Facing New Pressures from People’sLivelihoods, Public Services Remains Stable   Review on Public Assessment of Public Serv...
Features and Social Significance of Research   Evaluated by people: Public services are       To the public: To expand c...
Study Methods        Establishment of                   Establishment of                              Index        the ind...
Introduction to Horizon Public Service Index System and Weighting      Public                Public                 Public...
What does the Horizon index for public assessment ofpublic service mean?  Satisfaction ·Satisfaction represents the degree...
Main findings from 2010 Index and 11th Five-Year Plan period.1. The three driving forces improving the overall level of pu...
1. Public services developed stably in the 11th Five-year Plan; social security,   public utilities, and environmental hyg...
2. The urban-rural gap has narrowed, but employment, social security,        and medical care remain weak in rural areas. ...
3.1. Polarization emerged in different groups in urban areas, mainly in     employment and social security. Figure: Compar...
3.2. Pressure on people’s livelihoods and the new economic     environment posed big challenges to employment services.   ...
4. Public service prices remained a top concern, and the key issue is  pricing transparency.                              ...
5.1. Shifting concepts was the driving force for improving public service:     medical care.               Figure: Compari...
5.2. Shifting concepts was the driving force for improving public service:     control of environmental hygiene.  Figure: ...
5.3. Public service needs long-term planning—demonstrated by bus     service.     Figure: comparing transportation modes o...
6.1 Investment based on concept shift was driving force to improve       public service—demonstrated by social security.  ...
6.2 China’s investment in public services remains far below    international standards.  Figure: Comparing public expendit...
7. China has entered a period of high demand for public services and   has confronted huge pressure on livelihoods at the ...
8. Trends of public service demand were clear and new areas of growth   were discoveredPeople wish to improve their liveli...
Conclusion:   It is important to be clear about the trends of public service demand, and to match our   concept with it. T...
About HorizonKey
HorizonKey    Who Are We?       HorizonKey is part of the Horizon Research Consultancy Group founded in 1992, one of      ...
HorizonKey    Who Are We?       Horizonkey is an international marketing research company specializing in       social and...
HorizonKey            Our ValuesChina-based, global vision           Profound insight, agile analysis      Accumulate and ...
HorizonKey    The Horizonkey difference         Public Opinion Tracking                   Index Research         The only ...
Horizon Research Consultancy Group (Horizon Research                 ( Horizon ·Beijing, Progress Strategy, Horizonkey, Vi...
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Review on public assessment of public services in the 11th five year plan period in china

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From 2006 to 2010, Horizon Research Consultancy Group has released the “Report on Index of Public Assessment on Chinese Public Service" annually, continuously tracing the development of Chinese public services over these five years: The Chinese public feels Chinese public services are developing stably although they confront new pressures their livelihoods; the PAPS index of 2010 reached 67.8 points (hundred-mark system), a modest increase over 2009.

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Review on public assessment of public services in the 11th five year plan period in china

  1. 1. Facing New Pressures from People’sLivelihoods, Public Services Remains Stable Review on Public Assessment of Public Services in the 11th Five-Year Plan Period JAN.2011
  2. 2. Features and Social Significance of Research  Evaluated by people: Public services are  To the public: To expand channels for evaluated by citizens that use them; the public to express their demands for public services and to increase public  Evaluated subjectively: The assessment involvement in decision-making on is based on the premise that the public public service policies. service satisfaction can be quantified;  To government authorities: To  Evaluated continuously: The study is provide reference for authorities in continuous and will be adjusted with terms of service delivery, products, and newest development of public services, so strategies for promoting efficiency and as to establish a scientific public service quality of public service; assessment system. - 1-
