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The State of Integrated Air
and Missile Defence and the
Phased Adaptive Approach

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  1. 1. The State of Integrated Airand Missile Defence and thePhased Adaptive ApproachMILITARY TECHNOLOGY from detection and engagement tospoke with leaders from integration and command and control, and everything in between.several Raytheon busi- We also provide full system lifecy-nesses about the compa- cle support and sustainmentny’s contributions in the across many of our programmes,area of missile defence to ensure Mission Assurance for SM-3 Flight Test. our warfighters. No other companyand the US’ new Phased has the breadth and depth of tech-Adaptive Approach. nology, experience and products in IAMD. From the radars and elec- tro optical sensors that search, de- tect, track and discriminate air- craft, cruise missile and ballistic missile threats, to the interceptors that destroy these threats in many cases with hit-to-kill pin-point ac- curacy, to the C2 systems that monitor and manage these com- plex engagements – Raytheon is involved. MT: What is the Phased Adaptive Approach? Wyatt: In September 2009, the President approved the recom- mendation of Secretary of Defense Gates and the Joint Chiefs of Staff to implement a new Phased Adap- tive Approach (PAA) for missile de- fence in Europe. Put simply, theFrank Wyatt leads the Air and PAA is a framework for missile de-Missile Defense Systems fence around the globe. This newproduct line at Raytheon missile defence architecture willMissile Systems in Tucson. feature deployments of increasing-Raytheon Missile Systems is ly-capable sea- and land-basedthe world’s largest missile missile interceptors, primarily up-maker and a premier designer, graded versions of Raytheon’sdeveloper and producer of Standard Missile-3 (SM-3), and aweapons systems for the range of sensors in Europe to de-US and many allied nations. fend against the growing ballisticRMS has developed and missile threat from Iran.supports a broad range ofcutting-edge weapon systems MT: How will Raytheon participatethat includes missiles, smart in the PAA?munitions, projectiles, kinetic Wyatt: Raytheon’s products andkill vehicles, space vehicles and solutions will play major roles in alldirected energy effectors. phases of the PAA and we will con- tinue to deliver technologies that are proven, cost-effective, and adaptable to an evolving securityRaytheon Missile environment.Systems Phase One-2011 consists of SM-3 Block IA missiles deployed onFrank Wyatt, Vice President of AEGIS ships, and a forward-basedRaytheon Air & Missile Defense Army Navy/Transportable RadarSystems explains the role of Surveillance AN/TPY-2 X-bandRaytheon in Integrated Air and radar system located somewhereMissile Defence. in southern Europe. We’re in the thick of it with SM-3 Block IA in pro-MT: What is Raytheon’s role in Inte- duction and deployed globally to-grated Air & Missile Defence? day. We’re in it with the production Raytheon at a GlanceFrank Wyatt: Raytheon uniquely of AN/TPY-2 radars and just re-combines four essential elements cently delivered our seventh radar Raytheon Company, with 2009 sales of $25 billion, is a technology andto consistently deliver affordable, to the Missile Defense Agency innovation leader specialising in defence, homeland security and oth-reliable and flexible Integrated Air (MDA). Two of those AN/TPY-2 er government markets throughout the world. With a history of innova-and Missile Defence (IAMD) solu- radars are currently deployed in tion spanning 88 years, Raytheon provides state-of-the-art electron-tions that protect nations, infra- Japan and Israel, and supported by ics, mission systems integration and other capabilities in the areas ofstructures and populations. Our a Raytheon team on the ground. sensing; effects; and command, control, communications and intelli-proven, innovative technologies Phase Two-2015 comes on line gence systems, as well as a broad range of mission support services.span the entire IAMD spectrum, with the introduction of the SM-3Military Technology · MILTECH · 8/2010 43
