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The Good, the Bad and the Ugly of
Social Casino Gaming
Hyoun S. (Andrew) Kim
2017 New Horizons Conference
February 21st, 2...
Disclosure of Potential Conflict of Interest
1
This research was funded in part by a grant from the Ontario
Problem Gambli...
Acknowledgement
2
Dr. Michael Wohl – Carleton University
Samantha Hollingshead – Carleton University
Melissa Salmon – Carl...
Outline
3
• Social Casino Games (SCGs)
• The Bad
• The Good
• The Ugly
• Future Directions
• Implications
Technology and Gambling
4
Technology and Gambling
5
Social Networking
6
7
Games on Facebook
Gamehunters.club
8
Gambling Games on Facebook
Social Networking by the Numbers
Social Networking by the Numbers
Social Networking by the Numbers
Social Networking by the Numbers
13
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Texas Hold Em Slotomania Double Down
NumberofUsersinMillions
Popularity of Social Casino Games
Monthly We...
Social Casino Games
14
Social Casino Games
15
• Social Casino Games are defined as games found on social
networking sites where the core gameplay...
Social Casino Games
16
• Operate on a freemium model.
• No-real money wagered, players cannot ‘cash out’**
Gainsbury, Hing...
Social Casino Games
17
• Operate on a freemium model.
• No-real money wagered, players cannot ‘cash out’**
• Can be played...
Structural Characteristics of Social Casino Games
18
• Look and sound like gambling (Bramley & Gainsbury, 2015)
Structural Characteristics of Social Casino Games
19
• Look and sound like gambling (Bramley & Gainsbury, 2015)
• Algorith...
21
500 Million purchase of
Merged with
90 Million purchase of
At Issue
22
• Possible link between social casino games - gambling
• Does social casino games increase future gambling
beh...
Migration
23
Social Casino Gaming Online Gambling
Social Casino Gaming – Gambling Link
24
• Social casino gaming associated with gambling and gambling
problems (Gainsbury, ...
STUDY 1: PLAY FOR FUN – PAY TO PLAY
FOCUS GROUPS
25
Social Casino Gaming Online Gambling
Kim, Wohl, Gupta, & Derevensky, J...
Method and Participants
26
Methods: Six Focus groups with social media users (3) and
online gamblers (3)
Participants: 51 ...
Results
27
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
Social Media Users
Social Media Users: Frequency counts of statem...
Results
28
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
Online Gamblers
Online Gamblers: Frequency counts of statements reflected within ea...
TRAINING GROUND
29
Social Casino Gaming Online Gambling
30
“Facebook is just a place to learn. To learn how to gamble. My
friends started playing on Facebook to learn and now the...
PERCEPTION OF SKILL
31
Social Casino Gaming Online Gambling
32
“If you can play for free then you want to try it and if you
discover that you are good at it then why not just put som...
MIGRATION
33
Social Casino Gaming Online Gambling
34
“ It depends on the person. Some people are more competitive
and are more likely to want to step it up, but some people...
35
“I didn’t understand how I got
from one place to another
place, from playing for fun to
being in trouble”
STUDY 2: PLAY FOR FUN – PAY TO PLAY
LONGITUDINAL ASSESSMENT
36
Social Casino Gaming Online Gambling
Kim, Wohl, Salmon, Gup...
Why Might Migration Occur?
• Normalization
37
Why Might Migration Occur?
38
Why Might Migration Occur?
39
SuperData, 2016
Why Might Migration Occur?
• Normalization
• Distorted perception of
skill/odds
• Enhancement
• Micro-transactions
40Griff...
42
Micro-transactions
SuperData, 2016
Method and Participants
46
Method: Longitudinal (six month).
Participants: 409 community social casino gamers who have
nev...
26
73
Participants who migrated to
Online Gambling (Six-months)
Gambled Online Did Not Gamble Online
47
Descriptive Characteristic
48
Gender: 17 males, 9 female.
