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Dr. Michael Wohl
Professor, Carleton University
Dr. Michael Wohl
Professor
5
Andrew Kim Melissa SalmonDr. Chris Davis Dr. Jamey Lister
objectives
1. Discuss barriers to change
2. Advances in understanding barriers
3. Using knowledge to overcome those
barrie...
9
10
11
Transtheoretical Model of
behavioral change
Readiness to change
 Pre-contemplation: Will deny advantage of
quitting
 Contemplation: Characterized by ambivalence
 P...
Barriers to Help-Seeking (Pulford et al., 2009)
14
78%
73%
84%
85%
66
68
70
72
74
76
78
80
82
84
86
Pride Shame
Seekers
No...
16
Facilitating change with the self-concept
Authenticity
17
18
There is but one cause of human failure.
And that is man’s lack of faith in his true
self.
—William James
Authenticity
19Lister, Wohl, & Davis, in press, JGS
_________________________
Part of people’s self-concept
(sense of self) is derived
from their membership in
social groups.
The Dark Side of Authenticity
Sports betters who were watching the
Stanley Cup Playoffs
Measures:
1.Authenticity while gam...
Authenticity
while gambling
Readiness to
Change
Identification
as a Gambler
.20
2.01**
-.13*
.20
95% CI: -.56, -.07
Light in the darkness
Authenticity whilst gambling
undermines behavioral
change
Results point to the fact that
some gamble...
24
Facilitating change with the self-concept
People who are high in self-continuity:
Report Psychologically well-being (Dunkel, 2005)
A desire to achieve and maintai...
When change has befallen the self – anecdotal evidence
from the clinical setting (Nuske & Hing, 2011)
Why is a focus on nostalgia innovative?
Therapy tends to focus on current negative states
(e.g., shame, guilt, avoidance)....
Self-
Discontinuity
Readiness to
Change
Nostalgia
Hypothesized path to change
Participants
79 Disordered Gamblers (52 males)
19-72 years old (M = 34.15, SD = 13.24, 4 unreported)
Measures
Gambling ...
Self-
Discontinuity
Readiness to
Change
Nostalgia
.68**
.67**
.47*
.42
95% CI: .03, .67
Study 2: Self-discontinuity manipulated
Participants
80 Disordered Gamblers (60 males)
18-62 years old (M = 30.31, SD = ...
Gambling Can [Does Not] Change the Self
34
Recent studies published in New England Journal of Medicine suggests that,
alon...
4.15
3.50 3.57
1.70
2.60
1.20
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
Self-Discontinuity** Nostaliga** Readiness To
Change*
Self-Dis...
Self-
Discontinuity
Readiness to
Change
Nostalgia
2.36**
.86**
1.30*
1.25
95% CI: .58, 1.86
38
How do known barriers
stack up against
nostalgia?
Participants
223 Disordered Gamblers (115 males)
19-72 years old (M = 34.15, SD = 13.24, 4 unreported)
Measures
Nostalg...
» Enhancement: p=.19,
Exp(B)=1.24
» Social: p=.21, Exp(B)=.82
» Coping: p=.31, Exp(B)=.86
» Shame: p=.64, Exp(B)=.89
» Gui...
» Enhancement: p=.78,
Exp(B)=1.08
» Social: p=.96, Exp(B)=.98
» Coping: p=.02, Exp(B)=.50
» Shame: p=.30, Exp(B)=1.61
» Gu...
» Enhancement: p=.66,
Exp(B)=1.27
» Social: p=.67, Exp(B)=1.24
» Coping: p=.51, Exp(B)=.72
» Shame: p=.93, Exp(B)=1.07
» G...
Facilitating gamblers to see the past ‘non-addicted self’
has a different (and better) version of the self motivates
readi...
Believe that although people may
differ in basic aptitudes, interests, and
temperament, everyone can change,
grow, and imp...
Challenges:
Obstacles:
Effort:
Failure:
Embrace them
Persist
Path to mastery
Let me learn
Incremental Mindset
Belief that traits such as intelligence,
ability, personality, and competence
are inborn and basically
unchangeable.
Entit...