  2. 2. Block IB, in both sea-based and AN/TPY-2 radar, we are also re-land-based configuration. De- sponsible for a major portion of thepending on the development THAAD fire control software.progress, airborne infrared sen- Raytheon is also the prime con-sors will begin to find their way into tractor for PATRIOT, which willthe architecture. We are develop- provide lower-tier air and missileing the SM-3 Block IB that will be defence within the PAA structure.part of Phase 2, both sea-and land- Components of the AEGIS radarbased, and we are co-developing have also been manufactured andthe SM-3 Block IIA with Japan for supplied by Raytheon for 30 years.Phase 3. We’re continuing to But we’re not stopping with our The Network Centric Airborne Defence Element (NCADE) is anevolve the TPY-2 radars with soft- systems. Raytheon is also taking a innovative and affordable air-launched weapon system designedware modifications that provide systems view of the PAA and is in- to engage short and medium range ballistic missile threats in theeven greater capabilities to the vesting millions of dollars to devel- boost, ascent or terminal phases of flight.warfighter. Raytheon also builds op and refine PAA architectures.the Multi-spectral Targeting Sys- We are leveraging our unique in-tems (MTS-B), infrared targeting sights into many of the systems to However, we see opportunities imity of the threat. UAE is procuringpods that go on the PREDATOR identify gaps, and develop more af- beyond ALTBMD. European in- upgraded PATRIOT batteries andand REAPER UAVs, and GLOBAL fordable, robust options for the dustry has many systems and has been approved for the sale ofHAWK, as part of the Navy’s Broad PAA and are sharing our analysis technologies that could play a very THAAD. The same systems beingArea Maritime Surveillance (BAMS) with the MDA. meaningful role in the PAA. As an considered for Europe would sig-programme. The MTS-B has example, the Dutch Navy demon- nificantly increase security in thedemonstrated the ability to track MT: How will other nations get in- strated their SMART-L radar could Mideast.ballistic missile targets at great volved in the PAA? track ballistic missiles. In a recentranges, a key capability that could Wyatt: One of the stated objectives study, they verified that Dutch MT: Can you update us on SM-3enable early intercept against bal- of the Ballistic Missile Defence Re- ships could integrate SM-3 and op- development and production?listic missile threats. view was to expand international erate as SM-3 shooters. Just think: Wyatt: SM-3 is deployed withPhase Three-2018 will become involvement. Europe is the initial if all the European navies were to the US and Japanese navies. Weoperational with the SM-3 Block IIA focus of the PAA and the MDA integrate SM-3, we could more just recently delivered our 100thmissile again both sea- and land- would like to leverage ongoing than double ballistic missile de- SM-3 Block IA and we are pre-based. NATO work. They (NATO) are fence capability in Europe. paring for the production of thePhase Four-2020 will bring in SM- already developing a theatre But the PAA isn’t limited to just Block IB missile. In October, the3 Block IIB and Precision Track and missile defence capability called Europe. In one sense, Japan was Japanese are scheduled to flightSurveillance Satellites (PTSS). We Active Layered Theater Ballistic really the model for the European test another SM-3 Block IA frombuilt the Space Tracking and Sur- Missile Defence or ALTBMD. PAA. Japan has truly been an inter- the JDS KIRISHIMA. This will markveillance System (STSS) payload, Raytheon is a member of the Team national leader with the procure- Japan’s fourth SM-3 flight test.consisting of a surveillance sensor SAIC, which is providing the sys- ment and deployment of SM-3, The SM-3 Block IB completedand a tracking sensor. STSS was tem engineering and integration and the research for and co-devel- its Critical Design Review inlaunched into orbit last year and we leadership. MDA would like to take opment of SM-3 Block IIA. Operat- 2009 and Design Verificationcontinue to support on orbit testing ALTBMD and the NATO Air Com- ing jointly with US naval forces and Tests are underway. These mile-of the payload. Our experience mand and Control System and an AN/TPY-2 radar located in stones will pave the way for the firsthere will pave the way for the future expand it to provide European Shariki – Japan is truly a model for Block IB flight test (FTM-16) inPrecision Track and Surveillance homeland defence. We have, in international missile defence co- early 2011.Systems. fact, already demonstrated the operation. We’re co-developing the SM-3 Raytheon is also a major contrib- ability to link NATO ACCS with the The Middle East is another key Block IIA with Japan and complet-utor to THAAD. In addition to the US C2BMC. region