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Dr. Bo BernhardResponsible Gambling Around the World: A Global Scan.
Responsible Gaming Around the  World: A Global Scan (and a    “Vancouver Model”?)Bo J. Bernhard, Ph.D.Executive Director
But first, apersonal history:  “Kid” Jordanand friends… onthe evolution of   gambling
On gambling and universality…• Gambling is commonly thought of as a  “historical and cultural universal” – all  places, pe...
On gambling research and universality… a         “Vancouver Model”? • UBC’s Henrich, Heine, and Norenzayan’s recent salvo ...
WEIRD: Western, Educated,Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic
Henrich, et al’s challenge:• Is everything we learned in Psychology 101 wrong?!• For example, the Fundamental Attribution ...
Uh-oh…• So Americans, Canadians, Aussies, and Western Europeans are  WEIRD – and use very different analytical strategies ...
Culture matters• … the perils of global culture are familiar to those  who study the gaming industry.• MGM Not-so-grand Op...
You can’t even trust your             professors…• Singapore and uncritically “exporting” the Las  Vegas model• South Kore...
In this spirit…• Let’s take a quick look around the gambling globe –  for a few case studies of problem gambling, and how ...
Australia• Australia likely stands alone as the global gaming jurisdiction  where gambling is the most controversial – and...
The China/Macao nexus• In the world’s most dynamic and rapidly-  growing gaming industry, the problem  gambling issue seem...
Indonesia– Excessive gambling as a moral-  religious issue– Those who gamble “too much”  are dealt with harshly and  publi...
Russia• Similarly harsh history of dealing with “gambling too much”!• On July 1, 2009, Russia went from massive levels of ...
Singapore• A new socio-economic model – and not just across Asia.• It is important to remember how this all began: the  Si...
South Korea• The world’s most fascinating gambling laboratory?• Domestic gambling bans -- except at Kangwon Land   – Domes...
Conclusions• Now that gambling is truly global, we can benefit  from careful study of successes and failures  elsewhere in...
“Cathedrals of consumption”       (Ritzer, 2010)
But will the cathedral remain     (Eadington, 2010)?
So what might we do?• In 2013, neglecting the vital construct  of generalizability is especially sinful.  – Recommendation...
So what might we do, part two?• The “bio-psycho-social” model – meant to imply a  comprehensive approach – in fact stops t...
Stay in touch!bo.bernhard@unlv.edu
We’re on Twitter @HorizonsRGJoin the conversation by using          #HRGC13
Dr. Bo Berhard - Responsible Gambling Around the World
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Dr. Bo Bernard's presentation "Responsible Gambling Around the World: A Global Scan" Presented at New Horizons in Responsible Gambling conference. January 28-30, 2013 in Vancouver BC.

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Dr. Bo Berhard - Responsible Gambling Around the World

