Qualitative Research Method - an Introduction (updated jan 2011)


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An introduction to qualitative research method for the undergraduate students in psychology.

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Qualitative Research Method - an Introduction (updated jan 2011)

  1. 1. Hangzhou, January 2011 Prof. Dr. Hora Tjitra, Zhejiang University Qualitative  Research   Methodology   定性 研究 方法 - An Introduction
  2. 2. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Research  Methodology 2 It can refers to research about: • persons’ lives, • lived experiences • behaviors, emotions and feelings • organizational functioning • social movements • cultural phenomena • interaction between nations Qualitative Research Paradigms … any type of research that produces findings not arrived by statistical procedures or other means of quantification (Strauss & Corbin, 1998 p.10).
  3. 3. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Research  Methodology 3 14  years  in  Germany 7  years  in  China Born  and  grew  up   in  Indonesia Prof.Dr.Hora Tjitra - Cross-cultural and Business Psychology Dipl.-Psych.,Technical University of Braunschweig Organizational Psychology and Human Resource Management Dr.Phil.,University of Regensburg Intercultural Psychology and Strategic Management Executive Education,INSEAD HR Management in Asia
  4. 4. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Research  Methodology Outline 1 What is qualitative research? 5 2 Defining Topics and Research Questions 11 3 Qualitative research process 15 4 What is good qualitative research? 21 4
  5. 5. What  are  the  most  important   differences  between  qualitative   and  quantitative  research? ?
  6. 6. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Research  Methodology Comparisons of Quantitative and Qualitative Research Paradigms 6 e.g. Survey on Employee Satisfaction: Questionnaires (Statistic) or Interviews (Text) Graphic  source:  h.p://www.libsuccess.org/index.php?9tle=Researching_M-­‐Libraries_workshop
  7. 7. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Research  Methodology 7 Construction of Theories and Hypothesis Pilot Study Deep Analysis Case Study Process Analysis Classification Evaluation of Theories and Hypothesis Mayring,  1997 Qualitative Analysis: What for ?
  8. 8. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Research  Methodology 8 Strong Focus on Description • Importance of Single Case Study • Openness • Control of Method Strong Focus on Interpretation • Pre-Understanding • Introspection • Researcher-Object Interaction Subject First • Wholeness • History • Problem Orientation Natural and Daily Environment The Results Should be Understood as a Process of Generalization • Argumentative Generalization • Induction • Rules Concept • Quantification Mayring,  1996 The Foundations and Pillars of Qualitative Thinking
  9. 9. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Research  Methodology 9 Models of process and theory Linear model of the research process Theory Hypotheses Opera-onal-­‐ iza-on Sampling Collec-on Interpreta-on Valida-on Circular model of the research process Preliminary assump-ons Theory Collec-on                Interpreta-on Case Collec-on                Interpreta-on Case Collec-on                Interpreta-on Case Sampling Sampling Comparing Comparing Comparing
  10. 10. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Research  Methodology 10 Research Design for the integration of qualitative and quantitative research Qualitative Quantitative (con%nuous  collec%on of  both  sorts  of  data) Qualitative Quantitative Qualitative (Explora%on) (Ques%onnaire) (deepening  and assessing  results) Quantitative Qualitative Quantitative (Survey) (Field  Study) (Experiment) Adapted  from  Miles  &  Huberman,  1994
  11. 11. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Research  Methodology 11 Qualita've  Research  Process:   From  Ideas  (Ques'ons)  to  Results  (Theory) Data Collection Preparation Process Analyzing Process Process of Qualitative Research Qualitative Research Design Single Case Analyses Document Analyses Action Research Field Research Qualitative Experiments Qualitative Evaluation Research Topics, Problems and Questions (Hypotheses) The Foundations and Pillars of Qualitative Thinking
  12. 12. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Research  Methodology 12 Getting started: Choosing a problem and stating the research question • How  do  I  find  a  researchable  problem? • How  do  I  narrow  it  down  sufficiently  to  make  it  workable? Sources of research problem suggested or assigned literature experiences  What do questions look like in qualitative study? How do they differ from those quantitative studies and why?  The research question in a qualitative study is a statement that identifies the phenomenon to be studied. It tells the readers what the researcher specifically wants to know about this subject. “What  happens  when  a  pa,ent  complains  of  being  pain  but  the  nurse  does  not  believe  him  or  her?” In  this  case,  the  focus  of  the  observa,ons,  chart  reviews,  and  interviews,  as  well  as  analysis,  will  be   on  the  interac,on  between  nurse  and  pa,ent.
  13. 13. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Research  Methodology 13 Research Questions in the Research Process 8. Evaluation and reformulation of the specific research questions 9. Analyzing the data 2. Formulation of specific research 10. Generalization and evaluation of the analyses 3. Formulation of sensitizing concepts 11. Formulation of the findings 4. Selection of research groups with which to study the question 5. Selection of appropriate designs and methods 1. Formulation of the overall question 6. Evaluation and reformulation of the specific research questions 7. Collection of data
  14. 14. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Research  Methodology 14 RQ Forms and influences in qualitative research process 定性研究过程的形势和影响因素 • The original research question and the manner in which it is phrased lead the researcher to examine the data from a specific perspective and to use certain data gathering techniques and modes of data analysis. • The question(s) sets the tone for the research project and helps the researcher to stay focused, even when there are masses of data. • The original question in a qualitative study often is broad and open ended that tends to become more refined and specific as the research progress and as the issues and problems of the areas under investigation emerged. • It is important that the researcher have enthusiasm for the subject because he / she will have to live with it for some time.
