vegetarian foods:                          powerful tools for health                                               A veget...
to explain why they have less lung and         from the bones. Replacing animal              northern latitudes have some ...
the          protein myth    In the past, some people                       The Building Blocks of Life                   ...
Coo                                                                                                                     ki...
calcium in a plant-based diet                                                               Many people avoid milk        ...
A number of factors increase bone               Sources of Calciumbuilding in the body:                           Exercise...
the          new    *Be sure to include a good source of vitamin B12,    such as fortified cereal or a vitamin supplement....
legumes            4                                            2 or more servings a day                                  ...
stores the energy of different food types.                                                                                ...
vegetarian dietfor pregnancyDuring pregnancy your need for nutrients increases. For example, you willrequire more calcium,...
vegetarian diets for     children     Eating habits are set in early childhood. Vegetarian diets     give your child the c...
ple                     food groups                                                                                       ...
recipes                                                       Enchiladas in an Instant                                    ...
Lower Calorie                                                                                                 Peanut Butte...
THE VEGETARIAN STARTER KIT is publishedby the Physicians Committee for ResponsibleMedicine and Vegetarian Times magazine. ...
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Vegetarian Starter Kit

  1. 1. TIPS FOR BEGINNINGA VEGetarian DIETthe NEW FOURFOOD GROUPStasty LOW-FAT,NO-CHOLESTEROLRECIPESPresented by Vegetarian Timesand the Physicians Committeefor Responsible Medicine
  2. 2. vegetarian foods: powerful tools for health A vegetarian menu is a powerful and pleasurable way to achievecontents good health. The vegetarian eating pattern is based on a wide variety of foods that are satisfying, delicious, and healthful. Vegetarians avoid meat, fish, and poultry. Those who include THE WHYS AND HOWS dairy products and eggs in their diets are called lacto-ovo Vegetarian Foods 2 vegetarians. Vegans eat no meat, fish, poultry, eggs, or dairy products. While there is a considerable advantage to a lacto-ovo The Protein Myth 4 vegetarian pattern, vegan diets are the most healthful of all, reducing risk of a broad range of health concerns. Calcium in a Plant-based Diet 6 A Healthy Heart What About Milk? 7 Vegetarians have much lower cholesterol found only in plant foods) and low in levels than meat eaters, and heart disease fat is the best dietary prescription for The New Four Food Groups 8 is less common in vegetarians. The controlling diabetes. A diet based on reasons are not hard to find. Vegetarian vegetables, legumes, fruits, and whole Achieving and Maintaining a meals are typically low in saturated fat grains, which is also low in fat and sugar, Healthy Weight 10 and usually contain little or no choles- can lower blood sugar levels and often terol. Since cholesterol is found only in reduce or even eliminate the need for Vegetarian Diet for Pregnancy 11 animal products such as meat, dairy, medication. Since individuals with and eggs, vegans consume a cholesterol- diabetes are at high risk for heart disease, Vegetarian Diets for Children 12 free diet. avoiding fat and cholesterol is impor- The type of protein in a vegetarian tant, and a vegetarian diet is the best diet may be another important advan- way to do that. tips for vegetarian diets tage. Many studies show that replacing animal protein with plant protein lowers Cancer Prevention The 3-Step Way to Go Veg 3 blood cholesterol levels—even if the A vegetarian diet helps prevent cancer. amount and type of fat in the diet stays Studies of vegetarians show that death Tips for Making the Switch 4 the same. Those studies show that a low- rates from cancer are only about one- fat, vegetarian diet has a clear advantage half to three-quarters of the general Egg Free! 5 over other diets. population’s cancer-death rates. Breast cancer rates are dramatically Dairy Free! 7 Lower Blood Pressure lower in countries where typical diets are An impressive number of studies, dating plant-based. When women from those The Veganizer 10 back to the early 1920s, show that countries adopt a Western, meat-based vegetarians have lower blood pressure diet, their rates of breast cancer soar. Daily Meal Planning 13 than nonvegetarians. In fact, some Vegetarians also have significantly lower studies have shown that adding meat to rates of colon cancer than meat eaters. a vegetarian diet raises blood pressure Colon cancer is more closely associated low-fat recipes levels rapidly and significantly. A with meat consumption than any other vegetarian diet also reduces sodium dietary factor. Recipes for Health 14 intake: When patients with high blood Why do vegetarian diets help protect pressure begin a vegetarian diet, many against cancer? First, they are lower in are able to eliminate the need for fat and higher in fiber than meat-based medication. diets. But other factors are important, too. Plants contain other cancer-fighting Controlling Diabetes substances called phytochemicals. For The latest studies on diabetes show that example, vegetarians usually consume a vegetarian diet high in complex more of the plant pigments beta- carbohydrates and fiber (which are carotene and lycopene. This might help VEGETARIAN STARTER KIT
