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Elements & Impacts of Casino Design
BCLC - New Horizons in Responsible Gambling Conference
Claudia Steinke RN, MSc, PhD
Fa...
Insight
Framework
Research (Elements & Impact)

3 Take aways
 Agenda
 Introduction
 Background
 The Challenge
 Evidence Based Design
 Framework
 The Research Study
 Implicatio...
A bit about me
A bit about me
INTERESTS AND SPECIALIZATION
• Health Care
– Health Care Management (Shortell et al., 2007)

• Organization Theory
– Organ...
An Empirical Study of Emergency Rooms

Service Design in the

Presentation to the committee
Claudia Steinke
PhD Candidate ...
The Service Profit Chain

Links in the Service Profit Chain: Operating
Strategy and Service Delivery System

Heskett et al...
The Service Outcome Chain

Links in the Service Outcome Chain
Structure

Process

Outcome
Study One
Results:
Study Three
Results:
The

ER
The

ER
Research Knowledge
 A Catalyst for Change
Through research, education, advocacy and
technical assistance, The Center for Health
Design suppo...
What Research?
 Evidence-based design
 Data-driven operational planning
 Planning and design of new or replacement fac...
More Specifically?
 Assessing building performance
 Impact of buildings on people
 Understanding the process for decis...
Applying the knowledge: Evidence-based Design
Building performance evaluation
Definitions

•

Financial performance: Timely and accurate financial data is a priority however a
sole emphasis on financi...
Research Contribution

• There remains a gap between the
existing research and implementation
into facility design.
• Rese...
Healing Design

Developing Architectural Design
Standards for Cancer Care
Phase I: Visioning Workshop
“Healing is the physical, mental and spiritual process of
recovery, repair and renewal that increases order, coherence
and...
The Experiential Environment
The move from the service level to the experiential level where patient’s expectations
exceed...
“Healing is the physical, mental and spiritual process of
recovery, repair and renewal that increases order, coherence
and...
Responsible Gaming
•Is a concept that gaming and gambling operators, software suppliers and
associated service providers n...
http://www.gaming.gov.bc.ca/responsible-gambling/docs/stds-responsible-gambling.pdf

Defining - Responsible gambling
Casino design: framework for thinking
Underlying Theoretical Framework

Donabedian’s SPO Model

for Evaluating Quality

Structure: Conditions under which servic...
Wynn’s hotels are famous for having
brought a luxurious, five-star approach to
Vegas. But their real achievement may
be ps...
•

•
•
•
•
•

What is true is that we provide an escape from the humdrum of every
day. Our customers enjoy , if not yearn ...
Objective
•

To explore the literature to find out what research has been done that
assesses the elements and impacts of g...
• Phase 1
– Searched five main
gambling-specific
databases
• Australian Gaming
Council’s eLibrary
• Gambling Research
Aust...
Categorization
findings
Friedman’s Gaming Design

http://juliacarcamo.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/img_00
73.jpg
Kranes’ Playground Design

http://bloximages.chicago2.vip.townnews.com/pressofatlanticcity.com/content/tncms/assets/v3/edi...
• Ambience / Atmosphere
– Floor layout and theme are significant aspects of
casino atmospherics for customers. Casino
atmo...
• Colour
– High information, varied colour schemes reduced at-risk gambling intentions
(Finlay et al. 2010).
• No cost to ...
• Layout
– Location of slot machines affects performance.
• Increased performance
– Core slot sections
» High traffic volu...
• Lighting
– Flashing lights increased irresponsible gambling
intentions (Finlay et al., 2007).
• Increased disordered gam...
• Music
– Increased at-risk gambling intentions in playground design and
decreased for gaming design (Marmurek et al., 200...
• Venue Size
– Crowded casino increased irresponsible
gambling intentions (Finlay et al., 2007).
• Sparsely crowded casino...
• Temperature
– Complex cognitive tasks impaired in hot
conditions (Gaoua et al., 2012).