Ethnicity: 25 Caucasian, 1 South Asian (India).
Employment: 20 f...
49
1.16 1.01 0.69
8.16*
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
TimeSpent Skill-building Enhancement Micro-transactions
OddsRatio
Predictors
P...
Who makes micro-transactions?
50Kim, Hollingshead, & Wohl, in press
51
130
58
49
27
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Extend Play Access More Features Chasing Speed up Play
NumberofParticipants
Moti...
52Gainsbury, Russell, King, Delfabbro, & Hing, 2016
101
420
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
Gambled Not Gambled
Influ...
53Gainsbury, Russell, King, Delfabbro, & Hing, 2016
44.5
9.9
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
% Increased % Decreased
Influe...
STUDY 3: BRIGHT SIDE OF SOCIAL
CASINO GAMES
54Hollingshead, Kim, Wohl, & Derevensky, JGI
BRIGHT SIDE OF SOCIAL CASINO GAMES
55
• Reverse migration
• Positive impacts (e.g., lessened urge to gamble)
(Gainsbury et...
Participants and Methods
56
Method: Cross-sectional (self-report)
Participants: 271 gamblers (who also engaged in social c...
Results
57
• Coping:, β = .03, t(127) = .38, p = .70.
• Enhancement: β = -.03, t(127) = -.31, p = .76.
• Social: β = .29, ...
THE UGLY
58
The Ugly
59
• Migration to gambling is not synonymous with harms
• Does SCG lead to Disordered Gambling Behaviours?
• SCG ...
60
78
56
52
27 47
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Mood Relief Loss of Control Preoccupation Withdrawal Harms
NumberofParticip...
CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND
FUTURE DIRECTIONS
61
Conclusion
62
• Social casino games influence on gambling is not straight
forward.
• Social casino games may increase or d...
63
64
65
Implications
• Regulation?
• Age Verification? 300,000
youths aged 11-16 reported
engaging in social casino
games in the p...
The Good, the Bad and the Ugly of
Social Casino Gaming
Hyoun S. (Andrew) Kim
2017 New Horizons Conference
February 21st, 2...
Hyoun S. (Andrew) Kim
Hyoun S. (Andrew) Kim
Hyoun S. (Andrew) Kim
Hyoun S. (Andrew) Kim
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The Good, the Bad and the Ugly of Social Casino Gambling

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Hyoun S. (Andrew) Kim

  1. 1. The Good, the Bad and the Ugly of Social Casino Gaming Hyoun S. (Andrew) Kim 2017 New Horizons Conference February 21st, 2017
  2. 2. Disclosure of Potential Conflict of Interest 1 This research was funded in part by a grant from the Ontario Problem Gambling Research Centre. In addition, my research has been funded by the Alberta Gambling Research Institute, Gambling Research and Exchange Ontario and the National Center on Responsible Gaming.