  3. 3. to explain why they have less lung and from the bones. Replacing animal northern latitudes have some difficultyprostate cancers. Also, some studies have products with plant foods reduces the producing vitamin D year-round.suggested that diets that avoid dairy amount of calcium lost. This may help Vitamin D can easily be obtained fromproducts may reduce the risk of prostate to explain why people who live in fortified foods. Some sources areand ovarian cancers. countries where the typical diet is plant- commercial breakfast cereals, soymilk, Some of the anticancer aspects of a based have little osteoporosis, even when other supplemental products, andvegetarian diet cannot yet be explained. calcium intake is lower than that in multivitamins.For example, researchers are not quite dairy-consuming countries. Regular intake of vitamin B12 issure why vegetarians have more of important. Good sources include allcertain white blood cells, called natural Planning Vegetarian Diets common multiple vitamins (includingkiller cells, which are able to seek and It’s easy to plan vegetarian diets that vegetarian vitamins), fortified cereals,destroy cancer cells. meet all your nutrient needs. Grains, some brands of nutritional yeast, and beans, and vegetables are rich in protein fortified soymilk. It is especiallyThe Calcium Connection and iron. Green leafy vegetables, beans, important for pregnant women andVegetarians are less likely to form either lentils, tofu, corn tortillas, and nuts are breast-feeding mothers to get enoughkidney stones or gallstones. In addition, excellent sources of calcium, as are vitamin B12. When reading foodvegetarians may also be at lower risk for enriched soymilk and fortified juices. labels, look for the word cyanocobala-osteoporosis because they eat little or no Vitamin D is normally made in the min in the ingredients list. This isanimal protein. A high intake of animal body when sun shines on the skin. the form of vitamin B12 that is bestprotein encourages the loss of calcium People who are dark-skinned or live at absorbed by the body.the 3-step way to go vegIf you are making the switch to a vegetar- are tofu and vegetable stir-fries, veg- grilled eggplant and roasted red peppersian diet for its health benefits, you’ll be etable stew, or pasta primavera. instead of grilled chicken in sandwiches.pleased to find that there is a wonderful Many soups, stews, and casseroles alsoadditional benefit to vegetarian eating: 2 Second, think of three recipes you can be made into vegetarian dishes withIt’s a delicious and fun way to explore prepare regularly that can easily be a few simple foods. A vegetarian meal can be as adapted to a vegetarian menu. Forfamiliar as spaghetti with marinara example, a favorite chili recipe can be 3 Third, check out some vegetariansauce, as comforting as a bowl of rich, made with all of the same ingredients; cookbooks from the library and experi-potato soup, or as exotic as grilled just replace the meat with beans or ment with the recipes for a week or sopolenta with portobello mushrooms. texturized vegetable protein. Enjoy bean until you find three new recipes that are The switch to a vegetarian diet is burritos (using canned vegetarian refried delicious and easy to make. Just like that,easier than you might think. Most people, beans) instead of beef burritos, veggie with minimal changes to your menus, youwhether vegetarians or meat eaters, burgers instead of hamburgers, and will have nine vegetarian dinners.typically use a limited variety of recipes;the average family eats only eight or ninedifferent dinners repeatedly. You can usea simple, three-step method to come upwith nine vegetarian dinner menus thatyou enjoy and can prepare easily. After that, coming up with vegetarianoptions for breakfast and lunch is easy.Try muffins with fruit spread, cholesterol-free French toast, or cereal for break-fasts. Sandwiches, with spreads likehummus or white bean pate with lemonand garlic, or dinner leftovers all makegreat lunches.1 First, think of three vegetarian meals Enchiladas in an Instant Recipe on page 14that you already enjoy. Common ones
  4. 4. the protein myth In the past, some people The Building Blocks of Life The Trouble with Too Much believed one could never get People build muscle and other body Protein too much protein. proteins from amino acids, which come The average American diet contains from the proteins they eat. A varied diet meat and dairy products. As a result, it is In the early 1900s, Americans were told of beans, lentils, grains, and vegetables often too high in protein. This can lead to eat well over 100 grams of protein a contains all of the essential amino acids. to a number of serious health problems: day. And as recently as the 1950s, It was once thought that various plant health-conscious people were encour- foods had to be eaten together to get • Kidney Disease: When people eat aged to boost their protein intake. their full protein value, but current too much protein, they take in more Today, some diet books encourage high- research suggests this is not the case. nitrogen than they need. This places a protein intake for weight loss, although Many nutrition authorities, including strain on the kidneys, which must expel Americans already tend to take in twice the American Dietetic Association, the extra nitrogen through urine. People the amount of protein they need. And believe protein needs can easily be met with kidney disease are encouraged to while individuals following such a diet by consuming a variety of plant protein eat low-protein diets. Such a diet have sometimes had short-term success sources over an entire day. To get the reduces the excess levels of nitrogen and in losing weight, they are often unaware most benefit from the protein you can also help prevent kidney disease. of the health risks associated with a consume, it is important to eat enough high-protein diet. Excess protein has calories to meet your energy needs. • Cancer: Although fat is the dietary been linked with osteoporosis, kidney substance most often singled out for disease, calcium stones in the urinary increasing cancer risk, protein also plays tract, and some cancers. a role. Populations that eat meat tips for making the switch • Convenience foods cut cooking time. Supermarkets and vegetarian food when dining out. Italian, Chinese, Mexican, natural foods stores stock a huge array of instant soups and Spanish, Thai, Japanese, and Indian restaurants all offer a wide main-dish vegetarian convenience items. Many canned soups, variety of vegetarian dishes. such as minestrone, black bean, or vegetable, are vegetarian. • Texturized vegetable protein (TVP) is fat-free, has Flavored rice or other grain mixes, like curried rice or tabbou- a texture like ground beef, and is wonderful in tacos, chili, leh salad, can be stretched into an entrée with a can of beans. and sloppy joes. Look for it in the bulk food section of the Visit the frozen food section for internationally inspired grocery store. vegetarian frozen entrées such as corn and bean enchiladas, • Summer barbecues are healthful and fun with meatless lentil curry, or vegetarian pad thai. Or try vegetarian baked hot dogs and burgers. Or, for a real change of pace, grill thick beans, refried beans, sloppy joe sauce, and meatless spaghetti slices of marinated vegetables