  3. 3. Study Methods Establishment of Establishment of Index the index system weighting system measuring  15 cities including Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Wuhan, Chengdu, Shenyang, Xi’an, Qingdao, Cities Tangshan, Changsha, Zhengzhou, Shenzhen, Kunming, Harbin, and Lanzhou;  7 small towns including Zhuji in Shaoxing of Zhejiang, Changle in Fuzhou of Fujian, Dengta in Liaoyang of Liaoning, Xinji in Shijiazhuang of Hebei, Linxiang in Yueyang of Hunan, Pengzhou in Small towns Chengdu of Sichuan, and Xingping in Xianyang of Shan’xi;  Chose administrative villages from Zhuji in Shaoxing of Zhejiang, Changle in Fuzhou of Fujian, Dengta in Liaoyang of Liaoning, Xinji in Shijiazhuang of Hebei, Linxiang in Yueyang of Hunan, Rural areas Pengzhou in Chengdu of Sichuan, and Xingping in Xianyang of Shan’xi; and choose 2 natural villages from each administrative village for survey. Sample size  4,783 effective samples;  The results have been weighted according to local population scale, and the sampling error of thisData processing survey is 0.84% in a 95% confidence interval. - 2-
  4. 4. Introduction to Horizon Public Service Index System and Weighting Public Public Public Medical Social Education Employment Environment Agriculture security transit utilities & health security Primary and Agricultural Electricity Medical service secondary Employment Environmental Public order Road conditions Social insurance production inputs education information service hygiene services Tap water Employment training Environmental Agrotechnology Food and drug safety Public transportation Public health Social welfare protection Social assistance Employment Taxi service Residential gas opportunity Postal service Services for Entrepreneurs Cultural, sports & entertainment services Urbanweighting 0.15 0.13 0.14 0.14 0.12 0.11 0.11 0.09 Ruralweighting 0.10 0.08 0.14 0.15 0.11 0.13 0.09 0.07 0.15 - 3-
  5. 5. What does the Horizon index for public assessment ofpublic service mean? Satisfaction ·Satisfaction represents the degree of match 100 High points:services between the service experience and user provided by public expectations. When the expectations are lower points departments match and than the service experience, they will feel satisfied. satisfy the public’s Otherwise, they will feel dissatisfaction. demands. The study of satisfaction focuses on the matching degree and personal feeling of service user, hence:·Satisfaction measures points given by service objects in terms of their perception. ·Factors influencing the satisfaction are the quality Low points:services perceived by service users and their expectations provided by public departments neither match before accepting the service; nor satisfy the public’s ·Different service users may show different levels 0 demands. satisfaction in different service processes or under points different environments. - 4-
  6. 6. Main findings from 2010 Index and 11th Five-Year Plan period.1. The three driving forces improving the overall level of public services in the 11th Five-Year Plan period are social security, public utilities, and environmental hygiene governance;2. Although gaps between urban and rural areas have narrowed, employment, social security and medical care still remain weak in rural areas;3. Polarization exists in different groups in cities and towns, mainly in employment and social security;4. The price of public service products consistently generates public concern, and the key issue is pricing transparency;5. The development idea and reform concept are the prime driving forces improving public service, demonstrated by medical care, environmental hygiene governance, and transportation;6. Investments based on conceptual shifts also drove improvement of public services, demonstrated by social security;7. Confronted with pressure from people’s livelihood, public service entered a period of high demand;8. New trends of public service demand should be probed to find out new growth recognized by the public. - 5-
  7. 7. 1. Public services developed stably in the 11th Five-year Plan; social security, public utilities, and environmental hygiene governance were the driving forces Index points of 2006-2010 PAPS: 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 67.9 67.8 65.2 66.4 63.2 Figure: Comparing primary indices for Chinese public service from 2006-2010 Public security Public transit Public utilities Medical & health Social security Elementary education Employment service Environmental hygiene governance Agricultural production service 80 71.3 76.9 72.2 73.5 70 67.0 69.5 70.9 66.7 63.6 64.2 60 61.2 58.7 55.4 57.2 50 43.9 40 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 - 6-