Findings: temperature
• Wayfinding and Signage
- Clear signs are important to know how to find
betting opportunities and facilities (Cockrill et...
• Some research assesses the design elements of
gambling venues.
– Some evidence how these design elements impact people
a...
 Research and knowledge are key to intelligent design …
understanding trends and acquiring evidence is crucial to
what we...
 Thank you for your time.
Claudia Steinke: Impact of Casino Design
Claudia Steinke: Impact of Casino Design
Claudia Steinke: Impact of Casino Design
Claudia Steinke: Impact of Casino Design
Claudia Steinke: Impact of Casino Design
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New Horizons in Responsible Gambling Conference
Session 6A
January 29, 2014

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Claudia Steinke: Impact of Casino Design

  1. 1. Elements & Impacts of Casino Design BCLC - New Horizons in Responsible Gambling Conference Claudia Steinke RN, MSc, PhD Faculties of Management and Health Sciences University of Lethbridge January 29, 2014 claudia.steinke@uleth.ca
  2. 2. Insight Framework Research (Elements & Impact) 3 Take aways
  3. 3.  Agenda  Introduction  Background  The Challenge  Evidence Based Design  Framework  The Research Study  Implications for Practice  Future Research
  4. 4. A bit about me
  5. 5. A bit about me
  6. 6. INTERESTS AND SPECIALIZATION • Health Care – Health Care Management (Shortell et al., 2007) • Organization Theory – Organization Design (Galbraith, 1987) – Organizational Culture (Pettigrew, 1979; Morgan, 1986) – Organizational Climate (Joyce & Slocum, 1982 Schneider & Reichers, 1983) • Service Management – Service Climate (Schneider et al., 1998, 2000) – The Service Profit Chain (Heskett et al., 1994, 1997) • Architecture – Physical Design (Hatch, 1997, Ulrich et al., 2004) – Hospital Design (Berry et al., 2004, Ulrich et al., 2004) – Gambling Venue Design (Finlay etT. Al., 2006, 2007)
  7. 7. An Empirical Study of Emergency Rooms Service Design in the Presentation to the committee Claudia Steinke PhD Candidate (BUS and PADM) ER
  8. 8. The Service Profit Chain Links in the Service Profit Chain: Operating Strategy and Service Delivery System Heskett et al. (1997) An integrative framework for understanding how an organization’s operational investments translate into service operations, which are, in turn related to customer perceptions and behaviours, and how these translate into profits.
  9. 9. The Service Outcome Chain Links in the Service Outcome Chain Structure Process Outcome
  10. 10. Study One Results:
  11. 11. Study Three Results:
  12. 12. The ER
  13. 13. The ER
  14. 14. Research Knowledge
  15. 15.  A Catalyst for Change Through research, education, advocacy and technical assistance, The Center for Health Design supports healthcare and design professionals all over the world in their quest to improve the quality of healthcare through evidence-based building design. Concord, California Center for health design
  16. 16. What Research?  Evidence-based design  Data-driven operational planning  Planning and design of new or replacement facilities  Comprehensive pre and post-project evaluation services  Innovative solutions to existing challenges Knowledge initiatives
  17. 17. More Specifically?  Assessing building performance  Impact of buildings on people  Understanding the process for decision-making re: buildings  Understanding the impact of the built environment in creating experiences  Understanding the influence of the built environment on outcomes Knowledge initiatives
  18. 18. Applying the knowledge: Evidence-based Design
  19. 19. Building performance evaluation
  20. 20. Definitions • Financial performance: Timely and accurate financial data is a priority however a sole emphasis on financial leads to an unbalanced situation with regard to the other performance dimensions. • Physical performance: This performance dimension refers to the design and mechanized performance of buildings. Measures based on this perspective allow managers to know how well their building is performing based on a set of standards such as LEED. • Functional performance: This performance dimension includes assessing building performance based on ‘fitness for purpose’ and focuses on providing a desired working environment for staff congruent with organizational culture and workplace standards. Poor performance in this dimension is thus a leading indicator of future decline. • Service performance: This performance dimension provides information on the quality perception of end users (clients) in terms of the building and support for services it provides. There is an increasing realization of the importance of client focus and satisfaction. Poor performance in dimension is thus a leading indicator of future decline.
  21. 21. Research Contribution • There remains a gap between the existing research and implementation into facility design. • Research tailored to strategic and balanced building performance is needed.
  22. 22. Healing Design Developing Architectural Design Standards for Cancer Care Phase I: Visioning Workshop
