. The first railway (44 km long,contemporanea. Bompiani, Milano, 7 with a standard gauge) was built in 1947. Maritime transport was not well developed until 1950. Air4 See: Economist (1977) ―Hoxhas happy land ― transport was established for the first time in 1930 -263, 14 May 54–7 . En ce qui concerne le tourisme, 1940, connecting Tirana with 4 - 5 other cities. 2
  3. 3. Albania in 1929 counted about 13 holiday 1945, a 15 villas complex with a capacitycenters and 27 hotels in total, whereas of 37 rooms and a hotel with 28 rooms inthree of them located in Durresi beach. In the Durresi seaside were the fewestthe mid ‘30s the only tourism agency was touristic infrastructure. This small number―The Tourism and Albanian automotive of existing buildings was designed just toOffice", and at the two countrys major welcome travelers and did not provide aports regularly anchored cruisers with real service for the tourist.tourists having daily tours in Tirana and The touristic products of the communistDurresi cities. regime (1945-1990) consist of: After World War II, the totalitarian 1. Massive tourism, a commonstate led by Enver Hoxha and influenced ―touristic‖ offer arranged by the stateby Soviet Union and communist ideology which had constructed holiday houses―where the policy of the proletariat should (bungalows) for its employees andbe in the first line" was founded. In the their family members.name of the ―exclusion principle‖ of ―theautocratic class" the private property was Table 1: The distribution of the balnearytotally abolished and replaced by the center in national levelsocialist property, consisted of two Years 1970 1975 1980 1987typically forms; the state property and thecooperatives. The state was ―in charge/the Balnearyowner‖ of everything, starting with natural center 5 6 6 6recourses and seaside to the insignificant Beds 405 640 700 640private staff taken by the traders andowners. The political isolation (instantly Vacationer 6. 871 8.666 11.769 13.523after the end of World War II) had its ownconsequences in terms of creating a Source: ISTAT Albaniatouristic offer destined to the nationalconsumers. 2. Tourism in holiday villages: representing institutions built based onIn contrast to other East European the needs for other social classescountries, where announcements of new vacations with an "all inclusive"measures in a bid to attract foreign formulatourists have become the order of the day,the small country on the Adriatic, which is 3. Tourism in the government holidayspotentially a very lucrative tourist area, centers: built in the most attractivecontinues to pursue outmoded “Marxist and relaxed coastal or mountain areasLeninist” policies”6. dedicated just for high-ranking officials of government. The touristic infrastructure inherited afterthe World War II was almost negligible. In 4. The private Tourism - was spontaneous forms of organizationThere were only a couple of small aeroplanes, and from families who use to live in theseonly the Tirana runway was of concrete. In 1957, areas try to rent rooms for otheran international airport was constructed at Rinas, families.near Tirana. See: ―Implication of Climate changefor the Albanian coast implications du changement 5. Medical Tourism - organized by theclimatique pour la zone cotiere d‟Albanie‖. MAP state based at the holiday campsTechnical Reports Series No.98 UNEP Athens, ―resort‖ built closed to the thermal1996. water areas, always for 15 days period under the physician supervision, authorized by the local health center. 3
  4. 4. 6. The Tourism of Events - experienced socialist countries such as Czech and a growth in particular during 70s-90s Russian, who had a particular interest years. The main forms of it were regarding the Albanian Riviera9. The cultural activities such as National Czechs Government wanted to build a Folk Festival, Sports Activities, holiday resort for its employees in Dhermi Congresses, etc. (Southern Albania), while the Russians supported the construction of five-story7. Albturist: The National Enterprise buildings complex at the Durresi coastline. was the only enterprise/association that offered touristic production for the international tourism 2.1 