like eggplant, zucchini, or sauce from the canned goods aisle. tomatoes. • Ask for it! Even restaurants that don’t offer vegetarian • Check out ethnic groceries for special vegetarian entrées can usually whip up a meatless pasta or vegetable plate foods. Middle Eastern delis offer stuffed grape leaves, falafel, if you ask. If attending a catered affair, catch the waiter before and eggplant spreads. Italian markets are a wonderful place to you are served and ask him or her to remove the chicken breast find hearty homemade breads, sun-dried tomatoes, and fresh from your plate and slip on an extra baked potato. Some pasta. Indian and Asian markets offer many vegetarian airlines offer vegetarian meals if you ask in advance; or you delicacies also. can always bring a meal on board with you. • The simplest dishes are often the most satisfying. Brown • Order your next pizza without cheese but with a rice, gently seasoned with herbs and lemon and sprinkled with mountain of vegetable toppings. chopped nuts or sunflower seeds, is a perfect dish. • Find vegetarian cookbooks at your local library or • When traveling, pack plenty of vegetarian bookstore and have fun experimenting with new foods and snacks like instant soups, fresh fruit, raw vegetables, trail mix, recipes. granola bars, and homemade oatmeal cookies. Fill a cooler • International restaurants are the best bets for finding with sandwiches and individual containers of juice and soymilk. VEGETARIAN STARTER KIT
  5. 5. Coo kin egg g witho tast s can b ut y an e d ea sy.regularly are at increased risk for colon England found that when people addedcancer, and researchers believe that the about 5 ounces of fish (about 34 grams offat, protein, natural carcinogens, and protein) to a normal diet, the risk of Egg free!absence of fiber in meat all play roles. forming urinary tract stones increased byThe 1997 report of the World Cancer as much as 250 percent.Research Fund and American Institute For a long time it was thought thatfor Cancer Research, “Food, Nutrition, athletes needed much more protein than Many people choose not to use eggs inand the Prevention of Cancer,” noted other people. The truth is that athletes, their diets. About 70 percent of the caloriesthat meaty, high-protein diets were even those who strength train, need only in eggs are from fat, and a big portion oflinked with some types of cancer. slightly more protein, which is easily that fat is saturated. Eggs are also loaded obtained in the larger servings athletes with cholesterol—about 213 milligrams for• Osteoporosis and Kidney Stones: require for their higher caloric intake. an average-size egg. Because egg shellsDiets rich in animal protein cause Vegetarian diets are great for athletes. are fragile and porous and conditions onpeople to excrete more calcium than To consume a diet that contains egg farms are crowded, eggs are thenormal through their kidneys and enough, but not too much, protein, perfect host for salmonella—the bacteriaincrease the risk of osteoporosis. simply replace animal products with that is the leading cause of food poisoningCountries with lower protein diets have grains, vegetables, legumes (peas, beans, in this country.lower rates of osteoporosis and hip and lentils), and fruits. As long as one is Eggs are often used in baked productsfractures. eating a variety of plant foods in suffi- because of their binding and leavening Greater calcium excretion increases cient quantity to maintain one’s weight, properties. But smart cooks have foundthe risk for kidney stones. Researchers in the body gets plenty of protein. good substitutes for eggs. Try one of the following the next time you prepare a recipe that calls for eggs: • f a recipe calls for just one or two I eggs, you can often skip them. Add a couple of extra tablespoons of water for each egg eliminated to balance out the moisture content of the product. • ggless egg replacers are available in E many natural food stores. These are lE different from reduced-cholesterol egg mp s products, which do contain eggs. Egg Sa nu replacers are egg-free and are usually in Me a powdered form. Replace eggs in baking with a mixture of the powdered egg replacer and water according to package directions. • se 1 heaping tablespoon of soy flour UBreakfast Banana Buckwheat or cornstarch plus 2 tablespoons of Pancakes3 oatmeal pancakes with applesauce Recipe on page 14 water to replace each egg in a bakedtopping, calcium-fortified orange juice, product.fresh fruit Breakfast • se 1 ounce of mashed tofu in place of ULunch 1 cup oatmeal with cinnamon and raisins, an egg. Scramble crumbled tofu withBean burritos: black beans in corn 1 /2 cup fortified soymilk, 1 slice toast with onions and peppers seasoned withtortillas, topped with chopped lettuce, 1 tablespoon almond butter, 1/2 grapefruit cumin and/or curry to replace eggs intomatoes, and salsa, spinach salad with Lunch breakfast dishes.tahini-lemon dressing Whole-wheat pita stuffed with hummus, • n muffins and cookies, half of a IDinner sliced tomatoes, and lettuce, carrot sticks mashed banana can be used instead ofChinese stir-fry over brown rice: tofu Dinner an egg, although it will change thechunks, broccoli, pea pods, water 1 cup baked beans, baked sweet potato, flavor of the recipe somewhat.chestnuts, and Chinese cabbage (bok 1 cup steamed collard greens drizzled with • or vegetarian loaves and burgers, use Fchoy), cantaloupe chunks drizzled with lemon juice, baked apple any of the following to bind ingredi-fresh lime juice Snack ents together: tomato paste, mashedSnack Banana soymilk shake potato, moistened bread crumbs, orDried figs rolled oats.