  23. 23. “Healing is the physical, mental and spiritual process of recovery, repair and renewal that increases order, coherence and holism in the individual, group and environment … A true Healing Environment should have a very real and positive impact on patient’s health and well-being.” Salvador Ibarra Definition of a Healing Environment What: A Healing Environment is: a physical setting, an organizational culture, and a system that supports patients and families through the stresses imposed by illness, hospitalization, medical visits, the process of healing, and sometimes bereavement. Why: The goal of a Healing Environment is to engage patients in the conscious process of self-healing and spiritual growth. How: Spaces are designed to be nurturing and therapeutic and most importantly to reduce stress.
  24. 24. The Experiential Environment The move from the service level to the experiential level where patient’s expectations exceed both the medical model and service levels of care. Source: Huelat, B. (2007). Healing Environments: What’s the Proof? Arlington, VA: Peecapress.
  25. 25. “Healing is the physical, mental and spiritual process of recovery, repair and renewal that increases order, coherence and holism in the individual, group and environment … A true Healing Environment should have a very real and positive impact on patient’s health and well-being.” Salvador Ibarra Definition of a Healing Environment What: A Healing Environment is: a physical setting, an organizational culture, and a system that supports patients and families through the stresses imposed by illness, hospitalization, medical visits, the process of healing, and sometimes bereavement. Why: The goal of a Healing Environment is to engage patients in the conscious process of self-healing and spiritual growth. How: Spaces are designed to be nurturing and therapeutic and most importantly to reduce stress.
  26. 26. Responsible Gaming •Is a concept that gaming and gambling operators, software suppliers and associated service providers needs to uphold to ensure their offerings uphold the highest standard to ensure a fair and safe gaming experiences that protects players from adverse consequences of gaming and gambling. •The majority of gambling and gaming codes now require operators to ensure land-based and online gambling services are offered in a responsible manner. •Responsible gaming covers the areas of protecting vulnerable customers, the prevention of underage gambling, protection against fraudulent and criminal behaviour, ensuring information privacy, ensuring prompt and accurate customer payment, delivering a fair gaming experience, upholding ethical and responsible marketing, commitment to customer satisfaction and ensuring a secure, safe and reliable operating environment (land based and virtual). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Responsible_Gaming Defining - Responsible gambling
  27. 27. http://www.gaming.gov.bc.ca/responsible-gambling/docs/stds-responsible-gambling.pdf Defining - Responsible gambling
  28. 28. Casino design: framework for thinking
  29. 29. Underlying Theoretical Framework Donabedian’s SPO Model for Evaluating Quality Structure: Conditions under which service is provided (e.g. organizational design, structure, support). Process: Activities done for the clients, including both the technical and interpersonal aspects of care. Outcomes: Refers to the client’s health status, and emphasis on the client experiences and satisfaction. Source: Explorations in Quality Assessment and Monitoring. Vol.1: The definition of quality and approaches to its assessment. Ann Arbor, MI: Health Administration Press.
  30. 30. Wynn’s hotels are famous for having brought a luxurious, five-star approach to Vegas. But their real achievement may be psychological: they have remade the architecture of gaming itself. The received wisdom of modern casino design was codified by a former gambling addict named Bill Friedman in his book “Designing Casinos to Dominate the Competition.” — The New Yorker http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gL5gGe2b8CM http://friedmandesign.com/book_contents.html THE RE-DESIGN OF LAS VEGAS
  31. 31. • • • • • • What is true is that we provide an escape from the humdrum of every day. Our customers enjoy , if not yearn for, for the entertainment experience we all design, build and operate – and shall do so in the future. [35, 2009] Gamers continue to look for experiential relief and value. [35, 2009] Design and architecture is exactly the key. The look and feel – the vibe. [18; 2010] The intention of all areas is to escape the everyday world and enjoy a beautiful resort setting. Create an opportunity for a different experience. Our economic responsibility is to make money for our shareholders and for our employees. Our social responsibility is to provide a greater array of cultural, educational, residential and well-being opportunities for our community. [23; 2010] The Role of casino design
  32. 32. Objective • To explore the literature to find out what research has been done that assesses the elements and impacts of gambling venue design. • Importance: • Billions are spent on casinos each year. • Billions of dollars are spent on gambling each year. • Government legislation; guidelines for design. Question: • What and where is the evidence that supports gambling venue design? How is design measured? • How do we promote responsible gambling venue design? • Review of the literature