  15. 15. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Research  Methodology 15 Data Collection Preparation Process Analyzing Process Process of Qualitative Research Qualitative Research Design Single Case Analyses Document Analyses Action Research Field Research Qualitative Experiments Qualitative Evaluation Qualitative Research Design and Prozess Writing Qualitative Research Report Research Topics, Problems and Questions (Hypotheses)
  16. 16. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Research  Methodology 16 Document Analyses Research Design The Qualitative Experiments Action Research Field Research Single Case Analyses Qualitative Evaluation Research The Most Common Qualitative Research Design
  17. 17. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Research  Methodology 17 Qualitative Field Research A disciplined inquiry examining the personal meanings of individuals’ experiences and actions in the context of their social environment It is appropriate for topics which are:  Defy simple quantification (not counting numbers of interactions of the subjects)  Require the comprehensiveness of the perspective the researcher can provide (studying a culture)  Need the researcher’s presence in their natural setting to best learn about behavior (gang, homeless, etc.)  Investigate social processes over time (demonstrations, courtroom procedures, public hearing)
  18. 18. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Research  Methodology 18 Qualitative Data Group Discussion InterviewObservation Qualitative Data Collection Observation is probably the most basic and oldest method in the whole psychology. It is a process we all are continuously engaged in, and in the eyes of public, psychologist are notorious for spending their time „watching“ other people !! It enables the researcher to find out how something factually works or occurs.
  19. 19. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Research  Methodology 19 Life world Meaning Qualitative Specificity DeliberateDescriptive Focused Ambiguity Change Sensitivity Interpersonal Situation Positive Experience The Purpose of Qualitative Research Interview treated is to obtain descriptions of the lived world of the interviewees with respect to interpretations of the meaning of the described phenomena. Aspects of Qualitative Research Interviews
  20. 20. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Research  Methodology 20 Qualitative Data Analyzing Approaches Theory The Social World Data (Gilbert,  N.  (ed.)  (1993)  Researching Social Life,  Sage,  London) Theory The Social World Instance Explanation Grounded Theory: Inductional Approach Content Analysis: Deductional Approach
  21. 21. How  can  you  “judge”  a  good   research  in  psychology? ?
  22. 22. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Research  Methodology Checklist for selecting a qualitative research method 1. What  do  I  know  about  the  issue  of  my  study  or  how  detailed  is  my  knowledge  already? 2. How  developed  is  the  theore-cal  or  empirical  knowledge  in  the  literature  about  the  issue? 3. Am  I  more  interested  in  generally  exploring  the  field  and  the  issue  of  my  study? 4. What  is  the  theore-cal  background  of  my  study  and  which  methods  fit  this  background? 5. What  is  it  that  I    want  to  get  close  to  in  my  study?  Personal  experiences  of  (a  group)  of  certain   people  or  social  processes  in  the  making?  Or  am  I  more  interested  in  reconstruc-ng  the  underlying   structures  of  my  issue? 6. Do  I  started  with  a  very  focused  research  ques-on  right  away  or  do  I  start  from  a  rather  unfocused   approach  in  order  to  develop  the  more  focused  ques-ons  underway  in  the  process  of  my  project? 7. What  is  the  aggregate  I  want  to  study?  Personal  experiences,  interac-ons  or  situa-ons  or  bigger   en--es  like  organiza-ons  or  discourse? 8. Is  it  more  the  single  case  (e.g.  of  a  personal  illness  experience  or  of  a  certain  ins-tu-on)  I  am   interested  in  or  the  comparison  of  various  cases? 9. What  are  resources  (-me,  money,  wo/manpower,  skills…)  available  to  run  my  study? 10. What  are  the  characteris-cs  of  the  field  I  want  to  study  and  of  the  people  in  it?  What  can  you   request  of  them  and  what  not? 11. What  is  the  claim  of  generaliza-on  of  my  study?
  23. 23. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Research  Methodology 23 Quality Factors of Psychological Research ... the best available approximation to the truth or falsity of propositions, incl. propositions about cause. Objectivity Validity Reliability ... is the "consistency" or "repeatability" of your measures. A measure is considered reliable if it would give us the same result over and over again. ... is standardized situation as well as analyzing and interpretation process in performing psychological research.
  24. 24. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Research  Methodology 24 Quality Factors of Qualitative Research Process Documentation Argumentative Interpretation Assurance Following Rules Closeness to the Research Object Communicative Validation Triangulation
  25. 25. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Research  Methodology 25 Triangulation: Three Pillars of Good Qualitative Research Data Resources Interpreter TheoriesMethods
  26. 26. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Research  Methodology 26 Important Common Features of Qualitative Research • Appropriateness  of  methods  and  theories • Perspec%ves  of  the  par%cipants  and  their   diversity • Reflexivity  of  the  researcher  and  the   research • Variety  of  approaches  and  methods  in   qualita%ve  research • “Verstehen”  as  epistemological  principle • Reconstruc%ng  cases  as  star%ng  point • Construc%on  of  reality  as  basis • Text  as  empirical  material
  27. 27. An  Introduc+on  to  Qualita+ve  Research  Methodology 27 Principles of Quality Management in the Qualitative Research Process • A definition of the goals to be reached and the standards of the project to be kept, which should be as clear as possible; all researchers and co-workers have to be integrated in this definition. • A definition, how these goals and standards, and more generally the quality to be obtained, can be reached; and therefore, a consensus about the way how to apply certain methods, perhaps through joint interview training, and its analysis are preconditions for quality in the research process. • A clear definition of the responsibilities for obtaining quality in the research process. • The transparency of the judgment and the assessment and quality in the process.
  28. 28. Thank  You Contact us via … Mail: hora_t@mac.com Follow: twitter@htjitra Website: http://horatjitra.com Zhejiang  University,  Hangzhou  (China)