  6. 6. calcium in a plant-based diet Many people avoid milk We regularly lose calcium from our because it contains saturated bloodstream through urine, sweat, andwhere feces. It is renewed with calcium from fat, cholesterol, allergenic bone or from the diet. proteins, lactose, and frequent Bones are constantly broken down traces of contamination, orto get it and made anew. Up until the age of 30 simply because they don’t feel or so, we build more bone than we lose. well after consuming dairy Later, the bones tend to break down more than build up. The loss of too(content in milligrams) products. much bone calcium can lead to fragile Milk is also linked to type 1 (juvenile- bones or osteoporosis.Vegetables onset) diabetes and other serious How rapidly calcium is lost depends,Broccoli (1 cup, boiled) 62 conditions. Happily, there are many in part, on the kind and amount ofBrussels sprouts (1 cup, boiled) 56 other good sources of calcium. protein you eat, as well as other diet andButternut squash (1 cup, baked) 84 Keeping your bones strong depends lifestyle choices.Carrots (2 medium, raw) 40 more on preventing the loss of calciumCauliflower (1 cup, boiled) 20 from your body than on boosting your Reducing Calcium LossCollards (1 cup, boiled) 266 calcium intake. A number of factors affect calciumKale (1 cup, boiled) 94 Some cultures consume few or no loss from the body:Sweet potato (1 cup, baked) 76 dairy products and typically ingest fewer • iets that are high in protein cause D than 500 milligrams of calcium per day. more calcium to be lost through theLegumes However, these people generally have urine. Protein from animal products isBlack turtle beans (1 cup, boiled) 102 low rates of osteoporosis. Many much more likely to cause calciumChickpeas (1 cup, boiled) 80 scientists believe that exercise and other loss than protein from plant foods.Great Northern beans (1 cup, boiled) 120 factors have more to do with osteoporo- This may be one reason that vegetar-Kidney beans (1 cup, boiled) 62 sis than calcium intake does. ians tend to have stronger bones thanLentils (1 cup, boiled) 38 meat eaters.Navy beans (1 cup, boiled) 126 Calcium in the Body • iets high in sodium increase calcium DPinto beans (1 cup, boiled) 79 Almost all of the calcium in the body is losses in the urine.Soybeans (1 cup, boiled) 175 in the bones. There is a tiny amount in • affeine increases the rate at which CSoymilk (1 cup, calcium-fortified) 368 the bloodstream, which is responsible calcium is lost through urine.Tofu (1/2 cup, raw, firm) 253 for important functions such as muscle • moking increases the loss of calcium SVegetarian baked beans (1 cup) 86 contraction, maintenance of the from the body.White beans (1 cup, boiled) 161 heartbeat, and transmission of nerve impulses.Whole GrainsCorn tortilla 42Rice milk (1 cup, enriched) 300Wheat bread (1 slice) 26 Black Soybean Tabbouleh Recipe on page 14Whole-wheat flour (1 cup) 41FruitDried figs (10 figs) 140Naval orange (1 medium) 60Orange juice (1 cup, calcium-fortified) 300*Raisins (2/3 cup) 53Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, AgriculturalResearch Service. 2004. USDA National Nutrient Databasefor Standard Reference, Release 17. Nutrient Data LaboratoryWeb site:* package information VEGETARIAN STARTER KIT
  7. 7. A number of factors increase bone Sources of Calciumbuilding in the body: Exercise and a diet moderate in protein• xercise is one of the most important E will help to protect your bones. People Pou ry a ta ourself factors in maintaining bone health. who eat plant-based diets and are active• xposure to sunlight allows the body E probably have lower calcium needs. ll, c glas old to make the bone-building hormone However, it is still important to eat (dai s of vitamin D. calcium-rich foods every day. ry-fr• ating plenty of fruits and vegetables E The “Where to Get It” chart on page milk ee) . helps to keep calcium in bone. 6 gives the amount of calcium found in• onsuming calcium from plant-based C some excellent plant sources. A quick sources, especially green vegetables and glance shows how easy it is to meet beans, provides one of the building calcium needs. The sample menus on dairy free! blocks for bone building. page 5 each provide approximately 1,000 milligrams of calcium. If you are curious whether dairy foods are what about milk? contributing to your allergies, skin prob- lems, asthma, stomach upset, gas, diarrhea, or constipation, or you’d like to see how your body feels when it is dairy-free, just• Calcium: Green veg- • Contaminants: Milk • Allergies: Milk is one of give it a try for three weeks. It takes about etables, such as kale and is frequently contami- the most common causes three weeks to break or create a habit. And broccoli, are better than nated with antibiotics and of food allergy. Often the in that short time, many people experience milk as calcium sources. contains excess vitamin symptoms are subtle and major benefits, such as a drop in blood D. In one study of 42 milk may not be attributed to cholesterol levels, weight loss, relief from• Fat content*: Dairy samples tested, only 12 milk for some time. allergies, asthma, indigestion, or chronic products—other than skim percent were within the stomach problems. Here are some simple varieties—are high in fat, expected range of vitamin • Colic: Milk proteins can ideas to get you started: as a percentage of total D content. Of ten samples cause colic, a digestive calories. of infant formula, seven upset that bothers one in • T p your oats or cold cereal with fortified o had more than twice five infants. Milk-drinking rice or almond milk.• Iron deficiency: Milk is the vitamin D content mothers can also pass • Make smoothies with enriched vanilla very low in iron. To get reported on the label, and cow’s milk proteins to their soymilk or drink an ice cold glass of the U.S. Recommended one had more than four breast-feeding infants. your favorite soymilk with your meal or Dietary Allowance of 11 times the label amount. snack. milligrams of iron, an • Leave off the cheese, please.” “ infant would have to drink • Lactose: Three out of Fat Content of Order your entrée or salad with no more than 22 quarts of four people from around Dairy Products* cheese. Many dishes can be easily made milk each day. Milk also the world, including an * ased on percentage of b cheese-free. Ask for guacamole, rice, causes blood loss from the estimated 25 percent of calories from fat or extra salsa in your burrito or on your intestinal tract, depleting individuals in the United tostada instead of the cheese. Put more the body’s iron. States, are unable to Source Percentage vegetables on a dinner salad or add digest the milk sugar Butter 100% some beans, nuts, or baked tofu chunks• Diabetes: In a study of lactose, which then causes Cheddar cheese 74% instead of cheese. 142 children with diabe- diarrhea and gas. The Whole milk 49% • ost recipes calling for milk can be M tes, 100 percent had high lactose, when it is digest- “2%” milk 35% made with soymilk instead. If it’s a levels of an antibody to ed, releases galactose, a (It is 2% fat only by weight.) soup or other savory dish, be sure to a protein in cow’s milk. simple sugar that is linked purchase plain soymilk for cooking. It is believed that these to ovarian cancer and • Make creamy dips and desserts using antibodies may destroy cataracts. silken tofu in place of sour cream or the insulin-producing cells cream cheese. of the pancreas. • prinkle nutritional yeast on pop- S corn or pasta for a cheesy flavor instead of Parmesan.