  3. 3. Acknowledgement 2 Dr. Michael Wohl – Carleton University Samantha Hollingshead – Carleton University Melissa Salmon – Carleton University Dr. Rina Gupta – Queen’s University Dr. Jeffrey Derevensky – McGill University Gambling Research Exchange Ontario
  4. 4. Outline 3 • Social Casino Games (SCGs) • The Bad • The Good • The Ugly • Future Directions • Implications
  5. 5. Technology and Gambling 4
  6. 6. Technology and Gambling 5
  7. 7. Social Networking 6
  8. 8. 7 Games on Facebook Gamehunters.club
  9. 9. 8 Gambling Games on Facebook
  10. 10. Social Networking by the Numbers
  11. 11. Social Networking by the Numbers
  12. 12. Social Networking by the Numbers
  13. 13. Social Networking by the Numbers
  14. 14. 13 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Texas Hold Em Slotomania Double Down NumberofUsersinMillions Popularity of Social Casino Games Monthly Weekly Daily Gambling Games on Facebook
  15. 15. Social Casino Games 14
  16. 16. Social Casino Games 15 • Social Casino Games are defined as games found on social networking sites where the core gameplay is the simulation of gambling activities. Gainsbury, Hing, Delfabbro, & King, IGS
  17. 17. Social Casino Games 16 • Operate on a freemium model. • No-real money wagered, players cannot ‘cash out’** Gainsbury, Hing, Delfabbro, & King, IGS
  18. 18. Social Casino Games 17 • Operate on a freemium model. • No-real money wagered, players cannot ‘cash out’** • Can be played on multiple platforms (pcs, phones, tablets) SuperData, 2016
  19. 19. Structural Characteristics of Social Casino Games 18 • Look and sound like gambling (Bramley & Gainsbury, 2015)
  20. 20. Structural Characteristics of Social Casino Games 19 • Look and sound like gambling (Bramley & Gainsbury, 2015) • Algorithms are not based on mathematics • Dynamic Game Balancing (Rose, 2014)
  21. 21. 21 500 Million purchase of Merged with 90 Million purchase of
  22. 22. At Issue 22 • Possible link between social casino games - gambling • Does social casino games increase future gambling behaviour? • If so, should they be regulated? • More nuanced examination of social casino games on gambling might be needed. • The Bad • The Ugly • The Good
  23. 23. Migration 23 Social Casino Gaming Online Gambling
  24. 24. Social Casino Gaming – Gambling Link 24 • Social casino gaming associated with gambling and gambling problems (Gainsbury, Russell, & Hing, 2014). • 13% of gamblers engage in social casino games(Gainsbury et al., 2014). • 68% interested in gambling activities (SuperData 2013). SuperData, 2016
  25. 25. STUDY 1: PLAY FOR FUN – PAY TO PLAY FOCUS GROUPS 25 Social Casino Gaming Online Gambling Kim, Wohl, Gupta, & Derevensky, JBA; Kim, Gupta, Wohl, & Derevensky, in prep
  26. 26. Method and Participants 26 Methods: Six Focus groups with social media users (3) and online gamblers (3) Participants: 51 University students - 30 social media users - 21 online gamblers Focus Groups: - Licensed clinical psychologist - 60-75 minutes
  27. 27. Results 27 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 Social Media Users Social Media Users: Frequency counts of statements reflected within each theme category
  28. 28. Results 28 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Online Gamblers Online Gamblers: Frequency counts of statements reflected within each theme category
  29. 29. TRAINING GROUND 29 Social Casino Gaming Online Gambling
  30. 30. 30 “Facebook is just a place to learn. To learn how to gamble. My friends started playing on Facebook to learn and now they are playing on Poker Stars. It starts on Facebook” “ … it’s a natural progression to start from social casino games: train, learn… then you realize you are not learning enough because people are not taking the game seriously, and then you move onto paying”
  31. 31. PERCEPTION OF SKILL 31 Social Casino Gaming Online Gambling
  32. 32. 32 “If you can play for free then you want to try it and if you discover that you are good at it then why not just put some money and you might win for real” “ Once you play for fun, they sort of get people into the gambling, you think okay, this would be great if were real money, so you try”
  33. 33. MIGRATION 33 Social Casino Gaming Online Gambling
  34. 34. 34 “ It depends on the person. Some people are more competitive and are more likely to want to step it up, but some people are just happy playing for fun” “You start playing poker with friends and like you move from that step onto other things. I don’t think you go from Facebook to gambling. I don’t see that as a gateway at all”
  35. 35. 35 “I didn’t understand how I got from one place to another place, from playing for fun to being in trouble”
  36. 36. STUDY 2: PLAY FOR FUN – PAY TO PLAY LONGITUDINAL ASSESSMENT 36 Social Casino Gaming Online Gambling Kim, Wohl, Salmon, Gupta, & Derevensky, JoGS
  37. 37. Why Might Migration Occur? • Normalization 37
  38. 38. Why Might Migration Occur? 38
  39. 39. Why Might Migration Occur? 39 SuperData, 2016
  40. 40. Why Might Migration Occur? • Normalization • Distorted perception of skill/odds • Enhancement • Micro-transactions 40Griffiths, WOG; Sevigny, Cloutier, Pelletier, & Ladouceur, CiHB
  41. 41. 42
  42. 42. Micro-transactions SuperData, 2016
  43. 43. Method and Participants 46 Method: Longitudinal (six month). Participants: 409 community social casino gamers who have never gambled online (recruited via Mturk). Predictors: - Time spent - Skill building - Enhancement - Microtransactions
  44. 44. 26 73 Participants who migrated to Online Gambling (Six-months) Gambled Online Did Not Gamble Online 47
  45. 45. Descriptive Characteristic 48 Gender: 17 males, 9 female. Ethnicity: 25 Caucasian, 1 South Asian (India). Employment: 20 full-time, 4 part-time, 2 unemployed. Marital Status: 15 in a relationship, 10 single. Gambled: 19 yes, 6 no.