  1. 1. Dr. Bo BernhardResponsible Gambling Around the World: A Global Scan.
  2. 2. Responsible Gaming Around the World: A Global Scan (and a “Vancouver Model”?)Bo J. Bernhard, Ph.D.Executive Director
  3. 3. But first, apersonal history: “Kid” Jordanand friends… onthe evolution of gambling
  4. 4. On gambling and universality…• Gambling is commonly thought of as a “historical and cultural universal” – all places, periods, and peoples.• But as Per Binde (2005) has shown us:
  5. 5. On gambling research and universality… a “Vancouver Model”? • UBC’s Henrich, Heine, and Norenzayan’s recent salvo in Nature – a major challenge to psychology, economics, and indeed, to all of us • 96% of psychology publications represent 12% of the world’s population. • 2/3 of US psychology research: on American undergraduate students (“some of the most psychologically unusual people on earth”) • This is, in a word, “WEIRD”…
  6. 6. WEIRD: Western, Educated,Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic
  7. 7. Henrich, et al’s challenge:• Is everything we learned in Psychology 101 wrong?!• For example, the Fundamental Attribution Error – a “universal,” except for… – “And yet, much of cognitive psychology emphasizes the centrality” of FAE• Ellen Langer and Endowment Theory
  8. 8. Uh-oh…• So Americans, Canadians, Aussies, and Western Europeans are WEIRD – and use very different analytical strategies (and perhaps gambling analytical strategies?) than non-Westerners• Uh-oh: as we might predict, the vast majority of problem gambling research… – In the past five years, there have been 378 peer-reviewed problem gambling studies in the literature. – Of these, only 15 (4%) include non-Western research subjects in the subject pool (96% Western subjects) – The “96% number” for the PG literature: 14% of the world’s population (psychology overall: 12%)
  9. 9. Culture matters• … the perils of global culture are familiar to those who study the gaming industry.• MGM Not-so-grand Opening, 1994:
  10. 10. You can’t even trust your professors…• Singapore and uncritically “exporting” the Las Vegas model• South Korea and uncritically “exporting” the manner in which social costs are handled• Russia and gambling “drawings”
  11. 11. In this spirit…• Let’s take a quick look around the gambling globe – for a few case studies of problem gambling, and how it is “treated” at a macro level in various gaming jurisdictions.
  12. 12. Australia• Australia likely stands alone as the global gaming jurisdiction where gambling is the most controversial – and perhaps most “endangered” as a species.• Never before, however, has the gaming industry faced a challenge quite like it faces right now, as culture and politics clash: in its parliament, several staunchly anti-gambling activists hold key positions of power, and have used their positions strategically in order to have the PG issue heard. – Things have calmed down, for now… – However, you know an issue has “arrived” when it hits the pop charts…
  13. 13. The China/Macao nexus• In the world’s most dynamic and rapidly- growing gaming industry, the problem gambling issue seems to be gathering momentum (even when it’s not labeled “problem gambling”) – Visa restrictions and PG – Often portrayed in media as a “corruption” issue among businesspeople, rather than a psychological or health issue. • But this is changing: recent regulatory requirements address RG in new ways
  14. 14. Indonesia– Excessive gambling as a moral- religious issue– Those who gamble “too much” are dealt with harshly and publicly • Religious bans on gambling • Punishment: public caning • Gender issues • (Meanwhile, Singapore takes advantage…)
  15. 15. Russia• Similarly harsh history of dealing with “gambling too much”!• On July 1, 2009, Russia went from massive levels of gambling availability nationwide to four remote “gambling zones” (none of which have really been developed yet).• Why did Russia decide to do this? Media content analysis (Vasiliev and Bernhard, 2011) – 1) “Two degrees of separation” problem gambling issues: Impacts on the family, workplace, youth – 2) Mafia influence • Finally “clean up the industry”
  16. 16. Singapore• A new socio-economic model – and not just across Asia.• It is important to remember how this all began: the Singaporean government required that all applicants for its two gaming licenses submit highly detailed and rigorous plans for the management of “social safeguards” – Without these safeguards, it was likely that gaming never would have been legalized. – As such, the “Singapore third way” approach to legalization path – legalization PLUS safeguards -- now has legitimacy and momentum
  17. 17. South Korea• The world’s most fascinating gambling laboratory?• Domestic gambling bans -- except at Kangwon Land – Domestic restrictions: 15 days/month – County restrictions: 1 day/month – A problem gambling treatment center in the parking lot.• An interesting blend: monopoly profits paired with some of the most aggressive on-site PG programs in the world
  18. 18. Conclusions• Now that gambling is truly global, we can benefit from careful study of successes and failures elsewhere in the gambling universe.• Each country and culture has its own unique relationship with the gambling act.• We no longer can talk about “gambling” or “the gaming industry” as if it were one, singular thing.• This is especially true given where gambling is “headed” … (Everywhere! All at once!)
  19. 19. “Cathedrals of consumption” (Ritzer, 2010)
  20. 20. But will the cathedral remain (Eadington, 2010)?
  21. 21. So what might we do?• In 2013, neglecting the vital construct of generalizability is especially sinful. – Recommendation? Go. Go. Go. – Global literacy: more important than ever – In our field: A new “Vancouver Model?” – The diversity of one’s N becomes even more crucial – let’s do this together?
  22. 22. So what might we do, part two?• The “bio-psycho-social” model – meant to imply a comprehensive approach – in fact stops too short.• This is especially true when cross-disciplinary, and cross- cultural thinking is a “now more than ever” requirement.• A bio-psycho-social-sociological-economic model? – And why stop there? – Again, let’s do this together?
  23. 23. Stay in touch!bo.bernhard@unlv.edu
  24. 24. We’re on Twitter @HorizonsRGJoin the conversation by using #HRGC13

Dr. Bo Bernard's presentation "Responsible Gambling Around the World: A Global Scan" Presented at New Horizons in Responsible Gambling conference. January 28-30, 2013 in Vancouver BC.

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