Languages and Intercultural Communication: Psychology Perspective

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Language & Communication across Cultures in Cross-cultural Perspective. A Presentation summary based on the book from Matsumoto, D. & Juang, L. (2007). Culture and Psychology (4th Ed.). Wadsworth.

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Languages and Intercultural Communication: Psychology Perspective

  1. 1. Hangzhou, February 2011 Prof. Dr. Hora Tjitra & Ran Shan, Zhejiang University Language  and   Communication:   A Culture and Psychology PerspectiveMatsumoto, D. & Juang, L. (2007). Culture and Psychology (4th Ed.). Wadsworth.
  2. 2. Language  and  Communica.on  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec.ve 2 What is“communication”?   What  is  communica-on?   Why  communica-on  is   •        one  of  the  most  important     •        aspects  of  our  lives?   What  is  important  in  the       •        cross-­‐culture  communica-on?
  3. 3. Language  and  Communica.on  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec.ve 3 14  years  in  Germany 7  years  in  China Born  and  grew  up   in  Indonesia Prof.Dr.Hora Tjitra - Excellence in Culture,Talent and Change
  4. 4. Language  and  Communica.on  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec.ve 3 14  years  in  Germany 7  years  in  China Born  and  grew  up   in  Indonesia Prof.Dr.Hora Tjitra - Excellence in Culture,Talent and Change Professional activities: • Academic Teaching and Research,as well as Consulting, Coaching,Training and Assessment in the area of: - Cross-Cultural Awareness and Communication - Cross-Cultural Issues in HR Management - Corporate Learning and Development - Executive Coaching and Assessment - Global Leadership Development Program - Facilitation of Strategic Conference - Large Strategic Change Projects International and National project references: • BASF,Siemens,Dupont,Commerzbank,Hugo Boss,SAP, Barco,GTZ,Telkom Indonesia,etc.
  5. 5. Language  and  Communica.on  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec.ve 4 I=“watashi”?  ”boku”?   ”ore”?   You=“anata”?  ”kimi”?     ”omae”?  ...? Language Differences across Culture
  6. 6. Language  and  Communica.on  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec.ve 4 Culture Language Thoughts Feelings Motives I=“watashi”?  ”boku”?   ”ore”?   You=“anata”?  ”kimi”?     ”omae”?  ...? Language Differences across Culture
  7. 7. Language  and  Communica.on  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec.ve 4 Lexicon/ Vocabulary Syntax and Grammar Phonology Semantics Pragmatics Culture Language Thoughts Feelings Motives I=“watashi”?  ”boku”?   ”ore”?   You=“anata”?  ”kimi”?     ”omae”?  ...? Language Differences across Culture
  8. 8. Language  and  Communica.on  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec.ve 5  Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf, 1950s.  Speaker of different languages think differently. Fishman’s Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis Schema Data  of  Language   Characteris3cs Data  of  Cogni3ve  BehaviorData  of  Cogni3ve  BehaviorData  of  Language   Characteris3cs Linguis3c  Data Nonlinguis3c  Data Lexical/Seman3c Level  1* Level  2 Gramma3cal Level  3 Level  4** *Least  sophis:cated              **Most  sophis:cated Culture,Language and Cognition: The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
  9. 9. Language  and  Communica.on  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec.ve 6 Bilingualism and Psychological Differences Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis Bilingualism and Culture
  10. 10. Language  and  Communica.on  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec.ve 6 Bilingualism and Psychological Differences Language context would predict differences in behavior, and also in personality. Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis Bilingualism and Culture
  11. 11. Language  and  Communica.on  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec.ve 6 Bilingualism and Psychological Differences Language context would predict differences in behavior, and also in personality. Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis Culture-­‐affilia:on   hypothesis Minority  group-­‐affilia:on   hypothesis Bilingualism and Culture
  12. 12. Language  and  Communica.on  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec.ve 6 Bilingualism and Psychological Differences Language context would predict differences in behavior, and also in personality. Foreign language processing difficulties Foreign language effect Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis Culture-­‐affilia:on   hypothesis Minority  group-­‐affilia:on   hypothesis Bilingualism and Culture
