Chapters 22 23 study guide


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Chapters 22 23 study guide

  2. 2. Terms n’ Shit I had to google feces clip art to find this• Evolution (you better fucking know this or else you’ll die): descent with modification• Aristotle 384-322BC (was obvi a dumb mother): viewed species as fixed…aka unchanging… – Developed scala naturae (foreigny) which arranged organisms on a scale of increasing complexity• Carolus Linnaeus 1707-1778 (dat sexii ass name got him many a biatch): sought to classify life’s diversity  developed 2-part naming system that’s still used today (that BAMF! Sexy and smart..) – Differed from scala naturae bc it grouped similar species into increasingly general categories
  3. 3. Thisone’scalled“turd”by More Clipart FecesOCAL • Strata: superimposed layers of rock (n roll) • Fossils: dinosaurs lol • Paleontology: study of fossils…largely developed by Georges Cuvier (olala tres francais) – Cuvier noticed that the older the stratum, more dissimilar its fossils were to current life-forms; also noticed new species appeared while some species disappeared  – Yet Cuvier OPPOSED EVOLUTION (betchur regretting dat one now, eh buddy?)…advocated catastrophism (principle that events in the past occurred suddenly and were caused by mechanisms different from those operating in the present…..nice try, bro.) – Speculated that each boundary b/w strata = catastrophe (ie. Flood) • James Hutton (1726-1797): proposed that Earths geologic features could be explained by gradual mechanisms still working (take that Cuvier!!) • Charles Lyell…(rhymes with Niall)…(1797-1875): incorporated Hutton’s thinking into his principle of uniformitarianism (mechanisms of change = constant over time) HUTTON+LYELL=BROMANCE JK I MEAN INFLUENCED DARWIN’S THINKING
  4. 4. SO Much Shit At This Point In Thyme• Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck (1744-1829): Darn maybe next time, motherfuq proposed mechanism for how life changes er over time…but he was wrong lol. - Came up with principles of use and disuse, the idea that parts of the body that are used extensively become larger and stronger while those that are not used deteriorate
  5. 5. Cocks*cker Mother F*cker I just got mypuryud stir my coffee with your din-a-ling why don’tya bring on the acne and mood swings I’m ready biatch• Charles Darwin (the big kahuna of 1809-1882): – Adaptations: characteristics of organisms that enhance their survival/reproduction (sexy sex) in specific environments – “Could a new species arise from an ancestral form by the gradual accumulation of adaptations to a different environment?” • Natural Selection: process in which individuals w. certain inherited trairs leave more offspring than individuals w. other traits
  6. 6. I Think I Reached My Post-Limit…How Will I Prevail? • Artificial Selection (can suck my d(candle st)ick): selecting and breeding individuals that possess desired traits Inference #1: Individuals whoseObservation #1: harry is naked as fuq. Just the inherited traitsway I like him. I mean, wot? Members of a give them higherpopulation often vary greatly in their traits probability of Observation #2: Traits are inherited surviving and from parents to offspring Inference #2: unequal reproducing in ability given environmentObservation #3: All species are capable of producing survive/reproducemore offspring than environment can support leads to accumulation tend leave more favorable traits in offspring than Observation #4: Owing to lack of food/resources population over other individuals many of these offspring do not survive generations
  7. 7. How am I still on Chapter 22, Hazza is not plzd * We’re gonna basically skip the rest of this shit because fuck you that’s why • Homology: similarity resulting from common ancestry (think HOMO) • Homologous Structures: represent variations on structural theme that was present in common ancestor • Vestigial Structures: remnants structures that served important functions in organism’s ancestors
  8. 8. • Convergent Evolution: ind. (YES I WILL ABBRIEVIATE WHATEVER I FKIN WNT) evolution of sim. Features in diff. lineages – Share features bc of convergent evolution? You aren’t homo, that’s analogous!!!!! **sad face**• Biogeography: geographic distribution of species• Endemic: found nowhere else in worls
  9. 9. CHAPTER 23, MOTHER FUCKERS • Discrete characters: classified on either-or basis – My way or the highway, bitch – Jk LLN :D (no I’m not) • Quantitative characters: vary along a continuum in a population Average heterozygosity: average percent of loci that are hetero(sexual)zygous
  10. 10. Brief Fucking Interlude…• The song I’m listening to just wished constipation upon me…RUDE OH SHIT (pun) IT’S FLOWING, BO OK IT
  11. 11. I really don’t I really don’t I really don’t• Geographic variation: diff. in genetic comp of separate pops• Mutation: ultimate source new alleles Shame • THIS IS STARTING TO BE A PIECE O’ DEUCE• Population: group individuals of samespecies that live in same area, interbreed and producefertile offspring (SEEEEEEEX)• Gene Pool: all alleles for all the loci in all individuals of population
  12. 12. Zayn wipe thatMORE?! fucking grin off your face or it’s gonna get physical• Hardy-Weinberg principle: states that frequencies alleles/genotypes in pop. Will remain constant generation to generation – Equilibrium1. No mutations2. Random mating3. No natural selection4. Extremely large population size5. No gene flow
  13. 13. Anddddd more…• This shit ain’t funny no more, Campbell Bio Book. Just think, Sam…Shia’s day is worse. He just discovered he’s a cannibal :/ awk.• Genetic Drift: chance events thatcause allele frequencies to fluctuateunpredictably - Founder Effect: individuals isolated from larger population – establish new pop. Whose gene pool differs from source pop. - Bottleneck Effect: sudden change in environment may drasticaly reduce pop. Size – by chance, certain alleles over/underrepresentated or missing
  14. 14. No explanation necessaryjust keeping tidy• Effects of Genetic Drift: – Significant in small pops – Can cause allele frequencies change at random – Lead to loss genetic variation pops – Can cause harmful alleles become fixed• Gene Flow: transfer alleles into/out of population• DIRECTIONal Selection: conditions favor one extreme of a phenotypic range, thereby shifting frequency curve for phenotypic character in ONE DIRECTION or the other
  15. 15. • Disruptive selection: conditions favor individuals at both extremes over intermediate phenotypes• Stabilizing Selection: favors intermediate variants• (my) Sexual Selection (is 1D): individuals w. certain inherited characteristics more likely to obtain mates
  16. 16. ALMOST DONE, FUQERS IN MY HEAD • Sexual dimorphism: difference b/w 2 sexes in sexual characteristics which aren’t directly associated with reproduction/survival (SEXXX) • Intrasexual selection: within same sex, compete for mates of opposite sex (think: fangirls) • Intersexual selection: individuals of one sex (usually female) are choosy in selecting mates (think: NOT ME)
  17. 17. • Balancing selection: natural selection maintains 2+ forms in population• Frequency-dependent selection: fitness phenotype declines if too common in population• Neutral Variation: noncoding sequences that appear to have no selective advantage/disadvantage• Why Natural Selection Cannot Fashion Perfect Organisms (LOL is this a joke? ….1D…): selection can only act on existing variations, limited by historical restraints, adaptations = compromises, chance+natural selection+environment interact