The Activity of Albturist in theHowever the great possibilities to Accommodation and Transportdeveloped tourism faced with the sectors.governmental mediocrity, and as thedifference between demand and supplybecome evident the tourism industry gain Founded in 1956 Albturist aimed themore attention during 80‘s. facilitation of the tours of socialist camp countries groups. Being the only State Owned Enterprise ―Albturist" was based2.STATE TOURISM ENTREPRISE on three main directions:ALBTURIST i. Establishing of network of the hotels known as "Hotel Tourism Albturist"; In the mid-50s, as a consequence ofthe broken alliances between the socialist ii. Establishing of bus networkcamp countries,7 the Albania-Soviet "Albturist";socialist policy encouraged the iii. Promotion of tourism as andevelopment of tourism. Thus, at the "ideology‖.KNER (Council of Mutual EmergencyAid) meeting held in 1958 the states The earliest Albturist statistics confirmdiscussed: Albania should be the touristic that the number of tourists in 1956 wasdestination for the KNERs countries. 280 persons, which over the years till the mid 90s increased to the 40.000 tourists.Derek Hall shows that the bulk of touriststhat visited destinations in the socialist The first hotels tours for this purposecountries came from the bloc, mostly from were those built during the King Zogthe wealthier northern and central period such as: Hotel "Vollga" (1938)10 inEuropean states such as the GDR, the city of Durres; hotel "Dajti" in Tirana,Czechoslovakia, Poland and Hungary 8. very well designed by the Italian architects during 1939-1943, with a capacity of 98 The Albanias touristic potentials rooms (considered as luxury hotels duringbecame attractive for tourists coming from the whole communist era 1945-1990), and7 9 Albania became dependent on Soviet aid and The touristic Albanian property layout in 28.748know-how after the break with Yugoslavia in 1948. kilometer Square: consist off: 8 Historical centers,In February 1949, Albania gained membership in 75 town, 115 religion cults (Churches, Monasteries,the communist blocs organization for coordinating Mosque, hundred bridges, tipical construction ofeconomic planning, the Council for Mutual indisputable values. See: VLORA. K. A.(1979), LaEconomic Assistance (Comecon). nuova Albania, Istituto geografico militare,8 Hall (1991), 91–95, cited in TAYLOR. K Firenze, p. 117 10(2011). From trips to modernity to holidays in The hotel close Taulantia promenade was buildnostalgia: tourism history in eastern and in the eve of the world War II. First it was knownsoutheastern Europe as ―Albergo dei Dogi‖ (The Venetian Dogi Hotel). 4
  5. 5. the King Zogs summer residence built in At the only International Airport in192611. Albania known as "Rinas" Airport actually ―Mother Teresa‖ Airport, the first The most populated area was the operating aircraft companies were JAT,coastline of Durresi: where were built Malev, Interflug, with a small regularHotel Adriatic (1958) with a capacity of number of flights. The break with the54 rooms (3 suites and 51 double rooms); Soviet Union happened 1960 till 1978Hotel Apollonia, Kruja and Durresi reduced in a very significant way thebuild in (1961-1962). The three hotels number of flights. In 1986 Swiss Airwere built with the same architecture with started the flights from Tirana to Zurich,a capacity of 102 rooms and 300-seats while one year later 1987 Lufthansa flightsrestaurant. Later on a series of hotels from Frankfurt to Tirana14.named as Hotel ―Turizmi‖ (Tourism) werebuilt in the major cities of Albania, such as The summer tours offered aGjirokastra, Fieri, Vlora, Korca, Shkodra, combination of vacation at the AlbanianSaranda, Drini etc., beachs with visits to the ancient sites, while the winter packages offer just A hotel building programs historic sites, cities and museums visits.Incommensurate with an expansionist policy general, the most visited centers wereForeign-Tourist that was inaugurated those of southern and central of Albania.1972-1982.New 11 hotels were built,almost doubling the New International Most visits tours in Albania were toStandard Accommodation Capacity. the two major classical sites, Butrint (near Sarande) and Apollonia (near Fieri);. If As the result of the broken you „re lucky, your Albturist bus will get arelationship between Albania and Soviet flat tire in the middle of nowhere,Union the visitors coming from the East allowing you an unplanned stop among theEuropean Countries were replaced by the donkey-carts, fig trees, and hillsideAsian continent visitors. This situation villages of the stunning Albanianrequired by the international institutions to countryside, where two- thirds of thebe more careful towards the visitors population still lives.15coming from Austria, France12, Italy, andSweden, but whose number do not exceed The foreign visitors in northern1000 person per year13. part of Albania such Kukesi, Peshkopia, Tropoja cities etc., were seen in the early11 80s till 90‘. There was a lack of private The Vila was a gift of the Durresi traders. 11years later in the eve of the weddign ceremony with vehicles, but the bicycles rental control byHungurain Countess Geraldine Apony, the King the state authorities was allowed both forAhmet Zogu I, reconstructed it acoording the Albanians and foreign tourists16. Internalproject of 2 italian architects. Viweing from the air trains and buses are crowded, even thatthe edifice has the shape of the opening wingseagle, and in the front of it there is an emblem withour National Hero Gjergj Kastriot Skënderbeut on des Etats capitalistes et révisionnistes. Nous nethe horse.12 pratiquons le tourisme quavec les amis et les The French are very much persona grata in sympathisants de lAlbanie socialiste, avec des gensAlbania because Enver Hoxha was educated at the honnêtes venant de pays et dEtats qui observentSorbonne—as were most of the lunatic fringe of une attitude amicale et correcte à légard de notreCommunism: Pol Pot, Ho Chi Minh and others. pays.Cited in: BAKER R. (1976). The Dark side of the 14 In aero the exceptions of two or three cadres onmoon in Enver Hoxha‟s Albania13 business trips and diplomats, the passengers were See: HOXHA. E (1981).Rapport au VIIIe tourists. Albanian never leave the countryCongrès du PTA, p. 231 En ce qui concerne le 15 http://www.ianwatson.org/lge1991-albania.pdftourisme, nous le développons, certes, mais pas 16 The rent for a bicicle cost 30 Albanian Lek/ hourdans la mesure, sous les formes ni dans les buts de on that time the prize for a bread was 40 ALprofit et à la fois de dégénérescence qui sont ceux 5
  6. 6. fascinate the foreigners, to use them was foreign languages. Later these ranges wereforbidden. The train schedules are listed in enriched with other volumes in English.the Thomas Cook European Timetable. The Albturist role towards the Albanian tourism promotion became "evident" after Despite of the increased number of the production of videos publicized invisitors confirmed in the 1st table above, every activity outside the country18. But inthe statistics of 1960-1990 in comparison 1984 the academic journal article of Hallwith Albanian‘ neighbors represents just had described the Albanian tourism1.6% of tourists in Greece or Yugoslavia17. structure, and the role of Albturist: the tourist finds his/her role becoming one ofTable 2: The foreign tourists in Albania passive sponge19.Albanian efforts atrecorded in several years tourism information and promotion were not notable. What was understandable for many Nr. of Over Income foreigners at that time was that AlbturistYears Presents tourist night ($) do not succeed in its role as Touristic1956 280 3.612 12.09 23.000 Company, the presentation could be as1960 6065 85.516 14.01 409.000 such, but the real goal was "the whole1970 3.531 19.985 7.09 380.000 isolation of the country."Its role became more appreciated during the National Folk1980 3.748 39.491 10.05 1.475.000 Festivals18, which during 70s were frequented by the ―folk foreign groups‖Source: ISTAT Albania Albanian Diaspora (USA) Arberesh of2.2 The role of Albturist in "touristic Italy and other folk groups came frompropaganda" countries having good political relationships with Albania. The Albturist role do not limited in 3. “PEEPING TOURIST”building of the ‗Turizmi‖ hotels network.In 1958 the first promotional brochures During 1945-1990, the entry visa systemwere published such as: Albanie Pays de in Albania was very tight, with a procedureTourism (Albturist 1958): Guide dAlbanie that lasted several months. People from(avec un petit Manuel de conversation) Israel, USA, and South Africa were notAlbturist, 1958; Albanien. A Handbook for allowed20. The visitors should follow theNew vanner, vetgiriga Stockholm 1976 och rules in terms of behavior and way ofturister etc. A pocket-size Tourist guide dressing21, without using religiousbook was published in the late 1960 18(Albturist, 1969) but was never updated. Riza, E.