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Apache Hive 2.0:
SQL, Speed, Scale
Alan Gates
Hive PMC Member
Co-founder Hortonworks
May 2016
2 © Hortonworks Inc. 2011 – 2016. All Rights Reserved
Acknowledgements
 The Apache Hive community for building all this a...
3 © Hortonworks Inc. 2011 – 2016. All Rights Reserved
Apache Hive History
 Initially Hive provided SQL on Hadoop
– Provid...
4 © Hortonworks Inc. 2011 – 2016. All Rights Reserved
Hive 1.x and 2.x
 New feature development in Hive moving at a fast ...
5 © Hortonworks Inc. 2011 – 2016. All Rights Reserved
Hive 2.0 New Features Overview
 1039 JIRAs resolved with 2.0 as fix...
6 © Hortonworks Inc. 2011 – 2016. All Rights Reserved
Adding Procedural SQL: HPLSQL
 Procedural SQL, akin to Oracle’s PL/...
7 © Hortonworks Inc. 2011 – 2016. All Rights Reserved
Sub-second Queries in Hive: LLAP (Live Long and Process)
 Persisten...
8 © Hortonworks Inc. 2011 – 2016. All Rights Reserved
Hive With LLAP Execution Options
AM AM
T T T
R R
R
T T
T
R
M M M
R R...
9 © Hortonworks Inc. 2011 – 2016. All Rights Reserved
LLAP Performance
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
query3 query12 query...
10 © Hortonworks Inc. 2011 – 2016. All Rights Reserved
LLAP Performance Continued
0
100
200
300
400
500
Time(seconds)
LLAP...
11 © Hortonworks Inc. 2011 – 2016. All Rights Reserved
LLAP Limitations
 Currently in Beta
 Read only, no write path yet...
12 © Hortonworks Inc. 2011 – 2016. All Rights Reserved
Speeding up Query Planning: HBase Metastore
 Add option to use HBa...
13 © Hortonworks Inc. 2011 – 2016. All Rights Reserved
Improvements to Hive on Spark
 Dynamic partition pruning
 Make us...
14 © Hortonworks Inc. 2011 – 2016. All Rights Reserved
Cost Base Optimizer (CBO) Improvements
 Hive’s CBO uses Calcite
– ...
15 © Hortonworks Inc. 2011 – 2016. All Rights Reserved
And Many, Many More
• SQL Standard Auth is the default authorizatio...
16 © Hortonworks Inc. 2011 – 2016. All Rights Reserved
Hive 2.0 Incompabilities
 Java 7 & 8 supported, 6 no longer suppor...
17 © Hortonworks Inc. 2011 – 2016. All Rights Reserved
Thank You
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Apache Hive 2.0; SQL, Speed, Scale

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Apache Hive 2.0; SQL, Speed, Scale