  8. 8. the new *Be sure to include a good source of vitamin B12, such as fortified cereal or a vitamin supplement. four food groups Many of us grew up with the USDA’s old “basic four” food groups, first introduced in 1956. The passage of time has seen an increase in our knowledge about the importance of fiber, the health risks of cholesterol and fats, and the disease-preventive power of many nutrients found exclusively in plant-based foods. We also have discovered that the plant kingdom provides excellent sources of the nutrients once only associated with meat and dairy products—namely, protein and calcium. The USDA revised its recommenda- tions with the Food Guide Pyramid, a plan that reduced the prominence of animal products and vegetable fats. But 1 because regular consumption of such foods—even in lower quantities—poses serious health risks, PCRM developed the New Four Food Groups in 1991. This no-cholesterol, low-fat plan supplies all of an average adult’s daily nutritional requirements, including substantial amounts of fiber. The major killers of Americans— Fruit heart disease, cancer, and stroke— 3 or more servings a day have a dramatically lower incidence Fruits are rich in fiber, vitamin C, among people consuming primarily and beta-carotene. Be sure to plant-based diets. Weight problems— include at least one serving each a contributor to a host of health day of fruits that are high in vitamin problems—can also be brought under C—citrus fruits, melons, and control by following the New Four strawberries are all good choices. Food Groups recommendations. Choose whole fruit over fruit juices, Try the New Four Food Groups and which do not contain much fiber. discover a more healthful way to live! serving size: 1 medium piece of fresh fruit, 1 2 cup cooked fruit, / 4 ounces juice VEGETARIAN STARTER KIT
  9. 9. legumes 4 2 or more servings a day Legumes, which is another name for beans, peas, and lentils, are all good sources of fiber, protein, iron, calcium, zinc, and B vitamins. This group also includes chickpeas, baked and refried beans, soymilk, tempeh, and texturized vegetable protein. serving size: 1 2 cup cooked beans, / 4 ounces tofu or tempeh, 8 ounces soymilk2 vegetables 4 or more servings a day Vegetables are packed with nutri- ents; they provide vitamin C, beta- carotene, riboflavin, iron, calcium, fiber, and other nutrients. Dark green leafy vegetables such as broccoli, collards, kale, mustard and turnip greens, chicory, or cabbage are especially good sources of these important nutrients. Dark yellow and orange vegetables such as carrots, winter squash, sweet potatoes, and pumpkin provide extra beta-carotene. Include generous portions of a variety of vegetables in your diet. serving size: 1 cup raw vegetables, /2 cup cooked vegetables 13 whole grains 5 or more servings a day This group includes bread, rice, tortillas, pasta, hot or cold cereal, corn, millet, barley, and bulgur wheat. Build each of your meals around a hearty grain dish—grains are rich in fiber and other complex carbohydrates, as well as protein, B vitamins, and zinc. serving size: 1 2 cup rice or other / grain, 1 ounce dry cereal, 1 slice bread
  10. 10. stores the energy of different food types. It is very inefficient for the body to store the energy of carbohydrates as body fat. When your body tries to turn carbohy- drate into fat, it wastes 23 percent of the calories of the carbohydrate. But fat is easily converted into body fat. Only 3 percent of the calories in fat are burned in the process of conversion and storage. It is the type of food that affects body fat the most. Although protein and carbohydrates achieving and maintaining have almost the same number of calories per gram, foods that are high in a healthy weight protein—particularly animal products— are also usually high in fat. Even “lean” cuts of meat have much more fat than a Of the many ways to lose weight, ing a healthy weight. There is no way to healthy body needs. And animal one stands out as by far the most “lose 20 pounds in two short weeks” products always lack fiber. Fiber helps healthful. and make it last. Very-low-calorie diets make foods more satisfying without When you build your meals from a or low-carbohydrate, high-protein diets adding many calories, and it is only generous array of vegetables, fruits, may cause major health problems and found in foods from plants. whole grains, and beans—that is, are very difficult to maintain for the Exercise helps, too. Aerobic exercise healthful vegetarian choices—weight long term. speeds up the breakdown of fat and loss is remarkably easy. And along with The old myth was that pasta, bread, makes sure that muscle is not lost. it come major improvements in potatoes, and rice are fattening. Not true. Toning exercises and weight lifting help cholesterol, blood pressure, blood sugar, In fact, carbohydrate-rich foods are firm muscles and increase muscle mass. and many other aspects of health. The perfect for permanent weight control. The trick is to find activities that you message is simple: Cut out the foods Carbohydrates contain fewer than half enjoy and that fit your lifestyle. Walking that are high in fat and devoid of fiber, the calories of fat, which means that is a good way to start. You can do it and increase the foods that are low in fat replacing fatty foods with complex anywhere at just about any time. and full of fiber. This low-fat, vegan diet carbohydrates automatically cuts calories. The best weight control program is a approach is safe and easy—once you get But calories are only part of the story. high-complex-carbohydrate, low-fat, the hang of it. The body treats carbohydrates vegetarian diet complemented by regular Changing eating habits is the differently than fat calories. The exercise. This is the best choice for a cornerstone of achieving and maintain- difference comes from how the body healthier, longer, happier life. the veganizer See how to change your regular meals into low-fat vegan meals. If your regular breakfast is: Try this breakfast instead: If your typical lunch is: Try this lunch instead: Cereal with milk Cereal with nonfat soy- or rice milk Turkey sandwich with lettuce, Sandwich with hummus or black Orange juice Orange juice tomato, and mayo bean spread, lettuce, and tomato Strawberries Strawberries Yogurt Applesauce Potato chips Fat-free chips or crackers Donut Cinnamon raisin toast with jam Coffee with cream Coffee with nonfat, nondairy creamer Chicken noodle soup Vegetable soup or minestrone Banana Banana Bread Bread Green salad with Russian dressing Green salad with fat-free dressing Scrambled eggs Scrambled low-fat tofu Home fries Oven-roasted potatoes Last night’s leftovers (roast beef, Last night’s leftovers (veggie burger, English muffin English muffin mashed potatoes, gravy, and peas) mashed potatoes, mushroom gravy, Sausage Gimme Lean fat-free sausage Orange corn, and peas) Hot tea Hot tea Orange Bagel with cream cheese Bagel plain or with fruit spread Seasoned tofu and sweet potato Chicken burrito Latte Soy latte made with nonfat soymilk burrito with lettuce, tomato, and Rice Refried beans onion (hold the cheese)10 M a y / j u ne 2 0 0 7 Rice Vegetarian black beans
