Decision making


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Within this Presentation Will help you to improve the basic understanding about Decision Making Process as well as to help the Group for Making Decision.

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Decision making

  1. 1. Presentated By Mr. Hor Hen, The Executive Director of Brain Activation and Skills
  2. 2. What is Decision-Making Process?
  3. 3. Decisions might be work such as: What is to be done? Who is to do it and when? Where and how often it will be done?
  4. 4. … is a process by which an individual or organization selects one position or course of action from several alternatives to arrive at a decision
  5. 5. This process involves: identifying, analyzing, and choosing alternatives(s) to facilitate the achievement of goals, objectives, desires, etc.
  6. 6. Type of Decision-Making Process?
  7. 7. Provide a direction to an organization by establishing its: vision, mission, and long-term goals; develop strategies and take into account the resources to be allocated in order to achieve them
  8. 8. High managerial competence is essential for taking strategic decisions - unstructured, - un-programmed and - most inventive Has Long-term Impact
  9. 9. These decisions are taken in order to implement and support strategic decisions And It must taken by the Middle- Management Level
  10. 10. Tactical decisions tend to be of medium range with respect to time and significant result in moderate consequences for the entire organization
  11. 11. These are pre-programmed, highly structured, everyday decisions to support the implementation of tactical decision Has low impact.
  12. 12. The Different approaches to Decision- Making Process
  13. 13. The Manager makes the decision for the group himself on the basis of knowledge he can - Announce to the group - Less time for decision - More time to explain to gain acceptance
  14. 14. The group develops idea, shares ideas, analyses them and agrees upon a decision - More time is taken to make decision - Much lesser time is required to communicate it and gain acceptance for it
  15. 15. Consultative Approach the manager utilizes the competencies of His group to generate and evaluate alternatives, The final decision is taken by his own judgment an thinking
  16. 16. Participatory Learning Approach is controlled by the entire group. The group leader or manager is just first among the equals
  17. 17. Advantages of Group Decision-making  Can pool their experiences to define a problem and develop better and more creative solutions  People work harder and more energetically to implement their own ideas
  18. 18. Disadvantages of Group Decision-making  Group can take longer to make decisions than individuals  The desire to be accepted by the group can lead to suppression of disagreements by individual. This can eliminate or reduce creativity in decision-making
  19. 19.  Disadvantages of Group Decision-making Dominant individuals can take control of the group and the outcome of planning and decision-making  Encouraging members to show commitment for the cause of the group can be a problem
  20. 20. The Decision-Making Strategies
  21. 21. Optimizing by Choosing the best possible solution to a problem It is implemented by discovering as many alternatives as possible and choosing the very best
  22. 22. Optimizing Its implementation is dependent on:  Time that is available for solving a problem  Cost for generating different alternative solutions  Attitude and values of the people involved
  23. 23. Satisfying ‘satisfactory’ and ‘sufficient’ The first satisfactory alternative is chosen as a decision rather than identifying the best alternative
  24. 24. Maxi-max ‘maximize the maximums’ It focuses on evaluating and then choosing the alternatives based on their maximum possible payoff In this strategy favorable outcomes and high potentials are the areas of concern the strategy of the optimist
  25. 25. Maxi-min ‘maximize the minimums’ The worst possible outcome of each decision is considered, and the decision with the highest number of or negative outcomes is chosen the strategy of the pessimist
  26. 26. How to Make the Decision Effective
  27. 27. 1. Augmenting knowledge Lack of knowledge arising from inadequate information, awareness and experience in problem-handling can lead to ineffective decisions A continuous effort need to be made to equip its managers with relevant knowledge and skills to widen their knowledge base
  28. 28. 2. Unbiased judgment (Fair Judgment)  Understanding and being aware that the possibility of biasness generally exists  Understanding how biasness can effect the judgment and the consequent outcome
  29. 29. 2. Unbiased judgment (Fair Judgment)  Analyzing past decisions to determine how biasness may have effected them  Accepting that biasness can be minimized through diligence, if not eliminated
  30. 30. 3. Being Creative Creativity leads to development of original, novel responses to a particular situation
  31. 31. 4. Using Intuition Intuition does not merely mean guess work (experiences and Knowledge) While employing intuition, a manager knows what needs to be done, but cannot give a specific reason why he thinks so
  32. 32. 5. Right Timing A manager needs to ensure that not only the decision being taken is right, but the timing of it implementation is also appropriate
  33. 33. 6. Critical Approach A manager needs to develop a competency to distance himself from his own decision and look at it hypercritically, as if it belongs to someone else.
  34. 34. 7. Alignment with Overall Goals and Objectives The decision taken by a manager should contribute to the overall goal and objectives of the group or organization
  35. 35. 8. Open-mindedness One should not fall in love with one’s decision 9. The End 10. Question