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Findings from the Review of
BCLCs VSE Program
Dr. Irwin Cohen
Dr. Amanda McCormick
Previous Study
n = 169
2-Year Follow
Up
35% Violations
Low
Counselling
Access
Satisfaction
High
GSAs at
Enrollments
Psychological
Barrier
Jackpot Rule
Current Study
• Longitudinal
– Interviews over 18 Months with VSE Participants
– Low Attrition Rates – 73%
• Qualitative
– In-Depth “Violator” Interviews
• Cross-Sectional
– VSE Participants versus Non-VSE Gamblers
Program Evaluation
• Williams et al. (2007)
– Utilization Rates
– Percent who refrain from attempting to re-enter
– Impact on overall gambling behaviour
Program Utilization in B.C.
• B.C. Problem Gambling Prevalence Study
(2014)
– 75% Past-Year Gambling
– 3.3% Moderate or High-Risk
• 6% Utilization
• Current Study @ T1 (June 2013-March 2014)
– n = 326
NON-VSE VERSUS VSE PARTICIPANTS
Demographics and Gambling Behaviours
Samples
350 Non-VSE
Participants
326 VSE
Participants
VSE compared to Non-VSEFactor VSE Non-VSE
Female 53% 57%
Age 48 years 51 years
MARITAL STATUS
Single 37% 23%
Married 35% 48%
Divorced 9% 10%
EDUCATION
Less than High School 18% 3%
High School / GED 29% 21%
Some Post-Secondary 54% 75%
EMPLOYMENT & INCOME
Employed 71% 58%
Retired 17% 32%
Under 50k 72% 21%
VSE compared to Non-VSEFactor VSE Non-VSE
RESIDENCE
Interior 39% 14%
Lower Mainland 45% 65%
LANGUAGE SPOKEN
English 88% 91%
Chinese 5% 2%
Vietnamese 2% 0%
ETHNICITY
Caucasian 75% 77%
First Nations 6% 1%
South Asian 5% 2%
Asian 10% 17%
Past Year Gambling
0% 2%
16% 20% 21%
11%
29%
1%
10%
50%
14% 17%
3% 5%
Non-VSE VSE
Forms of Past Year
Gambling
61%
27%
19%
11% 9%
22% 19% 19%
91%
80%
39%
7% 7% 4%
28%
11%
5%
72%
Slots Table Video
Poker
Sports Horses Keno Bingo Stocks Lotto
Land-Based Gambling
Behaviours
VSE Non-VSE
# Different Gaming Venues 3 2
Amount Gambled $569 $90
Max. Amount Lost $1570 $100
Time Gambled 4.2 Hours 2 Hours
Online Gambling Behaviours
VSE Non-VSE
Ever Gambled Online 20% 26%
Amount Gambled $319 $86
Max. Amount Lost $1260 $63
Time Gambled 2.6 Hours 1.7 Hours
Attempts to Stop Gambling
4% 2% 4% 4% 7%
87%
36%
22%
15% 13%
26%
2%
13%
72% 75%
54%
16%
Non-VSE (n=45) VSE (n=272)
PGSI
1 12
Risk of Gambling Problems
66%
18%
11%
5%3% 3%
21%
74%
No Risk Low Risk Moderate Risk Problem Gambling
Non-VSE VSE
Reasons for Not Enrolling – Non-
VSE Moderate/Problem Gamblers
59%
22%19%17%17%15%
11% 11%
7% 7% 7% 7% 6% 6% 6% 6% 4%
Reasons for Gambling
83%
11% 13% 10% 8% 11%
40%
28%
38%
89%
38% 42%
25% 21%
58%
80%
58%
46%
Non-VSE VSE
83%
11% 13% 10% 8% 11%
40%
28%
38%
89%
38% 42%
25% 21%
58%
80%
58%
46%
Non-VSE VSE
Reasons for Gambling
Negative Effects of
Gambling
1.2 1.2 1.2 1.3
1.5 1.5
2.3 2.4
1.7
2.4
3.4
3.6
Marital Life Family Life Work Social Life Mood Finances
Non-VSE VSE
Negative Effects of
Gambling
1.2 1.2 1.2 1.3
1.5 1.5
2.3 2.4
1.7
2.4
3.4
3.6
Marital Life Family Life Work Social Life Mood Finances
Non-VSE VSE
Predicting Enrollment Status
Exp (B)
PGSI Score 1.58
Step 2
PGSI Score 1.61
Income > 50k .14
Interior 2.8
Caucasian 3.1
Strategies to Increase Enrollment
• GameSense Advisors Have PGSI Available
• Security Distribute PGSIs
• Distribute Pamphlets and Encourage “Trial
Run”
TIME 1 FINDINGS
Within 1 Month…
VSE ENROLLMENT
Length of Enrollment
31%
29%
7%
33%
6 months 1 year 2 years 3 years
Rating of Enrollment Experience
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
Security Alone Security w/GSA GSA
PROGRAM’S EFFECTS ON
GAMBLING BEHAVIOURS
Any Gambling While Excluded
87%
83%
Time 2 Time 3
Violations (%)
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
Time 1 Time 2 Time 3
Agreement Violators at T2
• 97% reported successfully re-entering on at
least one attempt
• 67% went to different casino
• 46% were caught in past 6 months
Reasons for Violating
80%
74%
69%
62%