  46. 46. 49 1.16 1.01 0.69 8.16* 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 TimeSpent Skill-building Enhancement Micro-transactions OddsRatio Predictors Predictors of Migration Odds Ratio *p< .01
  47. 47. Who makes micro-transactions? 50Kim, Hollingshead, & Wohl, in press
  48. 48. 51 130 58 49 27 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Extend Play Access More Features Chasing Speed up Play NumberofParticipants Motivations Why SCG Users Engage in Micro-Transactions
  49. 49. 52Gainsbury, Russell, King, Delfabbro, & Hing, 2016 101 420 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 Gambled Not Gambled Influence of SCGs on Gambling
  50. 50. 53Gainsbury, Russell, King, Delfabbro, & Hing, 2016 44.5 9.9 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 % Increased % Decreased Influence of SCGs on Gambling
  51. 51. STUDY 3: BRIGHT SIDE OF SOCIAL CASINO GAMES 54Hollingshead, Kim, Wohl, & Derevensky, JGI
  52. 52. BRIGHT SIDE OF SOCIAL CASINO GAMES 55 • Reverse migration • Positive impacts (e.g., lessened urge to gamble) (Gainsbury et al., 2015)
  53. 53. Participants and Methods 56 Method: Cross-sectional (self-report) Participants: 271 gamblers (who also engaged in social casino games), were recruited from Mturk Problem Gambling: 140 moderate/disordered gamblers Measures: - Motives (adapted from Stewart & Zack, 2008) - Skill building - Urge reduction - Changes in gambling behaviour
  54. 54. Results 57 • Coping:, β = .03, t(127) = .38, p = .70. • Enhancement: β = -.03, t(127) = -.31, p = .76. • Social: β = .29, t(127) = 3.32, p = .001. • Skill-Building: β = .28, t(127) = 3.35, p = .001 • Urge Reduction: β = -.41, t(127) = -5.01, p < .001.
  55. 55. THE UGLY 58
  56. 56. The Ugly 59 • Migration to gambling is not synonymous with harms • Does SCG lead to Disordered Gambling Behaviours? • SCG and Video Game Addiction
  57. 57. 60 78 56 52 27 47 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Mood Relief Loss of Control Preoccupation Withdrawal Harms NumberofParticipants Symptoms Problematic SCG Use
  58. 58. CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS 61
  59. 59. Conclusion 62 • Social casino games influence on gambling is not straight forward. • Social casino games may increase or decrease gambling.  Micro-transactions  Skill building  Social motives  Urge Reduction
  60. 60. 63
  61. 61. 64
  62. 62. 65
  63. 63. Implications • Regulation? • Age Verification? 300,000 youths aged 11-16 reported engaging in social casino games in the past week (Parke, Parke, Rigby, & Wardle, 2013) • Micro-transactions 66
  64. 64. The Good, the Bad and the Ugly of Social Casino Gaming Hyoun S. (Andrew) Kim 2017 New Horizons Conference February 21st, 2017

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