for the PAA due to the prox- ed a successful System Design Re- view (SDR) in 2008 and are on track for Preliminary Design Review (PDR) in early in 2011.We’re mak- ing great progress on component Land-based SM-3. level testing and our Japanese partner, Mitsubishi Heavy Indus- tries, is making significant pro- gress as well. MT: Where does Raytheon stand on Land-based SM-3 develop- ment? Wyatt: Land-based SM-3 is a key component of the PAA, and Raytheon is committed to ensuring that it is deployed quickly and af- fordably. Only minor modifications will be required to land-base SM-3, and we envision that the final de- sign will be both sea and land-com- patible. That will provide opera- tional planners with the flexiblity to deploy missiles where they are needed and most effective. We are awaiting customer direction and funding. Raytheon has been in- vesting in Land-Based SM-3 con- cepts and risk reduction for the past seven years. Combining SM-3 with the long-range, discriminating TPY-2 radar, yields a highly effec- tive, regional BMD capability. This is true, whether you’re talking about sea or land-basing. MT: Can you describe the Network Centric Airborne Defence Element (NCADE)?44 Military Technology · MILTECH · 8/2010
  3. 3. Wyatt: NCADE is an innovative and feel we’re well positioned to ensure ti-mission radars, Raytheon is a erationally deployed. The remain-affordable air-launched weapon MDA meets all of their objectives world leader. ing radars are being used by MDAsystem designed to engage short by providing our nation and allies Our Early Warning Radars to support testing and BMDS de-and medium range ballistic missile with the necessary protection (AN/FPS-123) and our Upgraded velopment as well as THAAD unitthreats in the boost, ascent or ter- against a broad range of ballistic Early Warning Radars (AN/FPS- training and deployment. Based onminal phases of flight. Based on missile threats. 132) support the intercept of the plans for the PAA and priorityAMRAAM form factor and existing threatening ballistic missiles above requests from our combatant com-production components, we’re the atmosphere and well away manders and friends/allies, we an-taking several tactical missile com- from their intended targets. These ticipate the need for additionalponents, including the proven AIM- Raytheon Integrated radars detect, track, and classify radars, and continue to work with9X seeker and AMRAAM rocket Defence Systems missile threats and then provide MDA to ensure warfighters havemotor and airframe, and integrat- that information to the BMDS for the assets necessary to completeing divert and attitude control tech- Karen Kalil-Brown, Vice President use by the command, control, bat- the mission. The AN/TPY-2 radar isnology from SM-3. Because we’re Theater & National Security Pro- tle management and communica- an integral element for PAA Phaseusing the AMRAAM airframe and grammes at Raytheon IDS gives tions (C2BMC) systems. One.interface, aircraft integration is an update on Ratheon radars, Our X-Band family of radarsgreatly simplified. Any aircraft that PATRIOT and the industrial base. leverages the same high-perfor- MT: How does the PATRIOT sys-can launch an AMRAAM could mance technology to provide af- tem support the Integrated Air andlaunch an NCADE; everything from fordable capability that is scalable Missile Defence strategy?F-15s, F-16s, F-22s, the JSF and a to mission need. Kalil-Brown: The PATRIOT sys-wide variety of international fight- The Sea-Based X-Band (SBX) tem already serves as the founda-ers. Given the interceptor’s weight, radar, the largest and most capa- tion of a cost effective, combatwe’re also looking at integrating it ble X-band radar ever built, is a proven, low-risk IAMD strategy forwith UAS like REAPER and the new midcourse fire control sensor for 12 partner nations around theN-UCAS. the Ground Based Midcourse De- globe. Currently fielded units have fence component of the BMDS. the basis of dynamic force tailor-MT: What’s the status of NCADE? The SBX performs the critical func- ing, allowing fire units to enter theWyatt: The concept was demon- tions of cued acquisition, precision battalion, announce their pres-strated in a 2007 test at White tracking, discrimination and en- ence, and the Information Coordi-Sands Missile Range. During that gagement hit assessment. Be- nation Central (ICC) to enter themtest, an F-16 launched a prototype cause this radar is sea-based, it into its database and decision-NCADE missile which intercepted