  8. 8. 2. The urban-rural gap has narrowed, but employment, social security, and medical care remain weak in rural areas. Figure: comparing secondary indices of public services in rural and urban areas in 2010 Food & drug safety Areas of advantages 4.4 Residential gas 1.6 Electricity 0.2 Environmental hygiene -0.1 Road condition Balanced areas -0.7 Figure: Comparing public service indices Primary and secondary education -1.0 in urban and rural areas from 2006 to Tap water -1.3 2010 (points) Postal service -1.3 Public health -1.480 Environmental protection -2.5 Medical service -3.1 69.0 70.0 69.1 67.5 Social welfare70 69.5 -3.4 66.8 Entrepreneur service -3.6 66.7 Areas of 64.8 Public order -4.160 63.0 disadvantages 60.7 Cities and towns Social assistance -5.8 Rural areas Employment opportunity -6.250 Social insurance -6.9 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Culture, sports & entertainment service -8.3 Employment training -12.5 Employment information service -14.8 - 7-
  9. 9. 3.1. Polarization emerged in different groups in urban areas, mainly in employment and social security. Figure: Comparing public service indices among different Figure: Comparing assessments of employment occupational groups in urban areas from 2007 to 2010 service among different occupational groups in urban areas in 2010 People working with gov ernment and non-corporate institutions Employment information service Employment training White-collars and f reelancers 75 Employment opportunity Entrepreneur service Self -employ ed 61.6 62.8 Blue-collars and workers 65 60.1 59.3 57.775.0 55.3 Laid-of f 59.9 55.4 59.7 59.2 60.0 School students 55 51.0 55.7 46.1 48.8 52.2 50.7 44.670.0 45 46.9 44.3 44.8 37.7 41.7 43.6 3565.0 White-collars Blue-collars Self - Laid-of f School People and and workers employ ed students working with f reelancers gov ernment and non-60.0 corporate 2007 2008 2009 2010 institutions Figure: Comparing primary indices in urban areas in 2010 Figure: Comparing assessments of social security service among different occupational groups in urban areas in 2010 100 78.7 77.6 73.3 73.2 Social insurance Social w elfare Social assistance 80 71.6 64.6 Env ironmental hygiene gov ernance 61.8 53.7 75 60 65 40 55 20 45 Elementa ry education 0 Employment service Pub lic utilities Medical & health Pub lic transit 35 Pub lic safety Soc ial security People White-collars Blue-collars Self- Laid-off School working with and and workers employed students government freelancers and non- corporate institutions - 8-
  10. 10. 3.2. Pressure on people’s livelihoods and the new economic environment posed big challenges to employment services. Figure: Comparing employment opportunity ratings during Figure: Assessment of employment opportunity by 2006-2010 urban residents at different level of education Global economic 60 crisis 60 50.2 53.1 44.9 46.5 44.0 46.7 51.8 50 47.2 40 40 20 30 0 Urban people with Urban people with Urban people with 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 a low level of a medium level of a high level of education education education Figure: Ratios of occupational groups in urban areas who have never thought about entrepreneurship and their assessment of employment services 100 Havent thought about entrepreneurship Assessment tow ards entrepreneur service 50% 44.8 44.3 46.9 80 71.2 70.9 67.3 45% 43.6 56.2 60 41.7 54.3 40% 37.7 40 28.7 35% 20 30% 0 25% People w orking w ith Laid-off School students Blue-collars and White-collars and Self-employed government and non- w orkers freelancers corporate institutions - 9-
  11. 11. 4. Public service prices remained a top concern, and the key issue is pricing transparency. Figure: Contrast of pricing rationality of different public products or services 4.5 Controlled by Jointly controlled by Controlled by 4.0 market market and government government 3.5 3.0 Cities Small towns Rural 2.5 Theater/music Cinema Taxi Fuel gas Water Electricity Bus Science and Library Park ElementaryMedical care hall Technology education Figure: Pricing rationality of different public products or services Figure: Percentage reporting local hearings from 2006 to 2010 on tap water and electricity pricing Taxi Fuel gas 10 Water Electricity4.5 Bus Science and Technology Museum 7.9 2009 2010 Library Park Elementary education Medical care 84.0 63.5 4 3.0 3.23.0 3.0 1.8 1.6 1.92.5 2 1.02.0 0 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Cities Small towns Rural Overall - 10 -