Challenges:
Obstacles:
Effort:
Failure:
Avoid them
Give up
Fruitless
Helpless and hopeless
Entity Mindset
Nostalgia, mindset and action
Participants
Time 1 (N= 347) 87 low-risk, 142 moderate-risk, 118 problem
gamblers (18-72 yr...
Attempted change
50
Results
Entity mindset – no relationship with nostalgia
on readiness to change
Incremental mindset – Strong positive
relat...
Nostalgia
Probabilityofchange Entity Mindset
Incremental Mindset
53
Potential for behavioral change
Behavioralchange
Self-efficacy
A key MI principle is self-efficacy for change.
People need to believe they can change and
successfully redu...
55
Nostalgia
High Self-Efficacy
Low Self-Efficacy
Probabilityofchange
Reasons for Self-Help
56
 Authenticity: As a gambler or who one used to be?
 Facilitating the gambler to see the past ‘non-addicted
self’ has a d...
EMOTION REGULATION
“… the processes by which individuals influence which
emotions they have, when they have them, and how ...
1. Decrease (or increase) physiological
arousal associated with emotion
2. Re-orient attention toward (or away) from the
e...
60
61
Dr. Michael Wohl
613-520-2600 x 2908
michael.wohl@carleton.ca
To provide session feedback:
• Open New Horizons app
• Select Agenda tile
• Select this session
• Select Take Survey at bo...
Dr. Michael Wohl - Advances in Motivating Change Among Disordered Gamblers: Why and How Memories of the Past Self Can Faci...
Dr. Michael Wohl - Advances in Motivating Change Among Disordered Gamblers: Why and How Memories of the Past Self Can Faci...
Dr. Michael Wohl - Advances in Motivating Change Among Disordered Gamblers: Why and How Memories of the Past Self Can Faci...
Dr. Michael Wohl - Advances in Motivating Change Among Disordered Gamblers: Why and How Memories of the Past Self Can Faci...
Dr. Michael Wohl - Advances in Motivating Change Among Disordered Gamblers: Why and How Memories of the Past Self Can Faci...
Dr. Michael Wohl - Advances in Motivating Change Among Disordered Gamblers: Why and How Memories of the Past Self Can Faci...
Dr. Michael Wohl - Advances in Motivating Change Among Disordered Gamblers: Why and How Memories of the Past Self Can Faci...
Dr. Michael Wohl - Advances in Motivating Change Among Disordered Gamblers: Why and How Memories of the Past Self Can Faci...
Dr. Michael Wohl - Advances in Motivating Change Among Disordered Gamblers: Why and How Memories of the Past Self Can Faci...
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Dr. Michael Wohl - Advances in Motivating Change Among Disordered Gamblers: Why and How Memories of the Past Self Can Facilitate Motivation to Engage in Behavioural Change

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Dr. Michael Wohl - Advances in Motivating Change Among Disordered Gamblers: Why and How Memories of the Past Self Can Facilitate Motivation to Engage in Behavioural Change
Presented at the New Horizons in Responsible Gambling Conference in Vancouver, February 2-4, 2015

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Dr. Michael Wohl - Advances in Motivating Change Among Disordered Gamblers: Why and How Memories of the Past Self Can Facilitate Motivation to Engage in Behavioural Change

  1. 1. Dr. Michael Wohl Professor, Carleton University
  2. 2. Dr. Michael Wohl Professor
  3. 3. 5 Andrew Kim Melissa SalmonDr. Chris Davis Dr. Jamey Lister
  4. 4. objectives 1. Discuss barriers to change 2. Advances in understanding barriers 3. Using knowledge to overcome those barriers 4. Review new research on factors that facilitate change 5. Future directions. 6
  5. 5. 9
  6. 6. 10
  7. 7. 11
  8. 8. Transtheoretical Model of behavioral change
  9. 9. Readiness to change  Pre-contemplation: Will deny advantage of quitting  Contemplation: Characterized by ambivalence  Preparation: May be trying to anticipate barriers.  Action: Continues to anticipate and deal with barriers. 13
  10. 10. Barriers to Help-Seeking (Pulford et al., 2009) 14 78% 73% 84% 85% 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 Pride Shame Seekers Non Seekers
  11. 11. 16 Facilitating change with the self-concept
  12. 12. Authenticity 17
  13. 13. 18 There is but one cause of human failure. And that is man’s lack of faith in his true self. —William James
  14. 14. Authenticity 19Lister, Wohl, & Davis, in press, JGS
  15. 15. _________________________ Part of people’s self-concept (sense of self) is derived from their membership in social groups.
