Introduction to Scientific Research for Psychologist


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A series of six presentation, introduce scientific research in the areas of cross-cultural, using quantitative approach.

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Introduction to Scientific Research for Psychologist

  1. 1. Cross-Cultural Research Methodologies: Quantitative Methods (1/6) Prof. Dr. Hora Tjitra & Dr. He Quan
  2. 2. 2 Agenda: Cross-Cultural Research Methodology - Quantitative Research Method 1. Quantitative Methods • Introduction • Our Research • What is Science 3. Scales & Reliability • Intercultural Competence (1) • Scales & Variables • Reliability Analysis 5. Statistical Analysis • Hypothesis Testing • Inference Statistic • SPSS Introduction 2. Research Design & Validity • Complex Problem Solving • Designing Quant. Research • Good Quality - Validity 4. Survey Research • Intercultural Competence (2) • Questionnaire Design • Sampling Method 6. Research Articles • Basic structure of articles • Understanding Scientific Journals
  3. 3. 3 What is the science ? Knowledge The process of science inquiry Identifying the problem Design the research Conducting the research Analyzing the data Communicating the research result ... a process or method for generating a body of knowledge. Science, therefore, represents a logic of inquiry or a specific method to be followed in solving problems and thus acquiring a body of knowledge (Christensen, 2004)
  4. 4. 4 The four objectives of science Description: The portrayal of a situation or phenomenon Prediction…. The ability to anticipate the occurrence of an event Objectives… To understand the World in which we live Control… The manipulation of a condition that determine the phenomenon Explanation… Determination of the cause of a given phenomenon
  5. 5. 5 Characteristics of the scientific approach … it allows us to obtain knowledge that is free of bias and opinion (objective knowledge)  Control: Eliminating the influence of any extraneous variables that can affect observation. It enables scientist to identify the causes of their observation.  Operationism: The definition of concepts by the operations used to attain or measure them. Science must be specific and precise and that concepts must be defined by the steps or operations used to measure them.  Replication: The observation made must be replicable. The data obtained in an experiment must be reliable - the same results must be found if the study is repeated.
  6. 6. 6 e.g. Sales Training and Annual Revenue Laboratory Experiments Causes / Treatments / Independent Variables Effects / Outcomes / Dependent Variables Comparison / Experimental / Control Units Extraneous Forces / Controlled Setting The Concept of Casual Inference
  7. 7. 7 The role of theory in science Observations from use of the scientific method Initial formulation of the theory Test of predictions using the scientific method Prediction confirmed Prediction refuted Indicates theory is inaccurate Generations predictions Indicates theory is useful in accounting for a phenomenon
  8. 8. 8 Quantitative and Qualitative Research Paradigm Quantitative Method • Laboratory • „hard“ Method • Natural Science • Deductive • Nomothetic • Explanation Qualitative Method • Field • „soft“ Method • Social / Humanistic Science • Inductive • Idiographic • Understanding adapted from Bortz, 1995
  9. 9. 9 Quality Factors of Qualitative Research Process Documentation Argumentative Interpretation Assurance Following Rules Closeness to the Research Object Communicative Validation Triangulation Flick, 2003
  10. 10. 10 Triangulation: Three Pillars of Good Qualitative Research Data Resources Interpreter TheoriesMethods
  11. 11. 11 The Three Quality Factors of Scientific (Quantitative) Research ... the best available approximation to the truth or falsity of propositions, incl. propositions about cause. Objectivity Validity Reliability ... is the "consistency" or "repeatability" of your measures. A measure is considered reliable if it would give us the same result over and over again. ... is standardized situation as well as analyzing and interpretation process in performing psychological research.
  12. 12. 12 Quantitative Research Methods Experimental Quasi-Experimental Single Case Experimental Research Approaches Observation Survey Research Unobtrusive Measures of Behavior Non-Experimental Research Approaches (Descriptive Methods) • The most basic and oldest research method. • Quantitative and Qualitative • Asking people directly about their opinions and attitude • Questionnaire • Examining physical traces of behavior and archival records. • E.g. clock in different cultures
  13. 13. 13 Combining Qualitative and Quantitative methods QUAL QUAN Results QUAL to develop QUAN tool QUAL Results QUAN QUAL and QUAN equal QUAL QUAN Results QUAL to explain QUAN results QUAL QUAN Results QUAB to enlarge on QUAL study Tashakkori & Teddlie, 1998
  14. 14. @ Tjitra,2010 Thanks You Any comments & questions are welcome Contact me at 14