  11. 11. vegetarian dietfor pregnancyDuring pregnancy your need for nutrients increases. For example, you willrequire more calcium, more protein, and more folic acid, although yourcalorie needs increase only modestly. It is important to eat foods that arerich in nutrients, but not high in fat or sugar or excessive in calories. Vegetarian diets, based on nutritious whole foods, are healthful choicesfor pregnant women.Guidelines for Good Health kale, broccoli, beans, figs, sunflowerDuring Pregnancy seeds, tahini, almond butter, calcium-• egin a healthful diet before you B fortified soymilk (try Silk or Vitasoy become pregnant. Your body’s store of brands or others that use whole organic nutrients supports the early growth soybeans), and calcium-fortified cereals and development of your baby. and juices.• aintain a steady rate of weight gain. M Vitamin D: The normal source of Aim for about three to four pounds vitamin D is sunlight. You’ll want to get at check the ingredient label for cyanoco- total during the first trimester and least 20 to 30 minutes of direct sunlight balamin, the most absorbable form of then about three to four pounds each on your hands and face two to three times vitamin B12. Seaweed and products like month during the second and third weekly. tempeh are generally not reliable sources trimesters. If you do not get regular sunlight, of vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 is also in all• See your health care provider regularly. vitamin D is also available in multiple standard multivitamins and in vegetarian• imit empty calories found in highly L vitamins and in fortified foods. Many supplements. processed foods and sweets. Make your brands of ready-to-eat cereals and soy- Iron: Iron is abundant in plant-based calories count! and rice milks are fortified with diets. Beans, dark green vegetables, dried vitamin D. fruits, blackstrap molasses, nuts andNutrients Vitamin B12: Vitamin B12 is not found seeds, and whole grain or fortifiedTo make certain that you are getting in most plant foods. To get enough of breads and cereals all contain plenty ofadequate nutrition, pay particular this important nutrient, be certain to iron. However, women in the secondattention to these nutrients: include vitamin B12-fortified foods in half of pregnancy sometimes need to Calcium: All of the new four food your daily routine. These foods include take a supplement regardless of the typegroups include foods that are rich in many breakfast cereals, some meat of diet they follow. Your health carecalcium. Be certain to include plenty of substitute products, some brands of provider will discuss iron supplementscalcium-rich foods in your diet. These soymilk, and Vegetarian Support with you.include tofu, dark green leafy vegetables, Formula nutritional yeast. Be certain to A word about protein... Protein needs increase by about 30 percentIf your typical dinner is: Try this dinner instead: during pregnancy. While there may be concern over whether protein intake isFettuccine alfredo or spaghetti with Pasta primavera with mixed vegetables and adequate at such an important time,meatballs garlic or spaghetti with marinara sauce most vegetarian women eat more thanGreen salad with ranch dressing Green salad with fat-free balsamic vinaigrette enough protein to meet their needsGarlic bread with butter Toasted French bread without butter during pregnancy. With ample con-Butter-pecan ice cream Chocolate sorbet sumption of protein-rich foods such asBroiled salmon Broiled portobello mushrooms legumes, nuts, seeds, vegetables, andBoiled new potatoes with Parmesan cheese Boiled new potatoes with basil and black pepper whole grains, protein needs can easily beAsparagus with hollandaise Asparagus with orange sauce met during pregnancy.Hot and sour soup Vegetarian tofu soup Breast-feedingBeef and broccoli Stir-fried Chinese vegetables (hold the oil) The guidelines for breast-feedingRice Broccoli with garlic sauce mothers are similar to those for preg- Lots of rice nant women. Milk production requiresChicken fajita Vegetable fajita (hold the oil) more calories, so you will need to boostRice Rice your food intake a little bit. 11Refried beans Vegetarian black beans
  12. 12. vegetarian diets for children Eating habits are set in early childhood. Vegetarian diets give your child the chance to learn to enjoy a variety of wonderful, nutritious foods. They provide excellent nutrition for all stages of childhood, from birth through adolescence. Infants taken as directed by your doctor. Breast peas are all good choices. The best food for newborns is breast- milk or infant formula should be used • ntroduce fruits. Try mashed I milk, and the longer your baby is breast- for at least the first year of your baby’s bananas, avocados, strained fed, the better. If your baby is not being life. peaches, or applesauce. breast-fed, soy formulas are a good At about 6 months of age, or when • ntroduce breads. By 8 months I alternative and are widely available. Do baby’s weight has doubled, other foods of age, most babies can eat not use commercial soymilk for infants. can be added to the diet. Pediatricians crackers, bread, and dry cereal. Babies have special needs and require a often recommend starting with an iron- • ntroduce protein-rich foods. Also, I soy formula that is developed especially fortified cereal because, at about 4 to 6 by about 8 months, infants can for those needs. months, infants’ iron stores, which are begin to eat higher protein foods naturally high at birth, begin to like tofu or beans that have been decrease. Add one simple new food at a cooked well and mashed. time, at one- to two-week intervals. The following guidelines provide a Children and Teens flexible plan for adding foods to your Children have a high calorie and baby’s diet. nutrient need but their stomachs are small. Offer your child frequent snacks. Teenagers often have high energy needs and busy schedules. Keeping Infants do not need any nourishment other than breast milk or soy formula for the first six months of