  1. 1. Apache Hive 2.0: SQL, Speed, Scale Alan Gates Hive PMC Member Co-founder Hortonworks May 2016
  2. 2. 2 © Hortonworks Inc. 2011 – 2016. All Rights Reserved Acknowledgements  The Apache Hive community for building all this awesome tech  Content of some of these slides based on earlier presentations by Sergey Shelukhin and Siddarth Seth  alias Hive=‘Apache Hive’ alias Hadoop=‘Apache Hadoop’ alias Spark=‘Apache Spark’ alias Tez=‘Apache Tez’ alias Parquet=‘Apache Parquet’ alias ORC=‘Apache ORC’ alias Omid=‘Apache Omid (incubating)’ alias Calcite=‘Apache Calcite’
  3. 3. 3 © Hortonworks Inc. 2011 – 2016. All Rights Reserved Apache Hive History  Initially Hive provided SQL on Hadoop – Provided a table view instead of file view of data – Translated SQL to MapReduce – Mostly used for ETL (Extract Transform Load) – Big, batch, high start up time  Around 2012 it became clear users wanted to do all data warehousing on Hadoop, not just batch ETL  Hive has shifted over time to focus on traditional data warehousing problems – Still does large ETL well – Now also can be used for analytics, reporting – Work being done to better support BI (Business Intelligence) tools  Not OLTP, very focused on backend analytics
  4. 4. 4 © Hortonworks Inc. 2011 – 2016. All Rights Reserved Hive 1.x and 2.x  New feature development in Hive moving at a fast pace – Stressful for those who use Hive for its original purpose (ETL type SQL on MapReduce) – Realizing the full potential of Hive as data warehouse on Hadoop requires more changes  Compromise: follow Hadoop’s example, split into stable and new feature lines  1.x – Stable – Backwards compatible – Ongoing bug fixes  2.x – Major new features – Backwards compatible where possible, but some things will be broken – Hive 2.0 released February 15, 2016 – Not considered production ready
  5. 5. 5 © Hortonworks Inc. 2011 – 2016. All Rights Reserved Hive 2.0 New Features Overview  1039 JIRAs resolved with 2.0 as fix version – 666 bugs – 140 improvements or new features  HPLSQL  LLAP  HBase Metastore  Hive-On-Spark Improvements  Cost Based Optimizer Improvements  Many, many new features and bug fixes I will not have time to cover
  6. 6. 6 © Hortonworks Inc. 2011 – 2016. All Rights Reserved Adding Procedural SQL: HPLSQL  Procedural SQL, akin to Oracle’s PL/SQL and Teradata’s stored procedures – Adds cursors, loops (FOR, WHILE, LOOP), branches (IF), HPLSQL procedures, exceptions (SIGNAL)  Aims to be compatible with all major dialects of procedural SQL to maximize re-use of existing scripts  Currently external to Hive, communicates with Hive via JDBC. – User runs command using hplsql binary – Goal is to tightly integrate it so that Hive’s parser can execute HPLSQL, store HPLSQL procedures, etc.
  7. 7. 7 © Hortonworks Inc. 2011 – 2016. All Rights Reserved Sub-second Queries in Hive: LLAP (Live Long and Process)  Persistent daemons – Saves time on process start up (eliminates container allocation and JVM start up time) – All code JITed within a query or two  Data caching with an async I/O elevator – Hot data cached in memory (columnar aware, so only hot columns cached) – When possible work scheduled on node with data cached, if not work will be run in other node  Operators can be executed inside LLAP when it makes sense – Large, ETL style queries usually don’t make sense – User code not run in LLAP for security  Working on interface to allow other data engines to read securely in parallel  Beta in 2.0
  8. 8. 8 © Hortonworks Inc. 2011 – 2016. All Rights Reserved Hive With LLAP Execution Options AM AM T T T R R R T T T R M M M R R R M M R R Tez Only LLAP + Tez T T T R R R T T T R LLAP only
  9. 9. 9 © Hortonworks Inc. 2011 – 2016. All Rights Reserved LLAP Performance 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 query3 query12 query20 query21 query26 query27 query42 query52 query55 query73 query89 query91 query98 TIME(SECONDS) LLAP vs Hive 1.x 10TB Scale LLAP Hive 1.x
  10. 10. 10 © Hortonworks Inc. 2011 – 2016. All Rights Reserved LLAP Performance Continued 0 100 200 300 400 500 Time(seconds) LLAP Hive 1.2.1 Hive / LLAP, Hive 1.2.1 Query Times 38 out of 61 queries ran 50% faster 25 out of 61 queries ran 70% faster 12 out of 61 queries ran 80% faster 1 query ran 90% faster
  11. 11. 11 © Hortonworks Inc. 2011 – 2016. All Rights Reserved LLAP Limitations  Currently in Beta  Read only, no write path yet  Does not work with ACID yet (see previous bullet)  User must decide whether query runs fully in LLAP, mixed mode, or not at all – Should be handled by CBO  Currently only reads ORC files  Currently only integrates with Tez as an engine
  12. 12. 12 © Hortonworks Inc. 2011 – 2016. All Rights Reserved Speeding up Query Planning: HBase Metastore  Add option to use HBase to store Hive’s metadata  Why? – Planning a query that reads several thousand partitions in Hive 1.2 takes 5+ seconds, mostly for metadata acquisition – ORM layer produces complex, slow schema (40+ tables) – The need to work across 5 different databases limits performance optimizations and maximizes test matrix for developers – Limits caching opportunities as we cannot store too much data in a single node RDBMS – The need to limit number of concurrent connections forces all metadata operations to be done during query planning – HBase addresses each of these  Goal: cut metadata access time for query with thousands of partitions to 200 milliseconds – Not there yet, currently at 1-1.5 seconds  Challenges – HBase lacks transactions, addressing via Apache Omid (incubating)  Alpha in Hive 2.0
  13. 13. 13 © Hortonworks Inc. 2011 – 2016. All Rights Reserved Improvements to Hive on Spark  Dynamic partition pruning  Make use of spark persistence for self-join, self-union, and CTEs  Vectorized map-join and other map-join improvements  Parallel order by  Pre-warming of containers  Support for Spark 1.5  Many bug fixes
  14. 14. 14 © Hortonworks Inc. 2011 – 2016. All Rights Reserved Cost Base Optimizer (CBO) Improvements  Hive’s CBO uses Calcite – Not all optimization rules migrated yet, but 2.0 continues work towards that  CBO on by default in 2.0 (wasn’t in in 1.x)  Main focus of CBO work has been BI queries (using TPC-DS as guide) – Some work on machine generated queries, since tools generate some funky queries  Focus on improving stats collection and estimating stats more accurately between operators in the plan
  15. 15. 15 © Hortonworks Inc. 2011 – 2016. All Rights Reserved And Many, Many More • SQL Standard Auth is the default authorization (actually works) • CLI mode for beeline (WIP to replace and deprecate CLI in Hive 2.*) • Codahale-based metrics (also in 1.3) • HS2 Web UI • Stability Improvements and bugfixes for ACID (almost production ready now) • Native vectorized mapjoin, vectorized reducesink, improved vectorized GBY, etc. • Improvements to Parquet performance (PPD, memory manager, etc.) • ORC schema evolution (beta) • Improvement to windowing functions, refactoring ORC before split, SIMD optimizations, new LIMIT syntax, parallel compilation in HS2, improvements to Tez session management, many more
  16. 16. 16 © Hortonworks Inc. 2011 – 2016. All Rights Reserved Hive 2.0 Incompabilities  Java 7 & 8 supported, 6 no longer supported  Requires Hadoop 2.x, Hadoop 1.x no longer supported  MapReduce deprecated, Tez or Spark recommended instead – At some future date MR will be removed  Some configuration defaults changed, e.g. – bucketing enforced by default – metadata schema no longer created if it is missing – SQL Standard authorization used by default  We plan to remove Hive CLI in the future and replace with beeline CLI – Why? • Makes it easier for users to deploy secure clusters where all access is via [OJ]DBC • It is cleaner to maintain one code path – Does not require HiveServer2, can run HS2 embedded in beeline
  17. 17. 17 © Hortonworks Inc. 2011 – 2016. All Rights Reserved Thank You

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