  12. 12. 5.1. Shifting concepts was the driving force for improving public service: medical care. Figure: Comparing indices of basic medical care We should adhere to the tenet of serving the people’s health with health care service from 2006 to 2010 undertakings; regard safeguarding the people’s health as the center, and take the100 entitlement of basic health care services to everyone as the fundamental aim and outcome; make sure that the principle of commonweal nature be complied with 80 66.2 69.2 69.0 68.8 throughout the entire process, from designing the reform program and 65.9 establishing the health system to constructing the health care service system; 60 ensure that the basic health care system be a public good provided to the entire 40 population; emphatically resolve the prominent problems to which people strongly react, and strive to achieve the goal of ensuring that health care services be 20 available to the entire population. --Opinions of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council on Deepening 0 the Health Care System Reform in April 2009 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Figure: Feelings of urban and rural residents toward change in Figure: Comparing’ assessments of specific items of medical fee burdens after implementation of new medical care service from 2008 to 2010 medical care reform program 78.3 79.4 2008 2009 2010 Small 76.5 Cities Rural Overall 75.6 75.3 75.3 74.980 towns 74.3 73.9 71.4 71.5 70.5 70.375 69.4 68.9 Greatly increased 9.0 0.2 0.2 2.470 63.1 Somewhat increased 11.4 4.9 3.2 5.6 61.2 61.3 60.9 60.565 59.360 No change 46.8 57.1 43.5 47.255 Somewhat decreased 29.1 33.9 48.9 40.9 medical skills Convenience Medical care medical ethics Transparency environment Rationality of medical staff of charging attitude of charging of see a Service Level of Level of Greatly decreased 0.4 1.6 1.4 1.2 doctor Source: Survey on Living Quality of Chinese Residents in 2010 by Horizon Research Consultancy Group (Horizon Research - 11 -
  13. 13. 5.2. Shifting concepts was the driving force for improving public service: control of environmental hygiene. Figure: Comparing ratings of environmental Figure: What is the first priority for China, hygiene governance economic development or environment protection? Priorrity should be adsolutely laid on economic development 5.8100 Economy first : 22.9% Both environment and economy are80 69.5 70.9 important, but with economy as priority. 17.1 63.6 64.2 66.760 Both environment and economy are important, but with environment as priority. 43.340 Environment first : 29.973.2% Priority should be laid on environmental20 protection absolutely 0 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010年 Refused/not clear 3.8 0% 20% 40% 60% Economic development: shifting from an extensive mode based on resources to a new one based on technological innovation. Investment: RMB 1,400 billion was invested in environmental protection in the 11th Five-Year Plan. It will be doubled in the 12th Five- Year Plan, reaching to RMB 3,100 billion with energy saving and environment protection industry listed first among the “seven gold flowers” of top rising industries. –Mail Business Newspaper - 12 -
  14. 14. 5.3. Public service needs long-term planning—demonstrated by bus service. Figure: comparing transportation modes of residents Figure: Change in quantity of motor vehicles in Beijing in cities and small towns Stimulati Controlling 12.7 ng auto traffic jam by Walk policies 21.8 (10 k) Public market 500.0 476.0 transit first 28.1 400.1 Bicycle/electric bycicle 52.8 400.0 350.4 312.8 287.6 47.4 300.0 258.3 Bus/metro/coach 212.4 229.6 12.2 169.9 176.5 200.0 3.2 Cities Private car 100.0 1.8 Small tow ns 0.0 0% 20% 40% 60% 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010Note: It is multi-chose, with the total adds up over 100% Figure: Satisfaction of urban and rural residents with Figure: Development of China’s public transportation road traffic from 2006 to 2010 (points) by time period Cities Small tow ns Rural Quantity of existing public buses (10k) Taxi quantity (10k)80 Passenger carrying capacity (100 million trips) 78.1 75.6 93.0 96.075 77.1 100.0 600 88.0 71.4 75.0 555 500 69.3 80.070 466 400 67.4 70.3 60.0 65.2 280 372 65.9 64.7 250 30065 67.2 40.0 31.3 28.0 24.6 34.5 200 63.5 59.4 20.0 9.0 10060 62.2 4.5 2.0 0.0 055 Before 1985 1985-1992 1992-2002 2002-2006 2007 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Source: National Bureau of Statistics - 13 -