life, and they should continue to receive breast milk or formula at least throughout their first 12 months. Breast-fed infants also need about two hours a week of sun exposure to make vitamin D—a great motivator for Mom to get back into a walking 5 TO 6 Months routine. Some infants, especially those • ntroduce iron-fortified infant cereal. I who are dark-skinned or who live in Try rice cereal first, mixed with a little cloudy climates, may not make adequate breast milk or soy formula, since it is amounts of vitamin D. In these cases, the least likely to cause allergies. Then, delicious, healthful snack choices on vitamin D supplements may be offer oat or barley cereals. Most hand and guiding teens to make lower necessary. pediatricians recommend holding off fat selections when eating out will help Vegetarian women who are breast- on introducing wheat until the child is to steer them away from dining pitfalls feeding should also be certain to include at least 8 months old, as it tends to be that often cause weight gain and health good sources of vitamin B12 in their more allergenic. problems for adolescents. diets, as intake can affect levels in breast Caloric needs vary from child to milk. Foods fortified with cyanocobala- 6 TO 8 Months child. The guidelines at right are min, the active form of vitamin B12, can • ntroduce vegetables. They should be I general ones. provide adequate amounts of this thoroughly cooked and mashed. nutrient. A multivitamin may also be Potatoes, green beans, carrots, and12 VEGETARIAN STARTER KIT
  13. 13. ple food groups S am us n Me Ages 1 to 4 Years Whole Grains Breakfast: Oatmeal with applesauce, • hole grains include breads, hot and W of beans, tofu, or other item (unless an calcium-fortified orange juice cold cereals, pasta, cooked grains such amount is specified). Lunch: Hummus on crackers, banana, as rice and barley, and crackers. • ondairy milks include breast milk N soymilk, carrot sticks • ne serving equals 1/2 cup of pasta, O and soy formula for infants and grains, or cooked cereal, 3/4 to 1 cup of toddlers, and rice, soy-, and other Dinner: Corn, mashed sweet potatoes, ready-to-eat cereal, 1/2 bun or bagel, or vegetable-based milks for children at steamed kale, soymilk 1 slice of bread. least 1 year of age. Choose fortified SNACKS: Peach, Cheerios, soymilk soymilk, such as Westsoy Plus, Vegetables Enriched VitaSoy, or Edensoy, Ages 5 to 6 Years • Dark green vegetables” include “ whenever possible, or use other Breakfast: Whole-grain cereal with broccoli, kale, spinach, collards, turnip, fortified vegetable-based milks. mustard and beet greens, bok choy, • ne serving of nondairy milk equals O banana and soymilk, orange wedges and Swiss chard. 1 cup. Lunch: Tofu-salad sandwich, apple • Other vegetables” refers to all other “ • uts include whole or chopped nuts, N juice, carrot sticks, oatmeal cookie vegetables, fresh or frozen, raw or nut butters, whole seeds, and seed Dinner: Baked beans with soy “hot cooked. butters. dog” pieces, baked potato, spinach, • ne serving of vegetables equals 1/2 cup O • ne to two servings of nuts may be O soymilk, fruit salad cooked or 1 cup raw (unless an amount included in a healthful diet, but they is specified). are optional. One serving of nuts or SNACKS: Trail mix, graham crackers, nut butters equals 1 tablespoon. soymilk Legumes • egumes include any cooked bean, L Fruit Ages 7 to 12 Years such as pinto beans, kidney beans, • ruits include all fruits, fresh or frozen, F Breakfast: Strawberry-banana lentils, split peas, navy beans, and raw or cooked, and fruit juices. smoothie, toast with almond butter, chickpeas, as well as soy products such • ne serving equals 1/2 cup cooked fruit, O calcium-fortified orange juice as tofu, veggie burgers, soy “hot dogs” 1 /2 cup fruit juice, 1/4 cup dried fruit, or or sandwich slices, and tempeh. 1 piece of fresh fruit (unless an amount Lunch: Main-Dish Lentil-Vegetable • ne serving of legumes equals 1/2 cup O is specified). Soup, green salad, bread Dinner: Steamed broccoli with nutri- tional yeast, steamed carrots, oven fries, daily meal planning Lower Calorie Peanut Butter Cookies, soymilk 1- TO 4-Year-Olds 5- TO 6-Year-Olds 7 - TO 12-Year-Olds 13- TO 19-Year-Olds SNACKS: Popcorn, figs, soy “ice cream”GrainsWhole 4 servings 6 servings 7 servings 10 servings Ages 13 to 19 Years Breakfast: Bagel with apple butter, 2 to 4 tablespoons /4 cup dark green 1 1 serving dark green 1 to 2 servings dark banana, calcium-fortified orange juice Vegetables dark green vegetables vegetables vegetables green vegetables Lunch: Bean burrito with lettuce, /4 to 1 2 cup other 1 / /4 to 1 2 cup other 1 / 3 servings other 3 servings other vegetables vegetables vegetables vegetables tomato, and guacamole; rice, baked tortilla chips, and salsa /4 to 1 2 cup 1 / /2 to 1 cup legumes 1 2 servings legumes 3 servings legumes Dinner: Braised broccoli, carrots, Legumes 3 servings soymilk or 3 servings soymilk or 2 to 3 servings yellow squash, and mushrooms; spaghetti other nondairy milk other nondairy milk soymilk or other with marinara sauce; cucumber salad; nondairy milk soymilk SNACKS: Hummus and baby carrots, fruits /4 to 1 1 2 cups 3 / 1 to 2 cups 3 servings 4 servings fruit smoothie, Luna or Clif Bar 13
  14. 14. recipes Enchiladas in an Instant Serves 6 l Vegan l 30 minutes or fewer The stir-together filling of these healthful enchiladas gets a fresh flavor boost from diced red onion and chopped cilantro. Makes 12 enchiladas. 2 15-oz. cans black beans, drained and rinsed Banana Buckwheat 1 cup frozen corn kernels Pancakes /4 cup prepared salsa, divided 3 /2 cup diced red onion 1 Serves 6 (makes 18 3-inch pancakes) l Vegan 12 8-inch flour tortillas, preferably Egg replacer keeps these breakfast treats whole-wheat tender without dairy or extra oil. 1 Hass avocado, peeled and diced 2 Tbs. chopped cilantro Black Soybean Tabbouleh 2 cups plain soymilk, divided Serves 4 l Vegan l 30 minutes or fewer 2 tsp. fresh lemon juice 1. Combine, beans, corn, 3 Tbs. salsa 1 cup buckwheat flour and onion in large bowl. Season to taste Canned black soybeans, high in protein 1 cup flour with salt and pepper. and fiber, replace the traditional bulgur. 11/2 tsp. baking powder 2. Spread about 1/3 cup filling across top Combining them with crunchy, high- /2 tsp. salt 1 third of each tortilla. Roll up, and set fiber fresh veggies makes a perfect lunch. /4 tsp. baking soda 1 seam-side down on microwavable 2 tsp. egg replacer powder platter. Repeat to assemble remaining 1 15-oz. can black soybeans, rinsed 2 Tbs. canola oil enchiladas. and drained 1 Tbs. maple syrup, plus more for 3. Spread a thick ribbon of salsa along 2 large plum tomatoes, seeded and serving the length of each tortilla. Heat in chopped 2 bananas, thinly sliced microwave on high power 3 to 5 1 medium-size green bell pepper, minutes, or until hot. Sprinkle with seeded and chopped 1. Mix 13/4 cups soymilk with lemon diced avocado and cilantro, and serve. 