(1978) Gjirokastra:museum city.Tirana 19 Hall, Dr. (1984) foreign tourism under socialism: Each tourism hotels has its leaflet. the Albanian “Stalinist” model. Annals of TourismIn 1980 the first tourist map was published Research 11, 539–555 20which with few changes is still in use as Only the Albanian expatriat of ‗20s who used tothe actually main map. Ranges of live in USA had the right to enter in Albania, camepublication in French translation, including under a rigorous controll. In 1990 Albania recorded the first toursit caming from USA, a number of 401a number of booklets on National tourists or 1.3% of the general statistics of thisheritages, were the first publication in year. 21 See : The memories of a German journalist: ―Der17 Gace. B. (2005). ―Historiku i Zhvillimit te Spiegel‖ 30.06.1975. At once we landed at theTurizmit ne Shqiperi”. The histori of the Tirana Airoport, the man bearded travelers wereDevelopemnt of tourism in Albania shave off and cut the long hairs, while the female 6
  7. 7. materials or other materials against the the foreigners was under the surveillanceideology of the state22. and in many cases part of the employees was infiltrated by the state security and the “The foreigners who went to Albania tourists felt the ―surveying sight of allalways visit the same enterprises, always residents."see the same people. Most travelers windup confirming the image of the country as Albturist have shiny, new coaches forpresented by official propaganda-an trucking visitors around. You feelimage also relayed by the friendship embarrassingly flash and its like being inassociations to which certain academics a fish tank being peered at like humanlend the support of their names and their UFOs, even though youre wearing yourpens23”.Along the road there were drabbest gear. Youre not allowed to takeslogans-more than in any other East local buses or go off alone anywhere. TheEuropean country24.“The delicate hotels, mainly- Russian built, are hugesupervision of foreign visitors requires with vast dining halls with pillars,substantial attention from the state‟s chandeliers, drapes and marble floors26.organs of internal control, both to The favorite music was classical and themaintain the validity of the state‟s music of western movies. The lack of thexenophobic rhetoric for the host "night life in the touristic areas‖ waspopulation and for the actual protection of evident. The more often commentsthe foreign guest.”25 addressed to the cleaning of the streets.Albania was rich in religious cults but they Even the poverty of the cities was openlynever present to the foreigners. The groups exposed the cleanliness prevailed. Whatsurveyed by the intelligence service staff was understandable by many foreigners atfrom the time when they crossed the that time was that Albturist failed toborder till the end of the tours. Cameras attracted visitors. The presentation was asand photographic equipments were not such but the mean of it is to prevent theallowed. Every "Turizmi Hotel" used for massive foreigners‘ entries, and the isolation of the country.tourists dressed on miniscirts and long trausers However the long expected curvesala-western style replaced with local dress began on 80s. From the late 70s foreignproduced in the country, before they cross the singers (Greeks in general) were allowedborders.. to performance in Albania, Italians later22 Hoxha. E.,Rapport au VIIe Congrès du PTA, p.253. Chez nous le tourisme nest pas une industrie on, and late ‗80s Albania succeed to be theni un moyen de corruption et de vagabondage. gate which welcomed tourists from around23 Dali.A. ―French journalist reports on Trip to the world.nation‖. Esprit. 