can be deployed throughout the making. This allows PATRIOT toa boosting Orion missile target. world to provide radar coverage for have a single link to a higher eche-This was the first-ever boost phase possible threat missile launches lon with the Master ICC acting asintercept and the first interceptor throughout the world. control for up to 5 subordinatelaunched from an aircraft. The AN/TPY-2 radar is a trans- ICCs if the situation warrants (e.g., In 2009, the Air Force and the portable phased array, capable of contingency operations, with allo-MDA sponsored a study to exam- Karen Kalil-Brown, search, threat detection, classifi- cation of responsibility to area ofine the operational feasibility of the Vice President Theater & cation, discrimination and preci- operations). With the ability to em-“air-launched hit-to-kill” or ALHK National Security Programmes sion tracking at extremely long ploy a wide range of data links,concept, and to determine if it at Raytheon’s Integrated ranges. It provides a common mis- PATRIOT has demonstrated inshould be established as a pro- Defense Systems. sion capability; in terminal mode Exercise Joint Project Opticgramme of record. The study con- with the THAAD Fire Control Cen- Windmill (JPOW), and other NATOcluded that ALHK is “technically vi- MT: Multiple radars are used in the tre in support of the THAAD exercises, complete integration ofable and operationally feasible”, Ballistic Missile Defence System weapon system, and a forward PATRIOT, HAWK, NASAMS, andand it appears NCADE is a desir- (BMDS). Could you explain the role based mode with C2BMC enabling other coalition option under consideration. these radars play in the BMDS to the BMDS. Ongoing PATRIOT modernisa- Right now there is a gap because stop a potential threat? tion efforts are expanding thisno weapons can engage in the Kalil-Brown: Raytheon radars are MT: Can you update us on AN/ force tailoring to readily acceptboost phase. We want to catch on the search, detect, track and TPY-2 radar development and pro- other fire unit types (SM-3, THAAD,missiles where they are the most discrimination eyes for the BMDS duction? SLAMRAAM, HAWK XXI, ), as wellvulnerable. We believe fighter air- and play indispensible roles across Kalil-Brown: We delivered our as sensors (AN/TPY-2, TRML-3D,craft and other highly mobile air- the BMDS kill chain. When it comes seventh AN/TPY-2 radar to the US SENTINEL) and effectorsborne assets give you flexibility to to highly capable, affordable, mul- Army in April. This radar is the most (STUNNER, IRIS-T-SLM).counter ballistic missile threats advanced, transportable X-bandworld-wide. Forward-based Transportable radar in the world, and it is a high- MT: How does Raytheon’s invol- Even more recently, the Air Radar Surveillance (AN/TPY-2) demand, “must have” capability for vement in missile defence impactForce released a memo revealing system. the war-fighter. Two radars are op- the local industrial base?its desire to pursue capabilities tocontribute to the integrated air andmissile defence mission. In thememo, the Air Force “recognisedthe need to meet the growing chal-lenge presented by the ballisticmissile threat and is taking steps toenhance AF capabilities and stepinto new roles to help deter and de-feat the threat.” The Air Force and the Office ofthe Secretary of Defense are nowconsidering a demonstration of thenewest fighter-carried, active elec-tronically scanned array (AESA)radar in conjunction with an ex-tended-range AIM-120 AMRAAMform fit – NCADE.MT: How do you see Raytheon’sfuture in Missile Defence?Wyatt: Raytheon’s missile defencebusiness will continue to play a cru-cial role in MDA by successfully de-veloping and deploying global bal-listic missile defence systems. WeMilitary Technology · MILTECH · 8/2010 45
  4. 4. Kalil-Brown: Raytheon is able to In addition, Raytheon is a techni-develop, manufacture and support cal contributor to MDA’s Spacenumerous systems across the mis- Surveillance and Tracking Systemsile defence spectrum by leverag- demonstration project and plans toing national partners. We are proud participate in the Precision Track-to say that we have more than 824 ing Space System from 42 US states, whichmeans that our continued involve- MT: What is the current status ofment in missile defence directly im- airborne IR components and otherpacts local and state economies ISRS participation in the MDA pro-around the country. grammes? Carey: The MDA has recently cho- sen the MTS family of sensors as a key