46%
41%
31%
18%
Marital Status
• Violators More Likely Single (53% vs 35%) or
Common Law (20% vs 9%)
• Non-Violators More Likely Married (40% vs
20%) or Divorced (10% vs 5%)
Percent of PGSI Group who Violated
(n = 270)
7% 6%
15%
45%
No Problem Low Level Moderate Problem
Gambling
Average PGSI
11.9
3.1 2.5
13.4
9.8
7.1
Time 1 Time 2 Time 3
Non-Violator Violator
QUALITATIVE INTERVIEWS WITH
VIOLATORS
Most Significant Reason for
Violating
10
6 6
5
4
3 3
2
1 1
Strategies Used to Avoid Being
Caught27
12 11
6
4
Visited a
Different
Casino
Did Nothing Wore a
Disguise
Played a
different game
or lower stakes
Avoided
Casino Parking
Lot
What Would Stop Violations
14
7
6
1
Mandatory ID
Checks
Nothing - It's a
Personal Choice
Increasing Fines Arrest for
Trespassing
Non-Violators
90% 90%
59% 57% 56% 55% 51% 49% 46%
PROGRAM’S EFFECTS ON PROBLEM
GAMBLING SYMPTOMS
Total PGSI
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
Time 1 Time 2 Time 3
PGSI Elements Over the 3 Time
Periods
0.00
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
Time 1 Time 2 Time 3
Bet more than could afford to lose Needed to gamble with larger amounts for same excitement
Go back another day to try and win back lost money Borrowed money or sold something for money to gamble
Felt you might have a problem with gambling Gambling caused health problems
People criticized your betting or told you you had a problem Gambling caused financial problems*
Felt guilty about gambling or what happens when you gamble* Claimed to be winning money gambling but weren’t
Hidden betting slips or other signs of gambling Lost time from work or school due to gambling
CONNECTION TO COUNSELLING
Counselling Access Past 6m
T2 15%
T3 12%
What’s Related to Access?
Access No Access
PGSI at Time 1* 16.5 11.3
PGSI at Time 2 6.3 3.7
Violations 22.5% 14%
Consent and Access to
Counselling
31%
37%
27%
51%
66%
42%
Overall GSA Present No GSA
Consented Accessed
Reasons for Accessing Counselling
(n = 96)
90%
65%
55%
15% 13%
9%
Gambling Problem Owed it to Others Needed It Pressured Demonstration Thought Mandatory
Reasons for Avoiding Counselling
84%
37% 35%
29%
21% 19% 17%
9% 7% 7%
3%
Deal with it
Myself
Don't Have
Problem
Couldn't
Help
No Time Keep
Gambling
Private
Too
Ashamed
Other Feared
Being
Made Fun
Of
Language
Barrier
Can't
Afford
Didn't
Know
Reasons for No Counselling x PGSI
No Problem Low/Mod Problem
Wanted to Deal with it Myself 60% 86% 83%
Didn’t Think it Could Help 20% 18% 42%
Don’t Think I have a Problem 60% 51% 32%
Didn’t have Time for it 40% 19% 32%
Didn’t Want Others to Know 0% 16% 24%
Too Ashamed to Talk to Anyone 0% 13% 22%
Thought Others Would Make Fun 0% 8% 9%
Didn’t Think They’d Speak My Language 20% 6% 6%
Couldn’t Afford It 0% 10% 6%
Didn’t Know It was Available 0% 2% 3%
Other Supports30%
27%
13% 11% 9%
5% 5% 3% 3% 3% 2% 2% 2% 1% 1%
PROGRAM SATISFACTION
Program Satisfaction
93%
94%
I Would Recommend VSE to
Others
1.3%
1.3%
30.1%
66.9%
Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
Increase Effectiveness?
• Facial Recognition – 92%
• 5 Year Enrolment Option – 85%
• Mandatory ID Check at Entrance – 83%
• Advertise the program outside of casinos – 81%
• Have Someone from BCLC Call Before
Exclusion Ends to Ask about Reenrollment –
80%
• Enforcement of Penalties for Violations – 79%
• Re-enrolling over the phone – 78%
Major Findings
• Low Rate of Violation Attempts
• Substantial Reduction in Problem Gambling
Symptoms
• Low Rates of Counselling Access
• High Rates of Program Satisfaction
Program
Recommendations
1. Open New Horizons app
2. Select the Agenda button
3. Select This Session
4. Select Take Survey at the bottom
To provide session feedback:
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Findings on the B.C. Lottery Corporation (BCLC) voluntary self-exclusion program

  • 1.