  16. 16. The Dark Side of Authenticity Sports betters who were watching the Stanley Cup Playoffs Measures: 1.Authenticity while gambling 2.Identification as a gambler 3.Readiness to change Lister, Wohl, & Davis, in prep
  17. 17. Authenticity while gambling Readiness to Change Identification as a Gambler .20 2.01** -.13* .20 95% CI: -.56, -.07
  18. 18. Light in the darkness Authenticity whilst gambling undermines behavioral change Results point to the fact that some gamblers don’t feel authentic. 23
  19. 19. 24 Facilitating change with the self-concept
  20. 20. People who are high in self-continuity: Report Psychologically well-being (Dunkel, 2005) A desire to achieve and maintain well-being (Chandler, Lalone, Sokol, Hallett, & Marcia, 2003) Have elevated levels of self-esteem (Diehl, Jacobs, & Hastings, 2006)
  21. 21. When change has befallen the self – anecdotal evidence from the clinical setting (Nuske & Hing, 2011)
  22. 22. Why is a focus on nostalgia innovative? Therapy tends to focus on current negative states (e.g., shame, guilt, avoidance).  Negative affect propels change Nostalgia yields a positive emotional state Therapy tends to look toward the future; Nostalgia focuses on the past 29
  23. 23. Self- Discontinuity Readiness to Change Nostalgia Hypothesized path to change
  24. 24. Participants 79 Disordered Gamblers (52 males) 19-72 years old (M = 34.15, SD = 13.24, 4 unreported) Measures Gambling Symptomology - Canadian Problem Gambling Index (CPGI; Ferris & Wynne, 2010) Readiness to Change questionnaire (RoC; Rollnick, Heather, Gold & Hall, 1992) Self-Discontinuity (Iyer & Jetten, 2011) Nostalgia (Iyer & Jetten, 2011) Study 1: Measuring self-discontuity Kim & Wohl, in press, SPPS
  25. 25. Self- Discontinuity Readiness to Change Nostalgia .68** .67** .47* .42 95% CI: .03, .67
  26. 26. Study 2: Self-discontinuity manipulated Participants 80 Disordered Gamblers (60 males) 18-62 years old (M = 30.31, SD = 8.82, 1 unreported) Procedure Manipulation: Self-discontinuity vs. Self-continuity Measure: Nostalgia (Iyer & Jetten, 2011) Readiness to Change (Biener & Abrams, 1991) Kim & Wohl, in press, SPPS
  27. 27. Gambling Can [Does Not] Change the Self 34 Recent studies published in New England Journal of Medicine suggests that, along with [despite] the potential negative consequences associated with heavy gambling (e.g., financial, interpersonal problems), heavy gambling can also result in losing your sense of self [does not change your sense of self]. That is, people who gamble heavily report having undergone fundamental negative changes to their behaviors and moods and begin to dislike the person they have become compared to the person they were before engaging in gambling activities [people who gamble are the same person today, compared to the person they were before engaging in gambling activities]. We would like to see how this is true for you.
  28. 28. 4.15 3.50 3.57 1.70 2.60 1.20 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 Self-Discontinuity** Nostaliga** Readiness To Change* Self-Discontinuity Self-Continuity
  29. 29. Self- Discontinuity Readiness to Change Nostalgia 2.36** .86** 1.30* 1.25 95% CI: .58, 1.86
  30. 30. 38 How do known barriers stack up against nostalgia?