  33. 33. • Phase 1 – Searched five main gambling-specific databases • Australian Gaming Council’s eLibrary • Gambling Research Australia’s Gambling Research Database • AGRI DSPACE Repository @ the University of Calgary • Gambling Research Database • Problem Gambling Library (New Zealand) • Phase 2 – Searched traditional databases • • • • • • • • • • • • • ABI/INFORM Global Academic Search Complete Business Source Premier Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews DARE (EBM Reviews) Emerald Insight Google Scholar Medline Proquest PsycINFO Science Direct Sociological Abstracts Web of Science. METHODOLOGY
  34. 34. Categorization
  35. 35. findings
  36. 36. Friedman’s Gaming Design http://juliacarcamo.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/img_00 73.jpg
  37. 37. Kranes’ Playground Design http://bloximages.chicago2.vip.townnews.com/pressofatlanticcity.com/content/tncms/assets/v3/editori l/c/58/c58111c9-fa88-5a48-8ac8-b8bfea8f95f0/4f690d4a4f98d.image.jpg
  38. 38. • Ambience / Atmosphere – Floor layout and theme are significant aspects of casino atmospherics for customers. Casino atmosphere might have a narrower construct that casino operators believe. (Mayer & Johnson, 2003). – Theme, floor layout, employee uniforms, ceiling heights, noise level (Johnson, Mayer & Champaner, 2004). Findings: ambience
  39. 39. • Colour – High information, varied colour schemes reduced at-risk gambling intentions (Finlay et al. 2010). • No cost to restoration or pleasure • Only for gaming design • The color orange has a greater impact on feelings of arousal than green (Dijstra, Pieterse, Pruyn, 2008). • Red has been found to increase arousal, heat rate, blood pressure • The color green/yellow has the lowest number of positive responses because it is associated with vomit and elicited feelings of sickness and disgust (Kaya & Epps, 2004). • The color green is positive for eliciting emotions such as relaxation and comfort because it reminds people of nature; stress reducing effects (Kaya & Epps, 2004). Findings: color
  40. 40. • Layout – Location of slot machines affects performance. • Increased performance – Core slot sections » High traffic volume, accessibility, visibility and bordering table games (Lucas et al., 2004) – Bordering major aisle (Lucas et al., 2004; Lucas & Dunn, 2005) – End-unit slot machines (Lucas et al., 2004; Lucas & Dunn, 2005) – Program/themes increased performance levels (Lucas et al., 2004; Lucas & Dunn, 2005) – Under 45-foot ceilings vs 12-foot ceilings (Lucas et al., 2004) Findings: LAYOUT
  41. 41. • Lighting – Flashing lights increased irresponsible gambling intentions (Finlay et al., 2007). • Increased disordered gambling (Peller et al., 2008). • Static lighting less harmful (Finlay et al., 2010). – Red Light • Red light with fast tempo music produced faster betting speed (Spenwyn et al., 2010). • Gambled more money, more often, and selected riskier odds than those exposed to blue light (Stark et al., 1982). Findings: LIGHTING
  42. 42. • Music – Increased at-risk gambling intentions in playground design and decreased for gaming design (Marmurek et al., 2007). – Faster betting speed under high tempo music (Dixon et al., 2007; Spenwyn et al., 2010). • Less time to contemplate stopping. Larger profit for casino. – Predicted that gambling environments without music limit arousal, focus on losses and lower concentration levels (Griffiths & Parke, 2005). – Sedative music exposed to gamblers result in longer gambling times compared to stimulative music (Leamen, 2008). – Supermarket Setting (Milliman, 1982). • Fast tempo music increased average gross sales. • Slow tempo music slowed in-store traffic – Music influences estimates of waiting time depending on familiarity and tasks given (Bailey & Areni, 2006). Findings: music
  43. 43. • Venue Size – Crowded casino increased irresponsible gambling intentions (Finlay et al., 2007). • Sparsely crowded casinos result in higher levels of irresponsible gambling intentions for females (Finlay et al., 2010). Findings: SIZE & CROWDING
  44. 44. • Temperature – Complex cognitive tasks impaired in hot conditions (Gaoua et al., 2012). Findings: temperature
  45. 45. • Wayfinding and Signage - Clear signs are important to know how to find betting opportunities and facilities (Cockrill et al., 2008). - Many signs and brochures are provided to encourage responsible gambling but there is no research on the effectiveness of such signs (Hing & Dickerson, 2002). Findings: wayfinding
  46. 46. • Some research assesses the design elements of gambling venues. – Some evidence how these design elements impact people and organizations. • Gambling behaviour • Gambler well-being • Casino Profits? • Illustrates need for further research, • Need for theory / underlying philosophy for Responsible Gambling Venue Design. implications
  47. 47.  Research and knowledge are key to intelligent design … understanding trends and acquiring evidence is crucial to what we do.  We have to move beyond opinions and preferences to integrating evidence.  We need to be dedicated to researching and evaluating design innovations in industry and integrating evidence within the design process. Integrating evidence into casino design
  48. 48.  Thank you for your time.
  • SuzanneKeith1

    Sep. 27, 2021

New Horizons in Responsible Gambling Conference Session 6A January 29, 2014

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