  • 2. Findings from the Review of BCLCs VSE Program Dr. Irwin Cohen Dr. Amanda McCormick
  • 3. Previous Study n = 169 2-Year Follow Up 35% Violations Low Counselling Access Satisfaction High GSAs at Enrollments Psychological Barrier Jackpot Rule
  • 4. Current Study • Longitudinal – Interviews over 18 Months with VSE Participants – Low Attrition Rates – 73% • Qualitative – In-Depth “Violator” Interviews • Cross-Sectional – VSE Participants versus Non-VSE Gamblers
  • 5. Program Evaluation • Williams et al. (2007) – Utilization Rates – Percent who refrain from attempting to re-enter – Impact on overall gambling behaviour
  • 6. Program Utilization in B.C. • B.C. Problem Gambling Prevalence Study (2014) – 75% Past-Year Gambling – 3.3% Moderate or High-Risk • 6% Utilization • Current Study @ T1 (June 2013-March 2014) – n = 326
  • 7. NON-VSE VERSUS VSE PARTICIPANTS Demographics and Gambling Behaviours
  • 9. VSE compared to Non-VSEFactor VSE Non-VSE Female 53% 57% Age 48 years 51 years MARITAL STATUS Single 37% 23% Married 35% 48% Divorced 9% 10% EDUCATION Less than High School 18% 3% High School / GED 29% 21% Some Post-Secondary 54% 75% EMPLOYMENT & INCOME Employed 71% 58% Retired 17% 32% Under 50k 72% 21%
  • 10. VSE compared to Non-VSEFactor VSE Non-VSE RESIDENCE Interior 39% 14% Lower Mainland 45% 65% LANGUAGE SPOKEN English 88% 91% Chinese 5% 2% Vietnamese 2% 0% ETHNICITY Caucasian 75% 77% First Nations 6% 1% South Asian 5% 2% Asian 10% 17%
  • 11. Past Year Gambling 0% 2% 16% 20% 21% 11% 29% 1% 10% 50% 14% 17% 3% 5% Non-VSE VSE
  • 12. Forms of Past Year Gambling 61% 27% 19% 11% 9% 22% 19% 19% 91% 80% 39% 7% 7% 4% 28% 11% 5% 72% Slots Table Video Poker Sports Horses Keno Bingo Stocks Lotto
  • 13. Land-Based Gambling Behaviours VSE Non-VSE # Different Gaming Venues 3 2 Amount Gambled $569 $90 Max. Amount Lost $1570 $100 Time Gambled 4.2 Hours 2 Hours
  • 14. Online Gambling Behaviours VSE Non-VSE Ever Gambled Online 20% 26% Amount Gambled $319 $86 Max. Amount Lost $1260 $63 Time Gambled 2.6 Hours 1.7 Hours
  • 15. Attempts to Stop Gambling 4% 2% 4% 4% 7% 87% 36% 22% 15% 13% 26% 2% 13% 72% 75% 54% 16% Non-VSE (n=45) VSE (n=272)
  • 17. Risk of Gambling Problems 66% 18% 11% 5%3% 3% 21% 74% No Risk Low Risk Moderate Risk Problem Gambling Non-VSE VSE
  • 18. Reasons for Not Enrolling – Non- VSE Moderate/Problem Gamblers 59% 22%19%17%17%15% 11% 11% 7% 7% 7% 7% 6% 6% 6% 6% 4%
  • 19. Reasons for Gambling 83% 11% 13% 10% 8% 11% 40% 28% 38% 89% 38% 42% 25% 21% 58% 80% 58% 46% Non-VSE VSE
  • 20. 83% 11% 13% 10% 8% 11% 40% 28% 38% 89% 38% 42% 25% 21% 58% 80% 58% 46% Non-VSE VSE Reasons for Gambling
  • 21. Negative Effects of Gambling 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.5 2.3 2.4 1.7 2.4 3.4 3.6 Marital Life Family Life Work Social Life Mood Finances Non-VSE VSE
  • 22. Negative Effects of Gambling 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.5 2.3 2.4 1.7 2.4 3.4 3.6 Marital Life Family Life Work Social Life Mood Finances Non-VSE VSE
  • 23. Predicting Enrollment Status Exp (B) PGSI Score 1.58 Step 2 PGSI Score 1.61 Income > 50k .14 Interior 2.8 Caucasian 3.1
  • 24. Strategies to Increase Enrollment • GameSense Advisors Have PGSI Available • Security Distribute PGSIs • Distribute Pamphlets and Encourage “Trial Run”
  • 27. Length of Enrollment 31% 29% 7% 33% 6 months 1 year 2 years 3 years
  • 28. Rating of Enrollment Experience 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Security Alone Security w/GSA GSA
  • 30. Any Gambling While Excluded 87% 83% Time 2 Time 3
  • 32. Agreement Violators at T2 • 97% reported successfully re-entering on at least one attempt • 67% went to different casino • 46% were caught in past 6 months