  31. 31. Participants 223 Disordered Gamblers (115 males) 19-72 years old (M = 34.15, SD = 13.24, 4 unreported) Measures Nostalgia Shame as well as guilt Motives for gambling (enhancement, social, coping) Have you tried to change? Have you sought professional treatment? Wohl, Santesso, Salmon, & Kim , in prep
  32. 32. » Enhancement: p=.19, Exp(B)=1.24 » Social: p=.21, Exp(B)=.82 » Coping: p=.31, Exp(B)=.86 » Shame: p=.64, Exp(B)=.89 » Guilt: p=.99, Exp(B)=1.03 » Nostalgia: p<.001, Exp(B)=2.48 Have you tried to change your Gambling? Multiple logistic regression
  33. 33. » Enhancement: p=.78, Exp(B)=1.08 » Social: p=.96, Exp(B)=.98 » Coping: p=.02, Exp(B)=.50 » Shame: p=.30, Exp(B)=1.61 » Guilt: p=.03, Exp(B)=.35 » Nostalgia: p<.001, Exp(B)=4.61 Have you ever sought Professional Help for Gambling? Multiple logistic regression
  34. 34. » Enhancement: p=.66, Exp(B)=1.27 » Social: p=.67, Exp(B)=1.24 » Coping: p=.51, Exp(B)=.72 » Shame: p=.93, Exp(B)=1.07 » Guilt: p=.78, Exp(B)=1.26 » Nostalgia: p=.02, Exp(B)=7.19 Have you tried to change your Gambling? Three-Month follow up Multiple logistic regression
  35. 35. Facilitating gamblers to see the past ‘non-addicted self’ has a different (and better) version of the self motivates readiness to change. Of course, not everyone who feels nostalgic will believe they have the ability to change. 43 Nostalgia is a powerful motivator
  36. 36. Believe that although people may differ in basic aptitudes, interests, and temperament, everyone can change, grow, and improve. Incremental Mindset
  37. 37. Challenges: Obstacles: Effort: Failure: Embrace them Persist Path to mastery Let me learn Incremental Mindset
  38. 38. Belief that traits such as intelligence, ability, personality, and competence are inborn and basically unchangeable. Entity Mindset
  39. 39. Challenges: Obstacles: Effort: Failure: Avoid them Give up Fruitless Helpless and hopeless Entity Mindset
  40. 40. Nostalgia, mindset and action Participants Time 1 (N= 347) 87 low-risk, 142 moderate-risk, 118 problem gamblers (18-72 yrs, M=35.55; Males=210) Time 2 (N=160): 45 low-risk, 61 moderate-risk, 54 problem gamblers (20-68 yrs, M=36.66; Males=89) Measures Time 1: Nostalgia; Mindset Time 2: Attempted change in last three months, Avenue (professions or self-help); Manner of change
  41. 41. Attempted change 50
  42. 42. Results Entity mindset – no relationship with nostalgia on readiness to change Incremental mindset – Strong positive relationship with nostalgia on readiness to change. 51
  43. 43. Nostalgia Probabilityofchange Entity Mindset Incremental Mindset
  44. 44. 53 Potential for behavioral change Behavioralchange
  45. 45. Self-efficacy A key MI principle is self-efficacy for change. People need to believe they can change and successfully reduce their gambling behaviour. Hope and faith are important elements of change. 54
  46. 46. 55 Nostalgia High Self-Efficacy Low Self-Efficacy Probabilityofchange
  47. 47. Reasons for Self-Help 56
  48. 48.  Authenticity: As a gambler or who one used to be?  Facilitating the gambler to see the past ‘non-addicted self’ has a different (and better) version of the self motivates readiness to change  The butterfly effect: Small changes can yield disproportionate changes elsewhere (Berg & Miller, 1992)  Some belief in change might be good, but a lot could be bad 57 What should I take from this?
  49. 49. EMOTION REGULATION “… the processes by which individuals influence which emotions they have, when they have them, and how they experience and express these emotions.” (Gross, 1998, p. 275) Future Directions
  50. 50. 1. Decrease (or increase) physiological arousal associated with emotion 2. Re-orient attention toward (or away) from the emotion (Some) Tasks in Emotion Regulation (Gottman & Katz, 1990)
  51. 51. 60
  52. 52. 61
  53. 53. Dr. Michael Wohl 613-520-2600 x 2908 michael.wohl@carleton.ca
  54. 54. To provide session feedback: • Open New Horizons app • Select Agenda tile • Select this session • Select Take Survey at bottom of screen If you are unable to download app, please raise your hand for a paper version

Dr. Michael Wohl - Advances in Motivating Change Among Disordered Gamblers: Why and How Memories of the Past Self Can Facilitate Motivation to Engage in Behavioural Change Presented at the New Horizons in Responsible Gambling Conference in Vancouver, February 2-4, 2015

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