  15. 15. 6.1 Investment based on concept shift was driving force to improve public service—demonstrated by social security. Figure: The largest concerns of Chinese urban public from 2006 to 2010 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Lay-off and employment 2 6 5 3 1 problems (32.5) (17.4) (22.2) (29.3) (35.6) 5 3 6 2 2 Reform of medical system (22.8) (24.1) (16.7) (32.5) (33.6) 3 2 3 1 3 Reform of housing system (29.3) (28.6) (29.5) (33.9) (29.4) 1 4 4 5 4 Social security problems (37.9) (20.9) (24.4) (22.8) (21.1) Source: “Survey Report on Living Quality of Chinese Residents” by Horizon Research Consultancy Group Figure: China’s investment in social security (including Figure: Comparing indices of social security across employment) from 2003 to 2009 urban and rural residents from 2006 to 2010 Government investment Growth rate 100 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 (亿元) (%)8000.0 7607 160 6804 80 67.8 65.8 65.87000.0 64.0 63.4 120 59.9 58.9 57.0 55.16000.0 53.8 5447 53.6 51.7 51.3 60 47.05000.0 4394 80 39.5 37874000.0 3186 16.0 24.0 24.9 40 40 2712 18.9 11.83000.0 17.52000.0 0 20 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Cities Small towns Rural - 14 -
  16. 16. 6.2 China’s investment in public services remains far below international standards. Figure: Comparing public expenditures ratios between China and the United States in 2003. China USA Administrative civil service 37.6 12.5 Economic construction 11.6 5 Public service and social 25 75 management Others 25.8 7.5 Total 100 100 Figure: Comparing expenditures on education, medical care and social security across China and other countries in 2007 Countries with per Countries with per capital China capital GDP below USD GDP between USD 3000 and 3000 USD 6000 Education 14.7 13.6 13 Medical care 3.9 8.6 12.1 Social security 10.6 20.5 28.9 Total 29.2 42.7 54Source: Quoted from Contrast of Financial Layout Structure and Public Service Between China and America by Zhou Tianyong in Caijing Magazine - 15 -
  17. 17. 7. China has entered a period of high demand for public services and has confronted huge pressure on livelihoods at the same time. Figure: Change of per capita GDP of China from 2000 to 2010 (Unit: USD) 4500 4000 3736 4000 3415 3500 USD 3000 2815 3000 2426 2500 2127 Based on international experience, 1860 2000 1590 when per capital GDP in a country 1300 1417 1185 exceeds USD 3000, it will usher into 1500 a period of high-demand of public 1000 services. 500 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Source: National Statistical Bureau of the People’s Republic of China. Figure: Trend of macro indices of Chinese residents from 2006 to 2010 4.4 4.31 4.13 4.13 4.1 Evaluation on personal financial situation 4.2 4.27 4 4.03 Evaluation on national financial situation 4.02 4.09 3.87 3.8 3.8 3.85 3.76 3.78 Confidence on government managing economic affairs 3.73 3.6 3.67 3.63 3.67 3.71 3.68 Confidence on government managing international affairs 3.46 3.4 3.26 3.2 Confidence on government managing social affairs 3.2 3.11 3.11 3.07 3 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Source: Survey on Living Quality of Chinese Residents form 2006 to 2010, Horizon Research Consultancy Group - 16 -
  18. 18. 8. Trends of public service demand were clear and new areas of growth were discoveredPeople wish to improve their livelihood and public services. Figure: Which should be the focus of the 12th Five-Year Plan? Cities County towns30 28.4 People’s livelihood and 25 24.1 wellbeing 22.1 Economic 20.5 19.8 17.9 18.8 17.9 development20 22.5 21.3 16 15.3 19.9 13.7 14.1 15.4 10.3 9.8 16 9.210 14.5 13.6 6.2 13.6 6.4 6.2 11.8 11 6.5 5.7 4.7 2.4 2.2 7.4 7.3 5.4 4.8 1.8 1.9 0 Improvement of Development of new Adjustment of income Economic mode and Development of Circular economy financial sysem Rural moderniza Feform of fiscal and intellectual property Reform of social Reform of judicial security system Medical reform Educational reform Reform of housing Population/household Job enlargement Hi-tech development Planning of economic Balancing urban and emission reduction industry upgrading rural development urbanization Low carbon and regions/strategical development Protection of tax system strategy system distribution security energy register right layoutImprovement of people’s livelihood and public service is fundamental to the 12th five-year plan.11th Five- “Double GDP Per Capita from 2000 to 2010”Year Plan12th Five- “Ensuring and improving peoples livelihood should be the aim andYear Plan fundamental end ┅┅” - 17 -