  13. 13. Language  and  Communica.on  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec.ve 7 For much of its history and even today, the United States has remained largely monolingual. Monolingualism and Ethnocentrism
  14. 14. Language  and  Communica.on  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec.ve 7 -- Actually, knowledge of more than one language may improve cognitive flexibility. For much of its history and even today, the United States has remained largely monolingual. Monolingualism and Ethnocentrism
  15. 15. Language  and  Communica.on  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec.ve 8 Components of Communication: The Two Major Modes
  16. 16. Language  and  Communica.on  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec.ve 8 1.Verbal Communication Components of Communication: The Two Major Modes
  17. 17. Language  and  Communica.on  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec.ve 8 1.Verbal Communication 2.Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal behaviors Non- behaviors Components of Communication: The Two Major Modes
  18. 18. Language  and  Communica.on  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec.ve 8 1.Verbal Communication Facial  expressions Movements  and  gestures Posture,  body  orienta:on Tone  and   vocal  characteris:cs Interpersonal  space Touching  behaviors Gaze  and  visual  aLen:on 2.Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal behaviors Non- behaviors Components of Communication: The Two Major Modes
  19. 19. Language  and  Communica.on  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec.ve 8 1.Verbal Communication Facial  expressions Movements  and  gestures Posture,  body  orienta:on Tone  and   vocal  characteris:cs Interpersonal  space Touching  behaviors Gaze  and  visual  aLen:on The  use  of  :me The  type  of  clothing  we  wear The  architectural  structures  we   live  and  work The  cosme:c  changes  we  make   to  our  appearance 2.Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal behaviors Non- behaviors Components of Communication: The Two Major Modes
  20. 20. Language  and  Communica.on  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec.ve 9 Encoding The  process  by  which  people   select,  consciously  or   unconsciously,  a  par:cular   modality  and  method  by  which  to   create  and  send  a  message  to   someone. Decoding The  process  by  which  a  person   receives  signals  from  an   encoder  and  translates  those   signals  into  meaningful   messages. Encoder or Sender Decoder or receiver Components of Communication: The Two Major Process
  21. 21. Language  and  Communica.on  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec.ve 9 Encoding The  process  by  which  people   select,  consciously  or   unconsciously,  a  par:cular   modality  and  method  by  which  to   create  and  send  a  message  to   someone. Decoding The  process  by  which  a  person   receives  signals  from  an   encoder  and  translates  those   signals  into  meaningful   messages. Encoder or Sender Decoder or receiver Components of Communication: The Two Major Process
  22. 22. Language  and  Communica.on  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec.ve 10 Components of Communication: Others
  23. 23. Language  and  Communica.on  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec.ve 10 Signals The  specific  words  and  behaviors   that  are  sent  during   communica:on. Specific  verbal  language Nonverbal  behaviors   Components of Communication: Others
  24. 24. Language  and  Communica.on  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec.ve 10 Signals The  specific  words  and  behaviors   that  are  sent  during   communica:on. Specific  verbal  language Nonverbal  behaviors   Messages The  meanings  that  are  intended  or   received  with  the  signals. Knowledge,  ideas,  concepts,   thoughts,  or  emo:ons Components of Communication: Others
  25. 25. Language  and  Communica.on  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec.ve 10 Channels The  specific  sensory  modali:es  by   which  signals  are  sent  and   messages  are  retrieved. Sight  or  sound Signals The  specific  words  and  behaviors   that  are  sent  during   communica:on. Specific  verbal  language Nonverbal  behaviors   Messages The  meanings  that  are  intended  or   received  with  the  signals. Knowledge,  ideas,  concepts,   thoughts,  or  emo:ons Components of Communication: Others
  26. 26. Language  and  Communica.on  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec.ve 11 Culture influences on: The Role of Culture in the Communication Process
  27. 27. Language  and  Communica.on  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec.ve 11 Encoding Culture influences on: The Role of Culture in the Communication Process
