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Newman’s theory of health as expanding consciousness

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The theory of health as expanding consciousness stimulated by concern for those for whom health as the absence of disease or disability is not possible, (Newman, 2010).
The theory has progressed to include the health of all persons regardless of the presence or absence of disease, (Newman, 2010).
The theory asserts that every person in every situation, no matter how disordered and hopeless it may seem, is part of the universal process of expanding consciousness, (Newman, 2010).

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Newman’s theory of health as expanding consciousness

  1. 1. Newman’s Theory of Health as Expanding Consciousness Margaret A. Newman, RN, PhD Professor Emeritus 1933 to Present
  2. 2. This work done by Students of Master Degree In Nursing Husain M.Altemimie
  3. 3. Margaret Newman's Biography Born on October 10, 1933, in Memphis, Tennessee. Bachelor’s degree in home economics and English In 1954. Bachelor’s degree in nursing - University of Tennessee in 1962. Master’s degree - University of California in 1964. Doctorate - New York University in 1971. She has worked in - University of Tennessee, New York University, Pennsylvania State
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION The theory of health as expanding consciousness stimulated by concern for those for whom health as the absence of disease or disability is not possible, (Newman, 2010). The theory has progressed to include the health of all persons regardless of the presence or absence of disease, (Newman, 2010). The theory asserts that every person in every situation, no matter how disordered and hopeless it may seem, is part of the universal process of expanding consciousness, (Newman, 2010).
  5. 5. Theoretical Sources 1. Martha Rogers: Martha Roger’s theory of Unitary Human Beings was the main basis of the development of her theory, Health as Expanding Consciousness. 2. Itzhak Bentov – The concept of evolution of consciousness. 3. Arthur Young – The Theory of Process. 4. David Bohm – The Theory of Implicate. 5. Prigogine – Theory of Dissipative Structure.
  6. 6. Arthur Young's’ The Theory of Process
  7. 7. Prigogine's Theory of Dissipative Structure
  8. 8. Major Assumptions 1. Health encompasses conditions heretofore described as illness. 2. These pathological conditions can be considered a manifestation of the total pattern of the individual. 3. The pattern of the individual that eventually manifests itself as pathology is primary and exists prior to structural or functional changes. 4. Removal of the pathology in itself will not change the pattern of the individual. 5. Health is an expansion of consciousness.
  9. 9. Major Concepts 1)Health: • In Newman’s theory, health is an expansion of consciousness defined as the informational capacity of the system and seen as the ability of the person to interact with the environment (Newman, 1994a). According to Newman (1999), “Health is the pattern of the whole, and wholeness is One cannot lose it or gain it”.
  10. 10. Major Concepts Cont. 2) Consciousness: • Consciousness includes not only the cognitive and affective awareness normally associated with consciousness, but also the interconnectedness of the entire living system, which includes physiochemical maintenance and growth processes as well as the immune system. This pattern of information, which is the consciousness of the system, is part of a larger, undivided pattern of an expanding universe.
  11. 11. Major Concepts Cont. 3) Pattern: • Pattern characterized by “movement, diversity, and rhythm” and is described as a “design, or framework as is seen in person-environment interactions” • Pattern recognition is the “insight or recognition of a principle, realization of a truth, or reconciliation of a duality” and is “key to the process of evolving to a higher level of consciousness”. Three Correlates of Consciousness(Movement- Space-Time): • Pattern has dimensions of movement and
  12. 12. Parallel between Newman’s theory of expanding consciousness and Young’s stages of human evolution
  13. 13. The paradigm shift 1. From treatment of symptoms to a search for pattern. 2. From viewing disease and disruption as negative to viewing them as part of the self- organizing process of expanding consciousness. 3. From viewing the nursing role as addressing, the problems of disease to assisting people to get in touch with their own pattern of expanding consciousness.
  14. 14. Nursing Metaparadigms 1)Health: “Health and illness are synthesized as health - the fusion on one state of being (disease) with its opposite (non-disease) results in what can be regarded as health”. 2)Nursing: • Nursing is “caring in the human health experience”. • Nursing is seen as a partnership between the nurse and client, with both grow in the “sense of higher levels of consciousness”.
  15. 15. Nursing Metaparadigms cont. Nurse and patient coming together and moving apart in process recognition, insight, and transformation
  16. 16. Nursing Metaparadigms cont. 3) Person/Human: A. The human is unitary, that is cannot be divided into parts, and is inseparable from the larger unitary field” B. “Persons as individuals ،and human beings as a species are identified by their patterns of consciousness” … C. Persons are “centers of consciousness” within an overall pattern of expanding consciousness”. 4) Environment: Environment is described as a “universe of open systems”. Environment is built upon Roger’s definition.
  17. 17. Strengths and Weaknesses1) Strengths: •Can be applied in any setting. •“Generates caring interventions”. 2) Weaknesses: •Abstract. •Multi-dimensional. •Qualitative. •Little discussion on environment.
  18. 18. Critique 1. Clarity. 2. Simplicity. 3. Generality. 4. Empirical Precision. 5. Derivable Consequences.
  19. 19. Conclusion Newman's theory can be conceptualized as 1) A grand theory of nursing. 2) Humans cannot be divided into parts. 3) Health is central to the theory and is seen “and is seen as a process of developing awareness of self and the environment” 4) “Consciousness is a manifestation of an evolving pattern of person-environment interaction”.
  20. 20. References • Martha, R. Alligood, (2014). Nursing Theorists and Their Work. 8th ed. Missouri: Elsevier. • Marilyn E.Parker, (2005). Nursing theories an nursing practice. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Davis company. • http://currentnursing.com/ • http://healthasexpandingconsciousness.org/

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