1 packed cup chopped Italian juice in small bowl. Let stand 5 minutes. PER SERVING: 325 CAL; 12.5 G PROT; 5 G TOTAL parsley leaves 2. Combine flours, baking powder, salt FAT (0.5 G SAT. FAT); 61 G CARB; 0 MG CHOL; 933 Juice of 1 lemon and baking soda in medium bowl. MG SOD; 33 G FIBER; 4 G SUGAR 1 tsp. salt 3. Whisk egg replacer and remaining 1/4 /8 tsp. cayenne pepper, or to taste 1 cup soymilk in small bowl. Add to 1 Tbs. extra virgin olive oil soymilk mixture. Whisk in oil and 1 packed cup mint leaves, cut syrup. into thin strips 4. Stir flour mixture into soymilk mixture. Fold in bananas. 1. Combine soybeans, tomatoes, bell 5. Lightly oil griddle, and heat over pepper and parsley in mixing bowl. medium heat. Pour 2 Tbs. batter onto 2. In small bowl, whisk lemon juice griddle for each pancake, and cook 2 with salt and cayenne. Mix in oil. Pour minutes, or until batter bubbles and over bean mixture; toss well. Mix in pancakes begin to brown around edges. mint. Let sit 20 minutes so flavors meld. Flip, and cook 2 minutes more. Serve Will keep in refrigerator 24 hours, with maple syrup. tightly covered. PER SERVING: 258 CAL; 8 G PROT; 7 G TOTAL PER SERVING: 180 CAL; 12 G PROT; 5 G TOTAL FAT (0.5 G SAT. FAT); 44 G CARB; 0 MG CHOL; FAT (0.5 G SAT. FAT); 20 G CARB; 0 MG CHOL; 412 MG SOD; 4 G FIBER; 9 G SUGAR 650 MG SOD; 10 G FIBER; 3 G SUGAR14 VEGETARIAN STARTER KIT
  15. 15. Lower Calorie Peanut Butter Cookies Makes about 60 cookies l Vegan 30 minutes or fewer These are very tender cookies, and they break easily, so handle carefully. 1 cup creamy, well-stirred peanut Main-Dish butter, preferably all-natural Lentil-Vegetable Soup 1 cup apple juice concentrate, thawed and undiluted Serves 4 l VeganAsian Pear Salad with /2 cup sucralose-type sweetener 1Fennel and Pistachios This flavorful soup with its protein-rich 2 tsp. vanilla extractServes 6 l Vegan l 30 minutes or fewer lentils is substantial enough to enjoy as a 1 cup whole-wheat flour main dish. One note: Even though most 11/2 tsp. baking sodaTo slice an Asian pear into matchsticks, lentils today are picked clean, sortstand it on a cutting board and cut it through them just in case to remove any 1. Preheat oven to 350°F. Lightly sprayinto thin slices on each side of the core. debris. To add some greens with no 2 baking sheets with cooking spray, orLay the slices flat on top of one another extra cooking, chop some baby spinach, line with baking parchment, and setand cut into thin strips. and stir it in just before serving. The aside. heat from the soup will just wilt the 2. Mix peanut butter, apple juice,4 Asian pears, cut into matchsticks spinach. sweetener, and vanilla until blended but (3 cups) not smooth. In second bowl, whisk1 bunch watercress, trimmed 1 Tbs. olive oil together flour and baking soda, and fold (2 cups) 1 medium-size yellow onion, into peanut butter mixture. Stir until1 medium-size fennel bulb, thinly chopped thick. Drop dough by rounded tea- sliced (2 cups) 2 cloves garlic, minced spoons onto baking sheets, about 21 small red bell pepper, diced 2 to 3 carrots, peeled and inches apart. Use fork dipped in flour to (1 cup) cut into 1/4-inch dice make crisscross marks on top of each4 green onions, sliced (1/4 cup) 1 parsnip, peeled and cookie./4 cup chopped pistachios1 cut into 1/4-inch dice 3. Bake 12 minutes, or until light3 Tbs. fresh lime juice 1 small celery root, peeled and brown. Remove from oven; cool on2 Tbs. vegetable oil cut into 1/4-inch dice sheets. 1 1/4 cups dried brown lentils, sorted PER COOKIE: 40 CAL; 1 G PROT; 2 G FAT (0 G1. Combine pears, watercress, fennel, and rinsed SAT. FAT); 5 G CARB; 0 MG CHOL; 50 MG SOD;bell pepper, green onions, and pistachios 6 cups low-sodium vegetable broth 1 G FIBER; 0G SUGARin large salad bowl. or water2. Whisk together lime juice and 1 Tbs. low-sodium tamarivegetable oil in small bowl. Season with minced fresh parsley for garnishsalt and pepper. Add dressing to salad,and toss to coat. Adjust seasonings if 1. Heat oil in a 5- to 6-quart pot overnecessary, and serve. medium heat. Add onion and garlic.PER SERVING: 127 CAL; 3 G PROT; 7 G TOTAL Cover, and cook 5 minutes to soften.FAT (1 G SAT. FAT); 16 G CARB; 0 MG CHOL; Add carrots, parsnip, celery root, lentils,125 MG SOD; 3 G FIBER; 2 G SUGAR broth, tamari, and season with salt and pepper. 2. Reduce heat to low. Cover and cook, stirring from time to time, until lentils and vegetables are tender, 1 to 11/2 hours. Taste and adjust seasonings, if necessary. Garnish with parsley, and serve. For more recipes, visit PER SERVING: 360 CAL; 19 G PROT; 4.5 G TOTAL FAT (0.5 G SAT. FAT); 65 G CARB; 0 MG CHOL; 450 MG SOD; 19 G FIBER; 12 G SUGAR 15
  16. 16. THE VEGETARIAN STARTER KIT is publishedby the Physicians Committee for ResponsibleMedicine and Vegetarian Times magazine. ContactPCRM at 5100 Wisconsin Ave., N.W., Suite 400,Washington, DC 20016, 202-686-2210. PCRMconsists of approximately 6,000 physicians and100,000 lay members. PCRM promotes nutrition,preventive medicine, ethical research practices, andcompassionate medical policy.THE VEGETARIAN STARTER KIT is notintended as individual medical advice. Persons withmedical conditions or who are taking medicationsshould discuss any diet and lifestyle changes withtheir health professional. Readers are welcome to reproduce articles fromthis publication for personal or educational usewithout additional permission. Material should notbe reproduced for resale. © PCRM and VegetarianTimes, 2007. Visit PCRM’s Web site: to the Reader: This booklet does not take the place ofindividualized medical care or advice. If you are overweight,have any health problems, or are on medication, you shouldconsult with your doctor before making any changes in your Presented by Vegetarian Timesdiet or exercise routines. A diet change can alter your need for and the Physicians Committee formedication. For example, individuals with diabetes, high blood Responsible Medicinepressure, or high cholesterol levels often need less medicationwhen they improve their diets. With any dietary change, it isimportant to ensure complete nutrition. Be sure to include asource of vitamin B12 in your routine, which could include anycommon multivitamin, fortified soymilk or cereals, or a vitaminB12 supplement of 5 micrograms or more per day.