  19. 19. Conclusion: It is important to be clear about the trends of public service demand, and to match our concept with it. The key point to improve future public service is to implement the concept; It is important to be clear about the boundaries between public benefit and marketization. So it is necessary to integrally take account of history, cost, and the public’s benefits and ensure that a majority of people beneft in the long term. To develop public services internally and externally both in a balanced way, it needs to be done in phases and with priority, also communication and sharing of development experience and lessons should be enhanced to avoid twists and turns. - 18 -
  20. 20. About HorizonKey
  21. 21. HorizonKey Who Are We? HorizonKey is part of the Horizon Research Consultancy Group founded in 1992, one of China’s first research consulting firms. The Group is a consumer-oriented, data-driven marketing and management solution provider. Today, it is China’s most prestigious domestic marketing research organization. The whole group is a seamless research & consulting services chain With sustainable R&D investment , cooperation Horizonkey.com: with international institutions, and accordance online studies on group cultures with the international professional standards, Horizon Group has grown to become a brand by successfully combining global vision and local expertise in research services. Horizon provide Horizon Research: Case -based China-fit solutions to international clients. project studies Vision Investment: Progress Strategy: Projects selection customer -driven advisory consulting solutions - 20 -
  22. 22. HorizonKey Who Are We? Horizonkey is an international marketing research company specializing in social and cultural research. Founded in 1999, China’s only private marketing research company based on opinion polling and studies of society and culture. Honored by ESOMAR and ARF with awards for best research practices Trustee member of ESOMAR and other academic associations Rapid dissemination of latest research to over 800 local and international media partners Our team  Horizonkey’s employees consist of young and conscientious local and international trained professionals. They have various academic backgrounds including Sociology, Statistics, Psychology, Marketing, Computer Science, Economics and Law. Over 90% of full-time researchers have master or higher degrees. More than 60% of them have had four or more years of experience in professional social and culture research or policy study. - 21 -
  23. 23. HorizonKey Our ValuesChina-based, global vision Profound insight, agile analysis Accumulate and innovateFor the last ten years, HorizonKey Our deep understanding of Chinese We believe understanding changehas provided connections between society offers a unique perspective in China and around the worldChina and the world. We use on the fundamental changes requires both accumulation andobjective, original data to open happening daily. Our firm grasp of innovation. Therefore, we activelywindows onto Chinese society and up-to-the-minute developments incorporate previous research toconsumers, simultaneously seeking allows us to share “Key” moments reveal underlying patterns andto broaden China’s access to the with our partners worldwide. adopt advanced researchrest of the world. techniques to solve new problems. - 22 -
  24. 24. HorizonKey The Horizonkey difference Public Opinion Tracking Index Research The only research company with The only research company to develop experience tracking Chinese public broad industrial and social indices to opinion across diverse issues, multiple reliably identify trends over time. sectors and extended periods of time. Cultural Research Philanthropic Research The only research company offering The only organization capable of deep analysis of lifestyles, values integrating research, resources and and consumer habits across action in China’s growing philanthropy different Chinese social groups. sector. Communications Innovative Methods The only research company in China We constantly add new methods to our with integrated global communications research repertoire. We have used and media resource distribution. collaborative workshops to troubleshoot charities and an online lab to study consumer psychology and purchasing habits. - 23 -
  25. 25. Horizon Research Consultancy Group (Horizon Research ( Horizon ·Beijing, Progress Strategy, Horizonkey, Vision) Address: F7, Tower A, Gateway Plaza, No.18 Xiaguangli, East 3rd Ring North Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing Postal code: 100027 Tel:010-84400011 Fax: 010-84400010More information, please contact HorizonKey: client@horizonkey.com

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