  • 34. Marital Status • Violators More Likely Single (53% vs 35%) or Common Law (20% vs 9%) • Non-Violators More Likely Married (40% vs 20%) or Divorced (10% vs 5%)
  • 35. Percent of PGSI Group who Violated (n = 270) 7% 6% 15% 45% No Problem Low Level Moderate Problem Gambling
  • 36. Average PGSI 11.9 3.1 2.5 13.4 9.8 7.1 Time 1 Time 2 Time 3 Non-Violator Violator
  • 38. Most Significant Reason for Violating 10 6 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1
  • 39. Strategies Used to Avoid Being Caught27 12 11 6 4 Visited a Different Casino Did Nothing Wore a Disguise Played a different game or lower stakes Avoided Casino Parking Lot
  • 40. What Would Stop Violations 14 7 6 1 Mandatory ID Checks Nothing - It's a Personal Choice Increasing Fines Arrest for Trespassing
  • 41. Non-Violators 90% 90% 59% 57% 56% 55% 51% 49% 46%
  • 42. PROGRAM’S EFFECTS ON PROBLEM GAMBLING SYMPTOMS
  • 44. PGSI Elements Over the 3 Time Periods 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 Time 1 Time 2 Time 3 Bet more than could afford to lose Needed to gamble with larger amounts for same excitement Go back another day to try and win back lost money Borrowed money or sold something for money to gamble Felt you might have a problem with gambling Gambling caused health problems People criticized your betting or told you you had a problem Gambling caused financial problems* Felt guilty about gambling or what happens when you gamble* Claimed to be winning money gambling but weren’t Hidden betting slips or other signs of gambling Lost time from work or school due to gambling
  • 46. Counselling Access Past 6m T2 15% T3 12%
  • 47. What’s Related to Access? Access No Access PGSI at Time 1* 16.5 11.3 PGSI at Time 2 6.3 3.7 Violations 22.5% 14%
  • 48. Consent and Access to Counselling 31% 37% 27% 51% 66% 42% Overall GSA Present No GSA Consented Accessed
  • 49. Reasons for Accessing Counselling (n = 96) 90% 65% 55% 15% 13% 9% Gambling Problem Owed it to Others Needed It Pressured Demonstration Thought Mandatory
  • 50. Reasons for Avoiding Counselling 84% 37% 35% 29% 21% 19% 17% 9% 7% 7% 3% Deal with it Myself Don't Have Problem Couldn't Help No Time Keep Gambling Private Too Ashamed Other Feared Being Made Fun Of Language Barrier Can't Afford Didn't Know
  • 51. Reasons for No Counselling x PGSI No Problem Low/Mod Problem Wanted to Deal with it Myself 60% 86% 83% Didn’t Think it Could Help 20% 18% 42% Don’t Think I have a Problem 60% 51% 32% Didn’t have Time for it 40% 19% 32% Didn’t Want Others to Know 0% 16% 24% Too Ashamed to Talk to Anyone 0% 13% 22% Thought Others Would Make Fun 0% 8% 9% Didn’t Think They’d Speak My Language 20% 6% 6% Couldn’t Afford It 0% 10% 6% Didn’t Know It was Available 0% 2% 3%
  • 52. Other Supports30% 27% 13% 11% 9% 5% 5% 3% 3% 3% 2% 2% 2% 1% 1%
  • 55. I Would Recommend VSE to Others 1.3% 1.3% 30.1% 66.9% Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
  • 56. Increase Effectiveness? • Facial Recognition – 92% • 5 Year Enrolment Option – 85% • Mandatory ID Check at Entrance – 83% • Advertise the program outside of casinos – 81% • Have Someone from BCLC Call Before Exclusion Ends to Ask about Reenrollment – 80% • Enforcement of Penalties for Violations – 79% • Re-enrolling over the phone – 78%
  • 57. Major Findings • Low Rate of Violation Attempts • Substantial Reduction in Problem Gambling Symptoms • Low Rates of Counselling Access • High Rates of Program Satisfaction
  • 59.
  • 60. 1. Open New Horizons app 2. Select the Agenda button 3. Select This Session 4. Select Take Survey at the bottom To provide session feedback: If you are unable to download the app, please raise your hand for a paper version.

Editor's Notes

  1. t3