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Exploratory Research DesignEExploration is particularly useful when researches lack a clear idea of the problems they will meet during the study.EThrough exploration the researchers develop concepts more clearly, establish priorities, develop operational definitions, and improve the finalresearch design.r Exploration may also save time and money.EThe primary objective is to provide insights into, and an understanding of, the problem confronting the researcher.TThe information needed is only loosely defined at this stage and the research process that is adopted is flexible and unstructured.TThe primary data and information are qualitative in nature and are analyzed accordingly.TFollowed by further exploratory or conclusive research.Descriptive Research DesignDMajor objective is to describe some thing usually market characteristics or functions.M Descriptive research assumes that the researcher has much prior knowledge about the problem situation. In fact, a major difference betweenexploratory and descriptive research is that descriptive research is characterized by prior formulation of specific hypotheses. Thus the informationneeded is clearly defined. As a result, descriptive research is pre planned and structured.nDescriptive research in contrast to exploratory research is marked by a clear statement of the problem, specific hypotheses, and detailedinformation needs.i A descriptive design requires a clear specification of the who, what, when, where, why, and way (the six Ws) of the research.Survey Research DesignSurvey research is one of the most important areas of measurement in applied social research. The broad area of survey research encompassesany measurement procedures that involve asking questions of respondents. A "survey" can be anything form of a short paper-and-pencil feedbackform to an intensive one-on-one in-depth interview.Diagnostic Research Design1. Describing the characteristics of a particular individual or group2. Determining frequency with which something occurs or its association with something else3. Rigid design4. Approximately same as survey design5. Fact finding in nature; describes, analyses & interprets prevailing situation; suggests remedial measures or alternative course of action for futureExperiment Research DesignEBasic design of logical proof to test hypothesis with three basic principles:o Replication ‐Repeated several timeso Randomization ‐protects extraneous factors of chanceo Local control ‐Deliberate wide variability to measure & eliminate errorDHelps finding causal relationship between variablesHEmploys a set of control & experimental groupsEAdministers treatment / stimuliAControlled observation of change / deviation in variables (adequate control is the essence ⇒reduces bias increases reliability)r Types:o Lab experimentso Field experiments ‐A real life situationSamplingSelection of some part of an aggregate or totality on the basis of which a judgment or inference (statistical) about the aggregate or totality is madeStudy of relation between a population samples drawn from the population. Estimating properties of population from those of samples and gaugingthe precision of the estimate, i.e., Statistical induction or statistical inferenceSampling Design or Strategy1. A definite plan for obtaining sample from a given population2. Refers to technique or procedure for selecting items for sample including the size of sample3. It should be reliable & appropriate to research study and determined before data are collected4. Important aspects / steps in sampling design: • Define population; decide census v/s sample; prepare sampling frame; decide probable or non probable sampling; note precision is affected by variability of parameter, size of sample and choice of design method; trade off of cost and practical considerations to maximize precision; think of pattern of population, sample & response sample; anonymous responses; unit and item nonresponses; weighing the sample estimates to correct the non response bias; possible bias; selection bias cannot be reduced by increasing sample size. • Type of population / universe o ostructure, composition & finite or infinite nature • Sampling unit o Individual, group, family, institution, village, district, etc. Natural (e.g., Geographical) or constructed (e.g. Social entity) • Sampling frame / source list o Representative, comprehensive, correct, reliable& appropriate o Ready to use or constructed for the purpose • Population parameters of specific interest o Important sub‐groups in the population (Illustration) • Budgetary constraints o Non‐probability sample is cheaper
• Size of sample o Adequate to provide an estimate with sufficiently high precision o Representative to mirror the various patterns and sub‐classes of the population o Neither too large nor too small, but optimum to meet efficiency, cost ,reliability (precision) & flexibility o Higher the precision & larger the variance, the larger the size and more the cost. • Types of sample or sampling procedure • For a given size, cost & precision, choose the one which has a smaller sampling errorOBSERVATIONMeaning and ImportanceObservation means viewing or seeing. We go on observing some thing or other while we are awake. Most of such observations are just casual andhave no specific purpose. But observation as a method of data collection is different from such casual viewing.Observation may be defined as a systematic viewing of a specific phenomenon in its proper setting or the specific purpose of gathering data for aparticular study. Observation as a method includes both seeing and hearing. It is accompanied by perceiving as well.Observation also plays a major role in formulating and testing hypothesis in social sciences. Behavioural scientists observe interactions in smallgroups; anthropologists observe simple societies, and small com-munities; political scientists observe the behaviour of political leaders and politicalinstitutions.Types of ObservationObservation may be classified in different ways. With reference to the investigator’s role, it may be classified into (a) participant observation, and (b)non-participant observation. In terms of mode of observation, it may be classified into (c) direct observation, and (d) indirect observation. Withreference to the rigour of the system adopted, observation is classified into (e) controlled observation, and (f) uncontrolled observation