198324 See in‖ Award-winning movie about the reality The big change happened onlyin communist Albania. Andrea (Artur Gorishti) a after the Enver Hoxha‘s death (1985), asyoung teacher from the city moves to a small the communist state was in its last squirm.remote village to work. The first duty he isassigned is built political slogans on the hill slopes.Although "Slogans" make up the theme of themovie, the movie is not only about the slogans butit is a realistic picture of life in a totalitariansociety.25 Hall, D.R. (1990): Stalinism and Tourism – Astudy of Albania and North Korea. Annals ofTourism Research, 17(1), 36-54 cited in ―TourismDevelopment between communist dictatorship anda democratic future: A situation analysis of thetourism potential of Vlora at the Albanian south 26 Der Spiegel‖ 30.06.1975. Idemcoast, Maria Frank. 7
  8. 8. CONCLUSION The state interest for development of Its role grew mainly in the late 80 whentourism in Albania is a result of "isolation" the "wind of change" started blow with thepolicy followed by the totalitarian regime. opening of borders towards the curious.In some cases, tourism was taken into "The final countdown had begun andconsideration as a need for foreign continues to reflect the time asking thecurrency, as well as a part of the Albanian needs of tourists at different times.products should be imported (although Actually the Tourism in Albaniaalways they propagandas the reverse). has won its status as the helmsman of the Tourism was inevitably politicized in such Albanian economy and try to follow thecircumstances, but at the same time has compass that will led to the best possiblewon the right to act as a catalyst of change, direction provided by "wind of change".as an instrument to reinforce his statusquo. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Albania Moving Along, But Slowly, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty,Report on Eastern Europe, 2, No. 1, January 5, 1990. 2. Anamali,S and Adhami,S.(1974Mosaiques de l‟Albanie. Tirana:8 Nentori. 3. Collombon, J.M (2001) Le tourism solidaire en zones rurales du sud de l‟Albanie. Technical report. 4. Ducellier, A.(1981) La facada marittime de LAlbanie au Moyen Age.Insitute for Balkan Studies:Thessaloniques 5. Economist (1977) ―Hoxhas happy land ―Economist 263, 14 May 54–7 6. Economist (1978) ―Tales from Albanias beaches‖ Economist 266, 4 March 50 7. Freedman, Robert Owen.(1970) Economic Warfare in the Communist Bloc: A Study of Soviet 8. Economic Pressure Against Yugoslavia, Albania, and Communist China. New York: Praeger, 9. Hall, D.R. (1994) Albania and the Albanians, Pinter: London 10. Hall, D.R. (1990) Stalinism and tourism: a study of Albania and North Korea .Annals of Tourism Research 1, 36–54 11. Hall, Dr. (1984) Foreign tourism under socialism: the Albanian “Stalinist” model. Annals of Tourism Research 11, 539–555 12. Jenkins,L.(1976) Albania the land of eagles. Port Talbot Guardian: 13April. 13. Karin, T (2011). From trips to modernity to holidays in nostalgia: tourism history in eastern and southeastern Europe.Tension of Europe/ Inventing Europe: Working paper WP_2011 14. Kaser, M. Albania under and after Enver Hoxha. Joint Economic: United States Congress, 99th, 2d Session,1-21 15. Marmullaku, R.(1975) Albania and the Albanians” Hamden, New York: Archon Books 16. P. Sandstorm and O. Sjoberg (1991) Albanian economic performance: Stagnation in the 1980. Soviet Studies, 43(5):931 947 17. Panarity.M.(1957) Albania: The Rock Garden of Southeastern Europe and Other Essays. Boston: Pan-Albanian Federation of America 8
  9. 9. 18. Salmon, S.( 2006) Marketing socialism: Inturist in the late 1950s and early 1960s in Gorsuch A E and Koenker D P ed Turizm: the Russian and East European tourist under capitalism and socialism Cornell University Press, Ithaca NY 186–20419. Skendi, S (1956) Albania. New York: Praeger.20. Strazimiri,G.(1987).Berati:qytet muze.Tirana: 8 Nentori21. Turnock, D.(1984) Postwar studies on the human geography of Eastern Europe Progress in Human Geography 8, 315 9

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