component for its near-term ABIR development. Raytheon alsoRaytheon Intelligence, participates in the MDA’s near-Surveillance and term ABIR development by: col- Tim Carey, Vice President lecting MTS-B missile target dataReconnaissance for Raytheon’s Intelligence, during MDA sponsored flight tests;Systems Surveillance and upgrading MTS-B and developing Bill Hart is Vice President for Reconnaissance Systems MTS-C systems for MDA use; ex- Raytheon’s Space SystemsRaytheon Intelligence, Surveil- business. amining how measurements col- business, headquartered inlance and Reconnaissance Sys- lected by the sensors can address El Segundo, CA. Raytheontems (ISRS) is a global leader in the ABIR system design requirements. Space Systems is a globaldesign, development, production leader in space-enabledand support of a vast array of ISR available Unmanned Aircraft Sys- information solutions, providingproducts and capabilities, includ- tems can detect and track missiles sensor systems for the military,ing electro-optical/infrared sen- at long surveillance distances. Raytheon Space civil and intelligencesors, active electronically scanned Raytheon’s Multispectral Target- Systems Critical communities.array/scanning radars, and various ing System (MTS-B), flying on theintegrated systems solutions, all of General Atomics MQ-9 REAPER, for Missile Defencewhich provide customers with ac- was originally developed for Bill Hart, Vice President for MT: What is Raytheon’s contribu-tionable information for strike, per- ground surveillance applications. Raytheon’s Space Systems busi- tion to the space portion of thesistent surveillance, and special This sensor/platform configuration ness, gives an update about the BMDS?mission applications. Tim Carey, is now regularly being used by the contributions his business is mak- Hart: Raytheon designed and builtVice President for Raytheon’s ISRS MDA to collect missile signature ing in the area of missile defence. the infrared sensor suites for bothbusiness headquartered in McKin- data on MDA sponsored flight of the MDA’s Space Tracking andney, TX informs about the contribu- tests. MT: The BMDS incorporates a Surveillance System Demonstratortions his business is making in the wide range of sensors to detect and spacecraft, which were launchedarea of missile defence. MT: What is Raytheon’s contribu- track threat missiles through all last September. STSS is designed tion to the EO/IR ISR portion of the phases of trajectory. What unique to work in concert with land andMT: The Ballistic Missile Defence BMDS? advantages do space sensors sea based radars, many of whichSystem incorporates a wide range Carey: In March 2009, during the bring to the table? are also built by Raytheon. Eachof sensors to detect and track US Navy’s Stellar Daggers flight Hart: Space is the ultimate high STSS satellite contains an acquisi-threat missiles throughout their test, missile signature measure- ground. With a relatively small tion sensor, for boost phase detec-flight. What unique advantages ments demonstrated the potential number of sensors on orbit, you tion of potential missile threats,does ISRS bring to this mission? feasibility of airborne infrared can get the kind of global, persis- and a track sensor for the mid-Carey: We’ve demonstrated that (ABIR) sensors to address MDA’s tent coverage that is difficult to course, “cool” phase of a missile’sinexpensive off-the-shelf ISRS need for a forward-based surveil- achieve with other techniques flight in space, all the way to re-en-sensors combined with readily lance element. alone. try. The STSS sensors in turn pro- vide cueing information to missile defence command and control systems, all of which enables earli- er and more precise missile inter- cepts. MT: What is the status of the STSS spacecraft? Hart: Both satellites and the sen- sors are currently operating nomi- nally. Early on-orbit test results have been in agreement with or better than ground tests and mod- elled results. Once the initial on-orbit check- out is completed, sensor perfor- mance will be characterised through a series of flight tests with ground, airborne, resident space objects, and ballistic missile tar- gets. These tests will demonstrate STSS’ ability to track missiles in all phases of flight and pass timely missile track data to the integrated BMDS kill chain. Artist’s rendering of the sea, land and space-based sensors and effectors that Raytheon can bring to bear on the missile defence mission.46 Military Technology · MILTECH · 8/2010