  28. 28. Language  and  Communica.on  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec.ve 11 Encoding Decoding Culture influences on: The Role of Culture in the Communication Process
  29. 29. Language  and  Communica.on  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec.ve 11 Encoding Decoding Culture influences on: Stereotypes The Role of Culture in the Communication Process
  30. 30. Language  and  Communica.on  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec.ve 11 Encoding Decoding Culture influences on: Stereotypes Culture  filters,  ethnocentrism,   emo:ons,  and  value  judgments The Role of Culture in the Communication Process
  31. 31. Language  and  Communica.on  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec.ve 11 Encoding Decoding Culture influences on: Stereotypes Culture  filters,  ethnocentrism,   emo:ons,  and  value  judgments Social  cogni3on The Role of Culture in the Communication Process
  32. 32. Language  and  Communica.on  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec.ve 12 Intracultural Within  one  culture Intercultural Cross-­‐culture Code  and  rules  of   encoding  &  decoding Same Different Nega3ve  effects Stereotypes Uncertainty  and  ambiguity Even  conflict Intracultural versus Intercultural Communication (1)
  33. 33. Language  and  Communica.on  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec.ve 13 1 2 4 3 Intracultural versus Intercultural Communication (2)
  34. 34. Language  and  Communica.on  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec.ve 14 Barriers to Effective Communication (Barna,1996) Improving Intercultural Communication (1)
  35. 35. Language  and  Communica.on  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec.ve 14 Barriers to Effective Communication (Barna,1996) Assumptions of similarities Improving Intercultural Communication (1)
  36. 36. Language  and  Communica.on  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec.ve 14 Barriers to Effective Communication (Barna,1996) Assumptions of similarities Language differences Improving Intercultural Communication (1)
  37. 37. Language  and  Communica.on  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec.ve 14 Barriers to Effective Communication (Barna,1996) Assumptions of similarities Language differences Nonverbal misinterpretations Improving Intercultural Communication (1)
  38. 38. Language  and  Communica.on  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec.ve 14 Barriers to Effective Communication (Barna,1996) Assumptions of similarities Language differences Nonverbal misinterpretations Preconceptions and stereotypes Improving Intercultural Communication (1)
  39. 39. Language  and  Communica.on  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec.ve 14 Barriers to Effective Communication (Barna,1996) Assumptions of similarities Language differences Nonverbal misinterpretations Preconceptions and stereotypes Tendency to evaluate Improving Intercultural Communication (1)
  40. 40. Language  and  Communica.on  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec.ve 14 Barriers to Effective Communication (Barna,1996) Assumptions of similarities Language differences Nonverbal misinterpretations Preconceptions and stereotypes Tendency to evaluate High anxiety or tension Improving Intercultural Communication (1)
  41. 41. Language  and  Communica.on  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec.ve 15 Improving Intercultural Communication (2)
  42. 42. Language  and  Communica.on  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec.ve 15 Concepts to improve Communication Mindfulness  (allows  people  to  be  conscious  of  their  own  habits,   mental  scripts,  and  cultural  expecta3ons  concerning   communica3on) Concepts to improve Communication Uncertainty  Reduc-on  (one  of  the  major  goals  of  ini3al   intercultural  encounters) Concepts to improve Communication “Face”  (in  collec3vis3c  culture) Improving Intercultural Communication (2)
  43. 43. Language  and  Communica.on  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec.ve 15 Concepts to improve Communication Mindfulness  (allows  people  to  be  conscious  of  their  own  habits,   mental  scripts,  and  cultural  expecta3ons  concerning   communica3on) Concepts to improve Communication Uncertainty  Reduc-on  (one  of  the  major  goals  of  ini3al   intercultural  encounters) Concepts to improve Communication “Face”  (in  collec3vis3c  culture) Keys  to  confron3ng   cultural  differences   Emo3onal  Regula3on,  Openness,  Flexibility Keys  to  confron3ng   cultural  differences   Cri3cal  Thinking Improving Intercultural Communication (2)
  44. 44. Thank  You Contact us via … Mail: hora_t@mac.com Follow: twitter@htjitra Website: http://horatjitra.com Zhejiang  University,  Hangzhou  (China)

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